Haiti the Republic of Haiti and called Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola, east of Cuba in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea. It occupies the western three-eighths of the island. Haiti is 27,750 square kilometres in size and has an estimated 10.8 million people, making it the most populous country in the Caribbean Community and the second-most populous country in the Caribbean as a whole. The region was inhabited by the indigenous Taíno people. Spain landed on the island on 5 December 1492 during the first voyage of Christopher Columbus across the Atlantic; when Columbus landed in Haiti, he had thought he had found India or China. On Christmas Day 1492, Columbus's flagship the Santa Maria ran aground north of what is now Limonade; as a consequence, Columbus ordered his men to salvage what they could from the ship, he created the first European settlement in the Americas, naming it La Navidad after the day the ship was destroyed. The island was claimed by Spain, which ruled until the early 17th century.
Competing claims and settlements by the French led to the western portion of the island being ceded to France, which named it Saint-Domingue. Sugarcane plantations, worked by slaves brought from Africa, were established by colonists. In the midst of the French Revolution and free people of color revolted in the Haitian Revolution, culminating in the abolition of slavery and the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte's army at the Battle of Vertières. Afterward the sovereign state of Haiti was established on 1 January 1804—the first independent nation of Latin America and the Caribbean, the second republic in the Americas, the only nation in the world established as a result of a successful slave revolt; the rebellion that began in 1791 was led by a former slave and the first black general of the French Army, Toussaint Louverture, whose military genius and political acumen transformed an entire society of slaves into an independent country. Upon his death in a prison in France, he was succeeded by his lieutenant, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, who declared Haiti's sovereignty and became the first Emperor of Haiti, Jacques I.
The Haitian Revolution lasted just over a dozen years. The Citadelle Laferrière is the largest fortress in the Americas. Henri Christophe—former slave and first king of Haiti, Henri I—built it to withstand a possible foreign attack, it is a founding member of the United Nations, Organization of American States, Association of Caribbean States, the International Francophonie Organisation. In addition to CARICOM, it is a member of the International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, it has the lowest Human Development Index in the Americas. Most in February 2004, a coup d'état originating in the north of the country forced the resignation and exile of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide. A provisional government took control with security provided by the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti; the name Haiti comes from the indigenous Taíno language, the native name given to the entire island of Hispaniola to mean, "land of high mountains."
The h is silent in French and the ï in Haïti has a diacritical mark used to show that the second vowel is pronounced separately, as in the word naïve. In English, this rule for the pronunciation is disregarded, thus the spelling Haiti is used. There are different anglicizations for its pronunciation such as HIGH-ti, high-EE-ti and haa-EE-ti, which are still in use, but HAY-ti is the most widespread and best-established; the name was restored by Haitian revolutionary Jean-Jacques Dessalines as the official name of independent Saint-Domingue, as a tribute to the Amerindian predecessors. In French, Haiti's nickname is the "Pearl of the Antilles" because of both its natural beauty, the amount of wealth it accumulated for the Kingdom of France. At the time of European conquest, the island of Hispaniola, of which Haiti occupies the western three-eighths, was one of many Caribbean islands inhabited by the Taíno Native Americans, speakers of an Arawakan language called Taino, preserved in the Haitian Creole language.
The Taíno name for the entire island was Haiti. The people had migrated over centuries into the Caribbean islands from South America. Genetic studies show, they originated in Central and South America. After migrating to Caribbean islands, in the 15th century, the Taíno were pushed into the northeast Caribbean islands by the Caribs. In the Taíno societies of the Caribbean islands, the largest unit of political organization was led by a cacique, or chief, as the Europeans understood them; the island of Haiti was divided among five Caciquats: the Magua in the north east, the Marien in the north west, the Xaragua in the south west, the Maguana in the center region of Cibao and the Higuey in the south east. The caciquedoms were tributary kingdoms, with payment consisting of harvests. Taíno cultural artifacts include cave paintings in several locations in the country; these have become national symbols of tourist attractions. Modern-day Léogane started as a French colonial town in the southwest, is beside the former capital of the caciquedom of Xaragua.
