Roman Catholic Diocese of Aire and Dax
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Aire and Dax is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France. The diocese comprises the department of Landes, in the Region of Gascony in Aquitaine, it was a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Auch under the old regime, but was not re-established until 1822, when it was again made a suffragan of the re-established Archdiocese of Auch, was assigned the territory of the former Diocese of Aire and Diocese of Acqs. It is now a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Bordeaux, it has been known since 1857 as the Diocese of Dax. It is a co-cathedral diocese, with episcopal seats in the Cathedral St-Jean-Baptiste d' Aire and in Nôtre Dame de Dax. On April 6, 2017, the resignation letter of recent Bishop Herve Gaschignard was accepted by Pope Francis following allegations that Gaschignard engaged in inappropriate behavior with young people; the first reference to a bishop of Aire, on the river Adour, in history is to Marcellus, represented at the Council of Agde, 506.
Aire was the home of St. Philibert. In 1572, on the death of Bishop Christophe de Candale, the Capitular Vicar of Aire submitted a status report to King Charles IX, providing a picture of the diocese at that time. There were that of Marsan and that of Chalosse. In addition to the two archdeacons, the Cathedral Chapter was composed of ten Canons and seven Prebendaries, two semi-Prebendaries, the Master of the Children of the Choir, the Basse-Contre; the Statutes of the Chapter were confirmed by Bishop Tristan d'Aure in 1459 or 1460. Religious establishments included: the Abbaye du Mas d'Aire the Abbaye de St-Jean de la Castelle the Abbaye of Saint-Loubouer the Collegiate Church of Pimbo the Abbaye of Pontaut the Convent of Augustine Religious at Geune; the Priory of Mongaillard the Commanderie of St-Antoine the Abbaye of Saint-Sever the Jacobins, or Frères Prêcheurs de Ste-Ursule the Priory of Nervis the Collegial Church of Saint-Girons the Commanderie of the Holy Spirit. The Priory of Roquefort the Commanderie de Bessaut the Commanderie de St-Antoine de Gelonies the Priory of Mont-de-Marsan the Priory of Sen a Labrit.
The hamlet believed to be the birthplace of St. Vincent de Paul is within the limits of the present Diocese of Aire, though in his lifetime it was part of the diocese of Dax and had nothing to do with Aire. In the Gallo-Roman crypt of Mas d'Aire is preserved in a sarcophagus the body of St. Quitteria, daughter of a governor of Gallicia, martyred under Commodus, for her resolution to remain a virgin; the city of Saint-Sever, in the Diocese of Aire. Owes its origin to an ancient Benedictine abbey, built in the tenth century by a Duke of Gascony as an act of thanksgiving for a victory over the Northmen, whose church was dedicated to St. Severus; the Gothic church of Mimizan is the only survival of a Benedictine abbey. The church of Carcarés, dating from the year 810, is one of the oldest in France. 506, 533: Marcellus 585: Rusticus 614: Palladius ca. 620–630: Philibaud ca. 633–675: Ursus ca. 788: Asinarius ca. 977: Gombaud 1823–1827: Jean-François-Marie Le Pappe de Trévern 1827–1839: Dominique-Marie Savy 1839 – 30 June 1856: François-Adélaïde-Adolphe Lanneluc 15 December 1856 – 6 June 1859: Prosper-Michel-Armand Hiraboure 26 September 1859–23 July 1876: Louis-Marie-Olivier Épivent 18 December 1876–7 August 1905: Victor-Jean-Baptiste-Paulin Delannoy 21 February 1906 – 1911: François Touzet 1911–1930: Maurice Charles Alfred de Cormont 1930–1963: Clément Mathieu 1963–1978: Fernand Pierre Robert Bézac des Martinies 1978–2002: Robert Pierre Sarrabère 2002–2012: Philippe Jean Louis Breton 2012–2017: Hervé Gaschignard 2017–present: Nicolas Jean-Marie Souchu Catholic Church in France List of Catholic dioceses in France Eubel, Conradus.
Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 1. Munster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list p. 72. Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 2. Munster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list p. 80. Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 3. Munster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Gauchat, Patritius. Hierarchia catholica IV. Münster: Libraria Regensbergiana. Retrieved 2016-07-06. Ritzler, Remigius. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi V. Patavii: Messagero di S. Antonio. Retrieved 2016-07-06. Ritzler, Remigius. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi VI. Patavii: Messagero di S. Antonio. Retrieved 2016-07-06. Cazauran, Jean Marie. Pouillé du diocèse d'Aire. Paris: Maisonneuve. Degert, A.. Histoire des évêques d'Aire. Paris: Beauchesne. Retrieved 2016-07-06. Louis Duchesne. Fastes épiscopaux de l'ancienne Gaule: II. L'Aquitaine et
The Ossau Valley is a valley of the French Pyrénées, in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques département. 18 communes belong to the Valley: Arudy, Aste-Béon, Béost, Bielle, Bilhères, Castet, Eaux-Bonnes, Gère-Bélesten, Laruns, Louvie-Juzon, Louvie-Soubiron, Lys, Rébénacq, Sainte-Colome and Sévignacq-Meyracq. Gave d'Ossau Pic du Midi d'Ossau Col d'Aubisque Gourette Ossau-Iraty Petit train d'Artouste
Boulevard des Pyrénées
The Boulevard des Pyrénées is a boulevard in the town of Pau in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques département of south-west France. With buildings on its northern side only, a terrace overlooking the valley of the Gave de Pau to its south, the boulevard is notable for its panoramic view of the peaks of the Pyrenees some 50 km to the south; the boulevard was created at the suggestion of Napoleon I, overlooks terraced gardens cascading down the valley side. In clear weather early morning or late evening and in winter, the view stretches from the Pic du Midi de Bigorre to the Pic d'Anie, with the Pic du Midi d'Ossau standing out in the background. Along the railings on the terrace side of the boulevard are plaques pointing out and describing each mountain; the boulevard runs for some three-quarters of a kilometer, linking the Parc du Beaumont to the Château de Pau and forming the southern edge of the town centre. From its centre, adjacent to the Place Royale, the Funiculaire de Pau descends to the valley bottom, linking the town centre to Pau railway station
Pic du Midi de Bigorre
The Pic du Midi de Bigorre or the Pic du Midi is a mountain in the French Pyrenees famous for its Pic du Midi Observatory. The Pic du Midi Observatory is an astronomical observatory located at 2877 meters on top of the Pic du Midi de Bigorre mountain in the French Pyrenees, it is part of the Midi-Pyrenees Observatory which has additional research stations in the southwestern French towns of Tarbes and Auch, as well as many partnerships in South America and Asia, due to the guardianship it receives from the French Research Institute for Development. Construction of the observatory began in 1878 under the auspices of the Société Ramond, but by 1882 the society decided that the spiralling costs were beyond its modest means, yielded the observatory to the French state, which took it into its possession by a law of 7 August 1882; the 8 metre dome was completed under the ambitious direction of Benjamin Baillaud. It housed a powerful mechanical equatorial reflector, used in 1909 to formally discredit the Martian canal theory.
In 1946 Mr. Gentilli funded a dome and a 0.60-meter telescope, in 1958, a spectrograph was installed. A 1.06-meter telescope was installed in 1963, funded by NASA and was used to take detailed photographs of the surface of the Moon in preparation for the Apollo missions. In 1965 the astronomers Pierre and Janine Connes were able to formulate a detailed analysis of the composition of the atmospheres on Mars and Venus, based on the infrared spectra gathered from these planets; the results showed atmospheres in chemical equilibrium. This served as a basis for James Lovelock, a scientist working for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California, to predict that those planets had no life - a fact that would be proven and scientifically accepted years after. A 2-meter telescope, known as the Bernard Lyot Telescope was placed at the observatory in 1980 on top of a 28-meter column built off to the side to avoid wind turbulence affecting the seeing of the other telescopes, it is the largest telescope in France.
The observatory has a coronagraph, used to study the solar corona. A 0.60-meter telescope is located at the top of Pic du Midi. Since 1982 this T60 is dedicated to amateur astronomy and managed by a group of amateurs, called association T60. There are at the top: The 0.55-meter telescope. The observatory is located at 42°56′N 0°8′E, placing it close to the Greenwich meridian; the observatory was featured in the video game Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six: Vegas 2 under a different name. The observatory in-game is said to be located on the fictional Pic des Pyrenees. Saturn's moon Helene, was discovered by French astronomers Pierre Laques and Jean Lecacheux in 1980 from ground-based observations at this observatory, named Helene in 1988, it is a trojan moon of Dione. The main-belt asteroid 20488 Pic-du-Midi, discovered at Pises Observatory in 1999, was named for the observatory and the mountain its located on; the Minor Planet Center credits the discovery of the following minor planets directly to the observatory: Officially initiated in 2009, during the international year of astronomy, the Pic du Midi International Dark Sky Reserve was labeled in 2013 by the International Dark-Sky Association.
