A storey or story is any level part of a building with a floor that could be used by people. The plurals are "stories", respectively; the terms "floor", "level", or "deck" are used in a similar way, except that it is usual to talk of a "14-storey building", but "the 14th floor". The floor at ground or street level is called the "ground floor" in many places; the words "storey" and "floor" exclude levels of the building that are not covered by a roof, such as the terrace on the top roof of many buildings. Houses have only one or two floors. Buildings are classified as low-rise, mid-rise and high-rise according to how many levels they contain, but these categories are not well-defined. A single-storey house is referred to in the United Kingdom, as a bungalow; the tallest skyscraper in the world, Burj Khalifa, has 163 floors. The height of each storey is based on the ceiling height of the rooms plus the thickness of the floors between each pane; this is around 14 feet total. Storeys within a building need not be all the same height—often the lobby is taller, for example.
Additionally, higher levels may have less floor area than the ones beneath them. In English, the principal floor or main floor of a house is the floor that contains the chief apartments. In Italy the main floor of a home is above the ground level, may be called the piano nobile; the attic or loft is a storey just below the building's roof. A penthouse is a luxury apartment on the topmost storey of a building. A basement is a storey below the main or ground floor. Split-level homes have floors. A mezzanine, in particular, is a floor halfway between the ground floor and the next higher floor. Homes with a split-level entry have the entire main floor raised half a storey height above the street entrance level, a basement, half a storey below this level. In Macy's Herald Square, there is a "one-and-a-half" floor between the second. There are multi-storey car parks known as parking garages. Floor numbering is the numbering scheme used for a building's floors. There are two major schemes in use across the world.
In one system, used in the majority of European countries, the ground floor is the floor at ground level having no number, identified sometimes as "G" or "0". The next floor up is assigned the number 1 and is the first floor, so on; the other system, used in the United States and Canada, counts the bottom floor as the first floor, the next floor up as the second floor, so on. In both systems, the numbering of higher floors continues sequentially as one goes up, as shown in the following table: Each scheme has further variations depending on how one refers to the ground floor and the subterranean levels; the existence of two incompatible conventions is a common source of confusion in international communication. In all English-speaking countries the storeys in a building are counted in the same way: a "seven-storey building" is unambiguous, although the top floor would be called "6th floor" in Britain and "7th floor" in America. Mezzanines may not be counted as storeys. In most of Europe, the "first floor" is the second level.
This scheme is used in many former British colonies, many Latin American countries, in Hawaii and in many of the Commonwealth nations. This convention can be traced back to Medieval European usage. In countries that use this system, the floor at ground level is referred to by a special name translating as "ground floor" or equivalent. For example, Erdgeschoss in Germany, piano terra in Italy, begane grond in the Netherlands, planta baja or planta baixa in Spain, beheko solairua in Basque, andar térreo in Brazil, rés-do-chão in Portugal, földszint in Hungary, parter in Romania and Poland, prízemie in Slovakia and pritličje in Slovenia. In some countries that use this scheme, the higher floors may be explicitly qualified as being above the ground level, such as in Slovenian "prvo nadstropje". In Spain, the level above ground level is sometimes called "entresuelo", elevators may skip it; the next level is sometimes called "principal". The "first floor" can therefore be three levels above ground level.
In Italy, in the ancient palaces the first floor is called piano nobile, since the noble owners of the palace lived there. In France, there are two distinct names for storeys in buildings which have two "ground floors" at different levels; the lower one is called rez-de-chaussée, the upper one is rez-de-jardin (lit. "adjacent to the gar
Villa Capra "La Rotonda"
Villa La Rotonda is a Renaissance villa just outside Vicenza in northern Italy, designed by Andrea Palladio. The proper name is Villa Almerico Capra Valmarana, but it is known as La Rotonda, Villa Rotonda, Villa Capra and Villa Almerico; the name "Capra" derives from the Capra brothers, who completed the building after it was ceded to them in 1592. Along with other works by Palladio, the building is conserved as part of the World Heritage Site "City of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto". In 1565 a priest, Paolo Almerico, on his retirement from the Vatican, decided to return to his home town of Vicenza in the Venetian countryside and build a country house; this house known as'La Rotonda', was to be one of Palladio's best-known legacies to the architectural world. Villa Capra may have inspired a thousand subsequent buildings, but the villa was itself inspired by the Pantheon in Rome; the site selected was a hilltop just outside the city of Vicenza. Unlike some other Palladian villas, the building was not designed from the start to accommodate a working farm.