Port-au-Prince is the capital and most populous city of Haiti. The city's population was estimated at 987,310 in 2015 with the metropolitan area estimated at a population of 2,618,894; the metropolitan area is defined by the IHSI as including the communes of Port-au-Prince, Cite Soleil, Carrefour, Pétion-Ville. The city of Port-au-Prince is on the Gulf of Gonâve: the bay on which the city lies, which acts as a natural harbor, has sustained economic activity since the civilizations of the Arawaks, it was first incorporated under French colonial rule in 1749. The city's layout is similar to that of an amphitheatre, its population is difficult to ascertain due to the rapid growth of slums in the hillsides above the city. The city was catastrophically affected by a devastating earthquake in 2010, with large numbers of structures damaged or destroyed. Haiti's government estimated the death toll to be 230,000, it is said that a captain named de Saint-André named the area in 1706, after he sailed into the bay in a ship named Le Prince, hence Port-au-Prince to mean, "Port of the Prince."
However, the port and the surrounding region continued to be known as Hôpital, but the islets in the bay had been known as Les îlets du Prince as early as 1680. French colonial commissioner Étienne Polverel named the city Port-Républicain on 23 September 1793 "in order that the inhabitants be kept continually in mind of the obligations which the French Revolution imposed on them." It was renamed back to Port-au-Prince by Jacques I, Emperor of Haiti. When Haiti was divided between a kingdom in the north and a republic in the south, Port-au-Prince was the capital of the republic, under the leadership of Alexandre Pétion. Henri Christophe renamed the city Port-aux-Crimes after the assassination of Jacques I at Pont Larnage. Prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus, the island of Hispaniola was inhabited by people known as the Taíno, who arrived in 2600 BC in large dugout canoes, they are believed to come from what is now eastern Venezuela. By the time Columbus arrived in 1492 AD, the region was under the control of Bohechio, Taíno cacique Xaragua.
He, like his predecessors, feared settling too close to the coast. Instead, the region served as a hunting ground; the population of the region was 400,000 at the time, but the Taínos were gone within 30 years of the arrival of the Spaniards. With the arrival of the Spaniards, the Amerindians were forced to accept a protectorate, Bohechio, childless at death, was succeeded by his sister, wife of the cacique Caonabo; the Spanish insisted on larger tributes. The Spanish colonial administration decided to rule directly, in 1503, Nicolas Ovando governor, set about to put an end to the régime headed by Anacaona, he invited her and other tribal leaders to a feast, when the Amerindians had drunk a good deal of wine, he ordered most of the guests killed. Anacaona was spared. Through violence and murders, the Spanish settlers decimated the native population. Direct Spanish rule over the area having been established, Ovando founded a settlement not far from the coast named Santa Maria de la Paz Verdadera, which would be abandoned several years later.
Not long thereafter, Ovando founded Santa Maria del Puerto. The latter was first burned by French explorers in 1535 again in 1592 by the English; these assaults proved to be too much for the Spanish colonial administration, in 1606, it decided to abandon the region. For more than 50 years, the area, today Port-au-Prince saw its population drop off drastically, when some buccaneers began to use it as a base, Dutch merchants began to frequent it in search of leather, as game was abundant there. Around 1650, French flibustiers, running out of room on the Île de la Tortue began to arrive on the coast, established a colony at Trou-Borded; as the colony grew, they set up a hospital not far from the coast, on the Turgeau heights. This led to the region being known as Hôpital. Although there had been no real Spanish presence in Hôpital for well over 50 years, Spain retained its formal claim to the territory, the growing presence of the French flibustiers on ostensibly Spanish lands provoked the Spanish crown to dispatch Castilian soldiers to Hôpital to retake it.
The mission proved to be a disaster for the Spanish, as they were outnumbered and outgunned, in 1697, the Spanish government signed the Treaty of Ryswick, renouncing any claims to Hôpital. Around this time, the French established bases at Ester and Gonaïves. Ester was a rich village, inhabited by merchants, equipped with straight streets. On the other hand, the surrounding region, Petite-Rivière, was quite poor. Following a great fire in 1711, Ester was abandoned, yet the French presence in the region continued to grow, soon afterward, a new city was founded to the south, Léogâne. While the first French presence in Hôpital, the region to contain Port-au-Prince was that of the flibustiers.