It's the first in Europe and the only one still today in France. The IDSR aims to limit the exponential propagation of light pollution, in order to preserve the quality of the night. Co-managed by the Syndicat mixte for the tourist promotion of the Pic du Midi, the Pyrénées National Park and the Departmental Energy Union 65, its priority actions are the public education on the impacts and consequences of these pollutions as well as the establishment of responsible lighting in the Haut-Pyrenean territory, it covers 65 % of the Hautes-Pyrénées. The IDSR includes 251 communes spread around the Pic du Midi de Bigorre and is distinguished in two zones: A core zone, devoid of any permanent lighting and witnessing an exceptional night quality. Dynamic on the territory, the IDSR is notably initiator of the program "Ciel Etoilé", program of reconversion of the 40 000 luminous points of its territory, the program "Gardiens des Etoiles", program of metrological monitoring of the light pollution evolution, but the program "Adap'Ter", project that will identify "trames sombres".
Pic du Midi de Bigorre has an rare mediterranean alpine climate with a polar temperature regime courtesy of its high elevation. Due to the Gulf Stream moderation of the surrounding lowlands, temperature swings are in general quite low; this results in temperatures exceeding 20 °C during lowland heat waves, temperatures beneath −25 °C being rare. The UV index is highe
Laruns is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France. It is situated at the confluence of two mountain streams, the Gave d'Ossau and its tributary, the Valentin. Part of the province of Béarn, Laruns is now within the département of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, itself in France's Nouvelle-Aquitaine région, it forms part of the arrondissement of Oloron-Sainte-Marie, of the canton of Oloron-Sainte-Marie-2. Laruns is geographically the third-largest commune in metropolitan France, after Arles and Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, it includes a large area of upland and between the Gave d'Ossau and its tributaries, stretching as far as the border with Spain at the Col du Pourtalet, 30 km to the south of the village of Laruns. The principal artery of communications through the commune is the D934 road, which runs south from the town of Pau, 40 km to the north, to the Col du Pourtalet; the D918 road branches off the D934 in Laruns village, follows the Valentin before crossing the Col d'Aubisque to Argelès-Gazost in the next major valley to the east.
There are no direct roads westward from Laruns. Because of its large geographic size, the Laruns contains several recognisably distinct communities in addition to Laruns itself; these include: Pon, an area of Laruns Espalungue, an area of Laruns Gêtre, an area of Laruns Gabas, a hamlet below the Pic du Midi d'Ossau, where the valley road is crossed by the GR10 long distance footpath that runs the length of the Pyrenees Geteu, a former commune merged into Laruns in 1828 Goust, a small plateau with an ambiguous international status. Eaux-Chaudes, a spa situated at the southern entrance to the Gorge du Hourat Artouste-Fabrèges, a ski resort situated in the valley of the Gave du Brousset, the beginning of the summer scenic route to the Lac d'Artouste via the Petit train d'Artouste MiegebatNeighboring communes and municipalities: North: Gère-Bélesten and Aste-Béon East: Arrens-Marsous, Louvie-Soubiron, Béost and Eaux-Bonnes West: Aydius, Cette-Eygun and Urdos South: Sallent de Gállego. Ossau Valley Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE commune file Laruns website Laruns website
Fédération Française des clubs alpins et de montagne
The Fédération Française des clubs alpins et de montagne is a federation of clubs promoting mountain sports. It offers multiple training programs and courses to help people understand mountains and manages 142 mountain huts in the Alps and the Pyrenees, it has evolved and grown since its creation in 1874 as the Club alpin français. It was renamed on January 30, 2005 in Chambéry, it has become a sport federation with 241 affiliated associations, bringing together some tens of thousands of people in a single group. 90,000 people are licensed through it to date. Regional and departmental committees relay the actions of the federation on a local level, it is one of the founding members of the International Mountaineering Federation. Swiss Alpine Club Alpine Club Pyreneism Site officiel du Club alpin français Mountain huts of the Club alpin français Clubs of the Club alpin français
A triangulation station known as a triangulation pillar, trigonometrical station, trigonometrical point, trig station, trig beacon, or trig point, sometimes informally as a trig, is a fixed surveying station, used in geodetic surveying and other surveying projects in its vicinity. The nomenclature varies regionally: they are known as trigonometrical or triangulation stations in North America, trig points in the United Kingdom, trig pillars in Ireland, trig stations or points in Australia and New Zealand, trig beacons in South Africa; the station is set up by a government with known coordinate and elevation published. Many stations are located on hilltops for the purposes of visibility. A graven metal plate on the top of a pillar may provide a mounting point for a theodolite or reflector. Trigonometrical stations are grouped together to form a network of triangulation. Positions of all land boundaries, railways and other infrastructure can be located by the network, a task, essential to the construction of modern infrastructure.