This sophisticated building was designed for a site which was, in modern terminology, "suburban". Palladio classed the building as a "palazzo" rather than a villa; the design is for a symmetrical building having a square plan with four facades, each of which has a projecting portico. The whole is contained within an imaginary circle which touches each corner of the building and centres of the porticos.. The name La Rotonda refers to the central circular hall with its dome. To describe the villa, as a whole, as a'rotonda' is technically incorrect, as the building is not circular but rather the intersection of a square with a cross; each portico has steps leading up to it, opens via a small cabinet or corridor to the circular domed central hall. This and all other rooms were proportioned with mathematical precision according to Palladio's own rules of architecture which he published in the Quattro Libri dell'Architettura; the design reflected the humanist values of Renaissance architecture. In order for each room to have some sun, the design was rotated 45 degrees from each cardinal point of the compass.
Each of the four porticos has pediments graced by statues of classical deities. The pediments were each supported by six Ionic columns; each portico was flanked by a single window. All principal rooms were on the second piano nobile. Building began in 1567. Neither Palladio nor the owner, Paolo Almerico, were to see the completion of the villa. Palladio died in 1580 and a second architect, Vincenzo Scamozzi, was employed by the new owners to oversee the completion. One of the major changes he made to the original plan was to modify the two-storey central hall. Palladio had intended it to be covered by a high semi-circular dome but Scamozzi designed a lower dome with an oculus inspired by the Pantheon in Rome; the dome was completed with a cupola. The interior design of the Villa was to be as wonderful, than the exterior. Alessandro and Giovanni Battista Maganza and Anselmo Canera were commissioned to paint frescoes in the principal salons. Among the four principal salons on the piano nobile are the West Salon, the East Salon, which contains an allegorical life story of the first owner Paolo Almerico, his many admirable qualities portrayed in fresco.
The highlight of the interior is the central, circular hall, surrounded by a balcony and covered by the domed ceiling. Abundant frescoes create an atmosphere, more reminiscent of a cathedral than the principal salon of a country house. From the porticos, views of the surrounding countryside can be seen; this was in complete contrast to such buildings as Villa Farnese of just 16 years earlier. Thus, while the house appears to be symmetrical, it has certain deviations, designed to allow each facade to complement the surrounding landscape and topography. Hence there are variations in the facades, in the width of retaining walls, etc.. In this way, the symmetry of the architecture allows for the asymmetry of the landscape, creates a symmetrical whole; the landscape is a panoramic vision of meadows and woods, with Vicenza on the horizon. The northwest portico is set onto the hill as the termination of a straight carriage drive from the principal gates; this carriageway is an avenue between the service blocks, built by the Capra brothers who acquired the villa in 1591.
In 1979 the American film director Joseph Losey filmed Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's opera Don Giovanni in Villa La Rotonda and the Veneto region of Italy. The film was nominated for several César Awards in 1980 including Best Director, has been praised as one of the finer adaptations of opera to the big screen. In 1994 UNESCO designated the building as part of a World Heritage Site; the last owner of the villa was Mario di Valmarana, a former professor of architecture at the University of Virginia. It was his declared ambition to preserve Villa Rotonda so that it may be appreciated by future generations; the interior is open to the public on Wednesdays and Saturdays, except during the winter months, the grounds are open every day. Five houses have been built in England based on Palladio's Villa Rotonda: Henbury Hall, Cheshire, is the most recent
A loggia is an architectural feature, a covered exterior gallery or corridor on an upper level, or sometimes ground level. The outer wall is open to the elements supported by a series of columns or arches. Loggias can be located either on the front or side of a building and are not meant for entrance but as an out-of-door sitting room. From the early Middle Ages, nearly every Italian comune had an open arched loggia in its main square which served as a "symbol of communal justice and government and as a stage for civic ceremony"; the main difference between a loggia and a portico is the role within the functional layout of the building. The portico allows entrance to the inside from the exterior and can be found on vernacular and small scale buildings; the loggia is intended as a place for leisure. Thus, it is found on noble residences and public buildings. A classic use of both is that represented in the Mosaics of Basilica of Sant' Apollinare Nuovo of the Royal Palace. Loggias differ from verandas in that they are more architectural, and, in form, are part of the main edifice in which they are located, while verandas are roofed structures attached on the outside of the main building.