Les Cayes referred to as Aux Cayes, is a commune and seaport in the Les Cayes Arrondissement, in the Sud department of Haiti, with a population of 71,236. Due to its isolation from the political turmoil of the capital, Port-au-Prince, it is one of Haiti's major ports, with export trade concentrating on coffee and sugarcane; as the world's largest supplier of vetiver, it exports 250 tons annually of this ingredient of perfume and fragrance manufacturing. Minor exports include bananas and timber; the island of what was known by the Spanish as Hispaniola was inhabited for thousands of years by indigenous peoples. The first European settlement in the southwest area was the town of Salvatierra de la Sabana, founded by the Spanish explorer Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar in 1504. Vasco Núñez de Balboa was a co-founder of this town and lived there for several years trying to raise pigs as a business. Balboa gave up that enterprise and left the town hiding in a barrel of a Spanish expedition going to explore the Gulf of Uraba, Panama.
Vasco Núñez de Balboa on September 25, 1513 would discover the South Sea, today known as the Pacific Ocean. This settlement was abandoned in 1540; the area was uninhabited until the French colonial administration founded the town of Aux Cayes, so named due to its proximity to Île-à-Vache. The town was destroyed twice by hurricanes in 1781 and 1788. In July 1793, the whites in Les Cayes were massacred. Simón Bolívar twice went to Les Cayes, in 1815 and 1816, seeking assistance from President Alexander Petion for his insurgency against the Spanish colonial government in Venezuela. In the wake of the 12 January 2010 earthquake, the Cuban military set up a field hospital in the region. On 4 October 2016, Hurricane Matthew made landfall in Les Cayes causing severe damage. Les Cayes plays a significant role in the still under-developed Haitian tourism industry, with pleasant sights such as: Gelée Beach: one of the longest and most visited beaches in Haiti; the white sand beach of Gelée beach is popular in Haiti, not only for its restaurants which serve typical southern Haiti dishes such as tonm-tonm, grilled-conch, grilled-fish and lobster, but for hosting an annual music festival around mid-August which features some of the best Compas music bands.
Many visitors both from within Haiti and neighboring USA will come spend the weekend in Les Cayes. As the number of tourist continues to grow, several new hotels and restaurants continue to pop up; the Botanical Garden of Les Cayes is located at the northern entrance of the city. The site occupies an area of eight hectares. Other places of interest to tourists are the nearby Île à Vache, Pic Macaya, Saut-Mathurine falls and Kounoubois cave in Camp-Perrin, Pointe-de-Sable beach in Port-Salut, Marie-Jeanne cave in Port-a-Piment. Les Cayes has Antoine-Simon Airport; as of February 1, 2013, the first stone on the expansion project of the Antoine-Simon Airport in Les Cayes had been laid. The project to make Antoine-Simon a viable international airport is part of broader efforts aiming at ramping up infrastructure development in Sud; the expansion project will add a new terminal to the airport. Haitian officials Prime Minister Laurent Lamothe and Tourism Minister Stéphanie Villedrouin) suggested that the airport would open up the Southern Region as the country saw tourism as one of the promising sectors capable of creating thousands of new jobs in the region.