Apart from the known stations set up by government, some temporary trigonometrical stations are set up near construction sites for monitoring the precision and progress of construction. Some trigonometrical stations use the Global Positioning System for convenience. Although stations are no longer required for many surveying purposes, they remain useful to hikers as navigational aids. A national geodetic survey and adjustment carried out in the early 1970s in Australia has left a legacy of trig stations, many consisting of a ground mark with a white quadripod supporting a black disc above the ground mark. Sometimes these trig stations are visible for many kilometres and useful for hikers. In Japan, there are five classes of triangulation stations: Class 1 They are installed every 40 kilometres, with smaller ones about every 25 kilometres. There are about 1000 throughout Japan; the pillars are 18 centimetres on a side, each pillar is anchored with two large perpendicular rocks buried underground.
Class 2 They are installed every 8 kilometres. There are about 5000 throughout Japan, the pillars are 15 centimetres on a side; each pillar is anchored with a large perpendicular rock buried underground. Class 3 There are about 32,000 installed throughout Japan, with one every 4 kilometres; the pillars are 15 centimetres on a side, each pillar is anchored with a large perpendicular rock buried underground. Class 4 They are installed every 2 kilometres, there are about 69,000 throughout Japan; the pillars are 12 centimetres on a side, each pillar is anchored with a large perpendicular rock buried underground. Class 5 These markers were installed in 1899 and are the predecessors to the modern triangulation stations used in Japan today, they are not used anymore since the installation of the Class 1-4 stations. Some of them still exist at various locations throughout Japan. South Africa has a network of 28,000 trig beacons, established by the Chief Directorate: National Geo-spatial Information; these beacons are white-painted concrete pillars supporting black metal plates in a cross shape, installed on mountains, hills or tall buildings.
In Spain there are 11,000 triangulation stations, concrete buildings which consist of a cylinder 120 cm high and 30 cm diameter over a concrete cubic base. They were erected by the Instituto Geográfico Nacional painted in white, can be marked with a metallic label with the warning: "The destruction of this sign is punishable by law." In the United Kingdom, trig points are concrete pillars and were erected by the Ordnance Survey. The process of placing trig points on top of prominent hills and mountains began in 1935 to assist in the accurate retriangulation of Great Britain; the Ordnance Survey's first trig point was erected on 18 April 1936 near Cold Ashby, Northamptonshire. In low-lying or flat areas some trig points are only a few metres above sea level and one is at −1 m; when all the trig points were in place, it was possible in clear weather to see at least two other trig points from any one trig point, but subsequent vegetation growth means that this is not still the case. Careful measurements of the angles between the lines-of-sight of the other trig points allowed the construction of a system of triangles which could be referenced back to a single baseline to construct a accurate measurement system that covered the entire country.
In most of the UK, trig points are truncated square concrete pyramids or obelisks tapering towards the top. On the top a brass plate with three arms and a central depression is fixed: it is used to mount and centre a theodolite used to take angular measurements to neighbouring trig points. A benchmark is set on the side, marked with the letters "O S B M" and the reference number of the trig point. Within and below the visible trig point, there are concealed reference marks whose National Grid References are known; the standard trig point design is credited to Brigadier Martin Hotine, head of the Trigonometrical and Levelling