A "double loggia" occurs when a loggia is located on an upper floor level above a loggia on the floor beneath. In Italian architecture, a loggia takes the form of a small ornate, summer house built on the roof of a residence to enjoy cooling winds and the view, they were popular in the 17th century and are prominent in Rome and Bologna, Italy. Grinnell College in Grinnell, contains three distinct sets of dorms connected by loggias; the main quad on the Stanford University campus in Stanford, prominently features loggias as do the University Center and Purnell Center for the Arts at Carnegie Mellon University which frame a quad known as the Cut. In the town center of Chester in the United Kingdom, a number of timber-framed buildings dating from the Tudor to Victorian periods have first-floor loggias called the Chester Rows. In Russia, a loggia can be a recessed balcony on a residential apartment building. A loggia was added to the Sydney Opera House in 2006. At the archeological site of Hagia Triada on the Greek island of Crete, several loggias constructed around 1400 BC have been located and whose column bases still remain.
Peristyle Portico Veranda Curl, James Stevens. A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. Oxford University Press. P. 880. ISBN 0-19-860678-8; the dictionary definition of loggia at Wiktionary Media related to Loggias at Wikimedia Commons
Osterley Park is a large park and one of the largest open spaces in London. In its grounds, there is a large mansion, referred to as'Osterley House'; the park lies between Isleworth. It is operated by the National trust; when the house was built it was surrounded by countryside. It was one of a group of large houses close to London which served as country retreats for wealthy families. Other surviving country retreats of this type near London include Chiswick House; the park is one of the largest open spaces in west London, although the M4 motorway cuts across the middle of it. The original building on this site was a manor house built in the 1570s for banker Sir Thomas Gresham, who purchased the manor of Osterley in 1562; the "faire and stately brick house" was completed in 1576. It is known; the stable block from this period remains at Osterley Park. Gresham was so wealthy he bought the neighbouring Manor of Boston in 1572. Two hundred years the manor house was falling into disrepair, when, as the result of a mortgage default, it came into the ownership of Sir Francis Child, the founder of Child's Bank.
In 1761 Sir Francis's grandsons and Robert, employed Scottish architect Robert Adam, just emerging as one of the most fashionable architects in Britain, to remodel the house. When Francis died in 1763, the project was taken up by his brother and heir Robert Child, for whom the interiors were created; the house is of red brick with white stone details and is square, with turrets in the four corners. Adam's design, which incorporates some of the earlier structure, is unusual, differs in style from the original construction. One side is left open and is spanned by an Ionic pedimented screen, approached by a broad flight of steps and leads to a central courtyard, at piano nobile level. Adam's neoclassical interiors are among his most notable sequences of rooms. Horace Walpole described the drawing room as "worthy of Eve before the fall." The rooms are characterised by elaborate but restrained plasterwork, rich varied colour schemes, a degree of coordination between decor and furnishings unusual in English neoclassical interiors.
Notable rooms include the entrance hall, which has large semi-circular alcoves at each end, the Etruscan dressing room, which Adam said was inspired by the Etruscan vases in Sir William Hamilton's collection, illustrations of, published. Adam designed some of the furniture, including the opulent domed state bed, still in the house. Robert Child's only daughter, Sarah Anne Child, married John Fane, 10th Earl of Westmorland in 1782; when Child died two months his will placed his vast holdings, including Osterley, in trust for his eldest granddaughter, Lady Sarah Sophia Fane, born in 1785. She married George Child-Villiers, 5th Earl of Jersey, thus Osterley passed into the Jersey family; this was done deliberately by Child. This was because Fane eloped with Sarah Child to Gretna Green and Child was so enraged that he left his entire estate to "the first born child", he didn't specify Sarah Sophia, nor did he specify the gender. The grounds of Osterley Park were used for the training of the first members of the Local Defence Volunteers when the 9th Earl, a friend of publisher Lord Hulton, allowed writer and military journalist Captain Tom Wintringham to establish the first Home Guard training school at the park in May/June 1940, teaching the theory and practice of modern mechanical warfare, guerilla warfare techniques and using the estate workers' homes scheduled for demolition, to teach street fighting techniques.
The painter Roland Penrose taught camouflage techniques here, attempting to disguise the obvious charms of a naked Lee Miller. Maj. Wilfred Vernon taught the art of mixing home-made explosives, his explosives store can still be seen at the rear of the house, while Canadian Bert "Yank" Levy, who had served under Wintringham in the Spanish Civil War taught knife fighting and hand-to-hand combat. Despite winning world fame in newsreels and newspaper articles around the world, the school was disapproved of by the War Office and Winston Churchill, was taken over in September 1940. Closed in 1941, its staff and courses were reallocated to other newly opened War Office-approved Home Guard schools. George Child Villiers, 9th Earl of Jersey, opened Osterley to the public in 1939 after having received many requests to see its historic interior; the Earl justified his decision by saying that it was "sufficient answer that he did not live in it and that many others wished to see it". A series of exhibitions of artworks by living artists were staged by the Earl in the top-floor rooms of Osterley to contrast the 18th-century interiors on the ground floor on its 1939 opening.