Another airport project is planned for the neighbouring island of Île-à-Vache. Les Cayes has some training centers, its facilities include an emergency department, maternity ward, a dental clinic. Les Cayes is home to America des Cayes and FC Juventus des Cayes. John James Audubon, French-American naturalist Euphémie Daguilh, Royal mistress to the Haitian emperor Jean-Jacques Dessalines Auguste Davezac, United States Ambassador to the Netherlands André Corvington, Olympic fencer André Rigaud, Haitian revolutionary leader, was born here on a plantation. Assotto Saint and artist Horace Pauleus Sannon was a Haitian historian and politician and presidential candidate in 1926 and 1930 Les Cayes-related website "Port-Salut: bien sur, mais...", Le Nouvelliste, in French, article on differences between Les Cayes and Port Salut
Biodiversity refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth. Biodiversity is a measure of variation at the genetic and ecosystem level. Terrestrial biodiversity is greater near the equator, the result of the warm climate and high primary productivity. Biodiversity is not distributed evenly on Earth, is richest in the tropics; these tropical forest ecosystems cover less than 10 percent of earth's surface, contain about 90 percent of the world's species. Marine biodiversity is highest along coasts in the Western Pacific, where sea surface temperature is highest, in the mid-latitudinal band in all oceans. There are latitudinal gradients in species diversity. Biodiversity tends to cluster in hotspots, has been increasing through time, but will be to slow in the future. Rapid environmental changes cause mass extinctions. More than 99.9 percent of all species that lived on Earth, amounting to over five billion species, are estimated to be extinct. Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 10 million to 14 million, of which about 1.2 million have been documented and over 86 percent have not yet been described.
More in May 2016, scientists reported that 1 trillion species are estimated to be on Earth with only one-thousandth of one percent described. The total amount of related DNA base pairs on Earth is estimated at 5.0 x 1037 and weighs 50 billion tonnes. In comparison, the total mass of the biosphere has been estimated to be as much as 4 TtC. In July 2016, scientists reported identifying a set of 355 genes from the Last Universal Common Ancestor of all organisms living on Earth; the age of the Earth is about 4.54 billion years. The earliest undisputed evidence of life on Earth dates at least from 3.5 billion years ago, during the Eoarchean Era after a geological crust started to solidify following the earlier molten Hadean Eon. There are microbial mat fossils found in 3.48 billion-year-old sandstone discovered in Western Australia. Other early physical evidence of a biogenic substance is graphite in 3.7 billion-year-old meta-sedimentary rocks discovered in Western Greenland. More in 2015, "remains of biotic life" were found in 4.1 billion-year-old rocks in Western Australia.
According to one of the researchers, "If life arose quickly on Earth.. it could be common in the universe."Since life began on Earth, five major mass extinctions and several minor events have led to large and sudden drops in biodiversity. The Phanerozoic eon marked a rapid growth in biodiversity via the Cambrian explosion—a period during which the majority of multicellular phyla first appeared; the next 400 million years included repeated, massive biodiversity losses classified as mass extinction events. In the Carboniferous, rainforest collapse led to a great loss of animal life; the Permian–Triassic extinction event, 251 million years ago, was the worst. The most recent, the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, occurred 65 million years ago and has attracted more attention than others because it resulted in the extinction of the dinosaurs; the period since the emergence of humans has displayed an ongoing biodiversity reduction and an accompanying loss of genetic diversity. Named the Holocene extinction, the reduction is caused by human impacts habitat destruction.
Conversely, biodiversity positively impacts human health in a number of ways, although a few negative effects are studied. The United Nations designated 2011–2020 as the United Nations Decade on Biodiversity. 1916 - The term biological diversity was used first by J. Arthur Harris in "The Variable Desert," Scientific American, JSTOR 6182: "The bare statement that the region contains a flora rich in genera and species and of diverse geographic origin or affinity is inadequate as a description of its real biological diversity." 1975 - The term natural diversity was introduced 1980 - Thomas Lovejoy introduced the term biological diversity to the scientific community in a book.. It became used. 1985 -The contracted form biodiversity was coined by W. G. Rosen 1985 - The term "biodiversity" appears in the article, "A New Plan to Conserve the Earth's Biota" by Laura Tangley. 1988 - The term biodiversity first appeared in a publication. The present - the term has achieved widespread use. "Biodiversity" is most used to replace the more defined and long established terms, species diversity and species richness.
Biologists most define biodiversity as the "totality of genes and ecosystems of a region". An advantage of this definition is that it seems to describe most circumstances and presents a unified view of the traditional types of biological variety identified: taxonomic diversity ecological diversity morphological diversity functional diversity This multilevel construct is consistent with Datman and Lovejoy. An explicit definition consistent with this interpretation was first given in a paper by Bruce A. Wilcox commissioned by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources for the 1982 World National Parks Conference. Wilcox's definition was "Biological diversity is the variety of life forms...at all levels of biologi
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
The black-capped petrel is a small seabird in the gadfly petrel genus, Pterodroma. It is known as the diablotín, it is a long-winged petrel with a grey-brown back and wings, with rump. Underparts are white apart from a black cap and some dark underwing markings, it picks food items such as squid from the ocean surface. The black-capped petrel is large compared to other gadfly petrels; the most similar species within its range is the Bermuda petrel, smaller and has a narrower white rump patch and an extensive gray cowl. The great shearwater is superficially similar; the probably-extinct Jamaica petrel was a related dark form considered a subspecies of this bird. The local Spanish name, Diablotín, means "little devil" because of its night-time habits and odd-sounding mating calls, which may have suggested to locals the presence of evil spirits in the dark; the petrel will utter other croaks and sounds while foraging at sea. The black-capped petrel is nocturnal on its breeding grounds to avoid predation by gulls, hawks or crows.
Like most petrels, its walking ability is limited to a short shuffle to the nest burrow. There are two variants of the black-capped petrel. Genetic evidence of divergence suggests that these two color morphs represent distinct breeding populations. However, it is unclear whether these populations represent separate subspecies. Intermediate birds showing features of both populations are known to exist. Although this seabird once bred on steep mountainsides of the Greater Antilles, only three confirmed breeding areas remain in the high mountains of Hispaniola. In 2015, birds were confirmed nesting on a second island which had long been suspected given historical nesting there. Records of Black-capped Petrels from Cuba suggest that at least small populations of these birds may persist there. A mountain peak where it bred in Haiti is still named "Morne Diablotin" in reference to the "little devils"; the warm waters of the Gulf Stream serve as the primary foraging area for this species. Most birds during the non-breeding season are concentrated off the United States coast between Florida and North Carolina, though they have been known to wander far to the north and east toward Europe.
The species has been seen year-round in the Gulf Stream. The birds that visit these waters during the breeding season either represent non-breeders or are making long foraging trips away from the nest; the black-capped petrel is strictly pelagic away from the breeding grounds and is known to join loose flocks with other seabirds such as shearwaters and terns. Like other gadfly petrels, the black-capped petrel nests in burrows in remote highland areas of islands; these burrows are located on forested cliffs, are difficult to locate. They visit burrows at night, so as to avoid detection by predators. Eggs are laid in January, which will subsequently hatch sometime in March. Fledglings will depart the nest in either June or July; the species, once abundant in the Caribbean, has declined and is now one of the most endangered seabirds in the North Atlantic along with the Bermuda petrel. In the early 20th century, there was speculation that the black-capped petrel was extinct, but more current population estimates range from 2,000-4,000 individuals.
Most of the threats facing the black-capped petrel are on its nesting grounds, where causes for its demise include habitat loss, introduced predators, direct harvesting by humans. Human predation appears to have become more limited in scope than in historic times, due in part to the species' current scarcity. Deforestation from wildfires and direct human use have decreased the amount of suitable nesting habitat available to the black-capped petrel; this is true on Haiti, which has suffered severe loss of forest cover in recent years. Current conservation plans for the petrel involve preserving forest cover around known nesting areas as well as monitoring and searching for burrows. There are concerns that hydrocarbon exploration off of the Southeast United States could negatively affect the species' continued survival. In 2018, the US Fish and Wildlife Service proposed listing the black-capped petrel as threatened. Dod, Annabelle Stockton. Aves de la República Dominicana. Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.
Dod, A. S.. Endangered and Endemic Birds of the Dominican Republic. Cypress House ISBN 1-879384-12-4 Latta, Steven. Aves de la República Dominicana y Haití. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-12876-6 Howell, Steve N. G.. Petrels, Albatrosses & Storm-Petrels of North America. Princeton University Press. P. 168-171. ISBN 978-0-691-14211-1. Media related to Pterodroma hasitata at Wikimedia Commons BTO BirdFacts - black-capped petrel BirdLife species factsheet Rare Caribbean bird rediscovered in Dominica