Though it never came to fruition, the Earl planned to create an arboretum in the grounds of Osterley. After the Second World War the Earl approached Middlesex County Council who had shown interest in purchasing the house before the war, but decided to give the house and its park to the National Trust; the furniture at Osterley was sold to the Albert Museum. The 9th Earl moved to the island of Jersey in 1947, taking many pictures from Osterley's collection with him, although some were destroyed in a warehouse fire on the island soon after; the Earl assisted the Ministry of Wor
Palazzo dei Diamanti
Palazzo dei Diamanti is a Renaissance palace located on Corso Ercole I d'Este 21 in Ferrara, region of Emilia Romagna, Italy. The main floor of the Palace houses the Pinacoteca Nazionale di Ferrara. To accommodate the growth of Ferrara, in 1492 the Duke Ercole I d'Este demolished the medieval walls of the city on the north, had the court architect, Biagio Rossetti, design an urban expansion known as the Addizione Erculea. Rosetti was commissioned by Sigismondo d'Este, brother of the Duke Ercole I, to build this palace at the prestigious intersection of what was to be the Decumanus Maximus and Cardo Maximus of the "urban addition", it was built between 1493 and 1503. Used as a residential home by the Este family and, starting in 1641, by the Villa marquis, in 1832 the palace was acquired by the municipality of Ferrara to house the National Gallery of Art and the Civic University; the most striking feature is the bugnato of the exterior walls: it consists of some 8,500 white marble blocks carved to represent diamonds, hence its name.
The positioning of the diamonds varies in order to maximize the light reflected off the building, creating quite the visual effect. The palace is well known for its candelabra and the phytomorphic corner motifs. Inside, it has a typical Renaissance courtyard with a marble well; the main floor of the Palace houses the National Art Gallery of Ferrara, with paintings from the Ferrara school from the Middle Ages up to the 18th century. The oldest paintings are large frescoes and wooden panels with gold-leaf backgrounds, such as the Madonna and Child by Gentile da Fabriano; the main artists from the 15th century in Ferrara represented in the museum are Cosmè Tura, Ercole de' Roberti, Vicino da Ferrara and Michele Pannonio. There are works including a work by Andrea Mantegna. There are two works by unidentified artists from the collection of the Marquis Leonello d'Este at the Belfiore Palace; the major 16th-century Ferrarese painter, Garofalo, is represented by a number of works, including Pala Costabili, done in collaboration with Dosso Dossi.
The period of mannerism is represented by Bastianino, who uses a technique similar to that of Michelangelo in his works. Among the other artists in the collection are Amerigo Aspertini, Giuseppe Avanzi, Baldassarre d'Este, Jacopo Bambini, Giovanni Bellini, Jacopo Bellini, il Ortolano, Carlo Bononi, Vittore Carpaccio, Girolamo da Carpi, Agostino Carracci, Ludovico Carracci, Francesco del Cossa, Lorenzo Costa, Giulio Cromer, Girolamo Domenichini, Battista Dossi, Francesco Francia, Gaetano Gandolfi, Ubaldo Gandolfi, Maestro degli Occhi Spalancati, Giovanni da Modena, Ludovico Mazzolino, Giacomo Parolini, Nicolò Pisano, Nicolò Roselli, Maurelio Scannavini, Simone de Crocifissi, Bartolomeo Vivarini, Giuseppe Zola. On the lower floor, there is the Civic Gallery of Modern and Contemporary Art, which has hosted high level temporary shows since 1992, when the space was inaugurated by the show on Claude Monet and his friends; some of the most important shows held here have included: From Dahl to Edvard Munch and Alfred Sisley.
Poet of Impressionism in 2002, Edgar Degas and the Italians in Paris in 2003, Cubism. Revolution and tradition in 2004, Corot. Nature, memory in 2006, André Derain and symbolism in 2007, Cosmè Tura and Francesco del Cossa; the art of Ferrara at the time of Borso d'Este and Joan Miró. The land in 2008, Turner and Italy in 2009, Giovanni Boldini in Paris during Impressionism, From Braque to Kandinsky to Chagall. Aimé Maeght and his artists in 2010 Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin; the painter of silence in 2010–2011, Gli anni folli. La Parigi di Modigliani, Dalì 1918–1933 in 2011–2012, Sorolla. Giardini di luce in 2012, Lo sguardo di Michelangelo Antonioni e le arti and Zurbarán in 2013, Matisse. La Figura. La forza della linea, l'emozione del colore in 2014. From 19 April to 19 July 2015 Gaudí's Barcelona. Casa dos Bicos Palace of Facets Media related to Palazzo dei Diamanti at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
Ferrara is a city and comune in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy, capital of the Province of Ferrara. As of 2016 it had 132,009 inhabitants, it is situated 44 kilometres northeast of Bologna, on the Po di Volano, a branch channel of the main stream of the Po River, located 5 km north. The town has broad streets and numerous palaces dating from the Renaissance, when it hosted the court of the House of Este. For its beauty and cultural importance, it has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site; the first documented settlements in the area of the present-day Province of Ferrara date from the 6th century BC. The ruins of the Etruscan town of Spina, established along the lagoons at the ancient mouth of Po river, were lost until modern times, when drainage schemes in the Valli di Comacchio marshes in 1922 first revealed a necropolis with over 4,000 tombs, evidence of a population centre that in Antiquity must have played a major role. There is uncertainty among scholars about the proposed Roman origin of the settlement in its current location, for little is known of this period, but some archeologic evidence points to the hypothesis that Ferrara could have been originated from two small Byzantine settlements: a cluster of facilities around the Cathedral of St. George, on the right bank of the main branch of the Po, which ran much closer to the city than today, a castrum, a fortified complex built on the left bank of the river to defend against the Lombards.
Ferrara appears first in a document of the Lombard king Desiderius of 753 AD, when he captured the town from the Exarchate of Ravenna. The Franks, after routing the Lombards, presented Ferrara to the Papacy in 754 or 756. In 988 Ferrara was ceded by the Church to the House of Canossa, but at the death of Matilda of Tuscany in 1115 it became a free commune. During the 12th century the history of the town was marked by the wrestling for power between two preeminent families, the Guelph Adelardi and the Ghibelline Salinguerra. In 1264 Obizzo II of Este was thus proclaimed lifelong ruler of Ferrara, Lord of Modena in 1288 and of Reggio in 1289, his rule marked the end of the communal period in Ferrara and the beginning of the Este rule, which lasted until 1598. In 1452 Borso of Este was created duke of Modena and Reggio by Emperor Frederick III and in 1471 duke of Ferrara by Pope Paul II. Lionello and Ercole I were among the most important patrons of the arts in late 15th- and early 16th-century Italy.
During this time, Ferrara grew into an international cultural centre, renowned for its architecture, music and visual arts. The architecture of Ferrara benefited from the genius of Biagio Rossetti, requested in 1484 by Ercole I to draft a masterplan for the expansion of the town; the resulting "Erculean Addition" is considered one of the most important examples of Renaissance urban planning and contributed to the selection of Ferrara as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In spite of having entered its golden age, Ferrara was hit by a war against Venice fought and lost in 1482–84. Alfonso I married the notorious Lucrezia Borgia, he again fought Venice in the Italian Wars after joining the League of Cambrai. In 1509 he was excommunicated by Pope Julius II, but was able to overcome the Papal and Spanish armies in 1512 at the Battle of Ravenna; these successes were based on Ferrara's artillery, produced in his own foundry, the best of its time. At his death in 1534, Alfonso I was succeeded by his son Ercole II that in 1528 married Renée of France, the second daughter of Louis XII, thus bringing great prestige to the court of Ferrara.
Under his reign, the Duchy remained a cultural powerhouse. However, an earthquake struck the town in 1570, causing the economy to collapse, when Ercole II's son Alfonso II died without heirs, the House of Este lost Ferrara to the Papal States. Ferrara, a university city second only to Bologna, remained a part of the Papal States for 300 years, an era marked by a steady decline. In 1805–1814 it became part of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy, a client-state of the French Empire. After the 1815 Congress of Vienna, Ferrara was given back to the Pope, now guaranteed by the Empire of Austria. A bastion fort erected in the 1600s by Pope Paul V on the site of and old castle called "Castel Tedaldo", at the south-west angle of the town, was thus occupied by an Austrian garrison from 1832 until 1859. All of the fortress was dismantled following the birth of the Kingdom of Italy and the bricks used for new constructions all over the town. During the last decades of the 1800s and the early 1900s, Ferrara remained a modest trade centre for its large rural hinterland that relied on commercial crops such as sugar beet and industrial hemp.
Large land reclamation works were carried out for decades with the aim to expand the available arable land and eradicate malaria from the wetlands along the Po delta. Mass industrialisation came to Ferrara only at the end of the 1930s with the set-up of a chemical plant by the Fascist regime that should have supplied the regime with synthetic rubber. During the Second World War Ferrara was bombed by Allied warplanes that targeted and destroyed railway links and industrial facilities. After the war, the industrial area in Pontelagoscuro was expanded to become a giant petrochemical compound operated by Montecatini and other companies, tha