Ancona is a city and a seaport in the Marche region in central Italy, with a population of around 101,997 as of 2015. Ancona is the capital of the province of Ancona and of the region; the city is located 280 km northeast of Rome, on the Adriatic Sea, between the slopes of the two extremities of the promontory of Monte Conero, Monte Astagno and Monte Guasco. Ancona is one of the main ports on the Adriatic Sea for passenger traffic, is the main economic and demographic centre of the region. Ancona was founded by Greek settlers from Syracuse in about 387 BC, who gave it its name: Ancona stems from the Greek word Ἀγκών, meaning "elbow". Greek merchants established a Tyrian purple dye factory here. In Roman times it kept its own coinage with the punning device of the bent arm holding a palm branch, the head of Aphrodite on the reverse, continued the use of the Greek language; when it became a Roman town is uncertain. It was occupied as a naval station in the Illyrian War of 178 BC. Julius Caesar took possession of it after crossing the Rubicon.
Its harbour was of considerable importance in imperial times, as the nearest to Dalmatia, was enlarged by Trajan, who constructed the north quay with his Syrian architect Apollodorus of Damascus. At the beginning of it stands the marble triumphal arch with a single archway, without bas-reliefs, erected in his honour in 115 by the Senate and Roman people. Ancona was successively attacked by the Goths and Saracens between the 3rd and 5th centuries, but recovered its strength and importance, it was one of the cities of the Pentapolis of the Exarchate of Ravenna, a lordship of the Byzantine Empire, in the 7th and 8th centuries. In 840, Saracen raiders burned the city. After Charlemagne's conquest of northern Italy, it became the capital of the Marca di Ancona, whence the name of the modern region. After 1000, Ancona became independent turning into an important maritime republic clashing against the nearby power of Venice. An oligarchic republic, Ancona was ruled by six Elders, elected by the three terzieri into which the city was divided: S. Pietro and Capodimonte.
It had a coin of its own, the agontano, a series of laws known as Statuti del mare e del Terzenale and Statuti della Dogana. Ancona was allied with the Republic of Ragusa and the Byzantine Empire. In 1137, 1167 and 1174 it was strong enough to push back the forces of the Holy Roman Empire. Anconitan ships took part in the Crusades, their navigators included Cyriac of Ancona. In the struggle between the Popes and the Holy Roman Emperors that troubled Italy from the 12th century onwards, Ancona sided with the Guelphs. Differently from other cities of northern Italy, Ancona never became a seignory; the sole exception was the rule of the Malatesta, who took the city in 1348 taking advantage of the black death and of a fire that had destroyed many of its important buildings. The Malatesta were ousted in 1383. In 1532 it definitively lost its freedom and became part of the Papal States, under Pope Clement VII. Symbol of the papal authority was the massive Citadel. Together with Rome, Avignon in southern France, Ancona was the sole city in the Papal States in which the Jews were allowed to stay after 1569, living in the ghetto built after 1555.
In 1733 Pope Clement XII extended the quay, an inferior imitation of Trajan's arch was set up. The southern quay was built in 1880, the harbour was protected by forts on the heights. From 1797 onwards, when the French took it, it appears in history as an important fortress. Ancona, as well as Venice, became a important destination for merchants from the Ottoman Empire during the 16th century; the Greeks formed the largest of the communities of foreign merchants. They were refugees from former Byzantine or Venetian territories that were occupied by the Ottomans in the late 15th and 16th centuries; the first Greek community was established in Ancona early in the 16th century. Natalucci, the 17th-century historian of the city, notes the existence of 200 Greek families in Ancona at the opening of the 16th century. Most of them came from northwestern Greece, i.e. the Ionian Epirus. In 1514, Dimitri Caloiri of Ioannina obtained reduced custom duties for Greek merchants coming from the towns of Ioannina and Avlona in Epirus.
In 1518 a Jewish merchant of Avlona succeeded in lowering the duties paid in Ancona for all “the Levantine merchants, subjects to the Turk”. In 1531 the Confraternity of the Greeks was established which included Orthodox Catholic and Roman Catholic Greeks, they secured the use of the Church of St. Anna dei Greci and were granted permission to hold services according to the Greek and the Latin rite; the church of St. Anna had existed since the 13th century as "Santa Maria in Porta Cipriana," on ruins of the ancient Greek walls of Ancona. In 1534 a decision by Pope Paul III favoured the activity of merchants of all nationalities and religions from the Levant and allowed them to settle in Ancona with their families. A Venetian travelling through Ancona in 1535 recorded that the city was "full of merchants from every nation and Greeks and Turks." In the second half of the 16th century, the presence of Greek and other merchants from the Ottoman Empire declined after a series of restrictive measures taken by the Italian authorities and the pope.
Civitanova Marche is a comune in the Province of Macerata in the Italian region Marche, located about 40 kilometres southeast of Ancona and about 25 km east of Macerata. Civitanova Marche borders the municipalities: Montecosaro, Porto Sant'Elpidio, Potenza Picena and Sant'Elpidio a Mare, it counts the hamlets of Civitanova Alta, Maranello, San Marone and Santa Maria Apparente. The territory is heterogeneous. At south, indicatively for Risorgimento, Centro e Santa Maria Apparente hamlets the city lays on the Chienti river floodplain, formed in Holocene. Along the coast, Centro and San Gabriele hamlets lay on sediments of coastal plain; the area size is 46,07 km² and has coastal hill shape, the altitude level stands between 3 and 223 m.a.s.l. in Contrada San Savino. The typical "a pettine" shape that distinguishes Marche hills is recognizable by the opposition of Valle del Chienti with the hill group where Civitanova Alta lays, that sweetly downgrades to the sea along the suggestive Palazzaccio road and altitude of 100 m a.s.l.
According to the climatic averages between 1971-2000, the average temperatures of the coldest month, January, is +5,3 °C, while in the hottest month, August, it is +22,6 °C. The annual average precipitation is about 740 mm, with a relative minimum in spring and a maximum in fall. Annual average relative humidity is 76%, with a minimum of 71% in July and a maximum of 82% in November. Prehistorical settlements discovered by archaeologists show us that people used to live in Civitanova since Palaeolithic. Civitanova was founded around the 8th century BC as Cluana by the Piceni Italic tribe, at the mouth of the Chienti river; the Romans captured it in 268 BC, and, in 50 AD, founded a new settlement, Cluentis Vicus on a hill near the sea. During the Barbaric invasion, old Cluana was destroyed by the Visigoths and much of the population took refuge in the Vicus. Cluentis Vicus succeeds to survive during the Middle Ages and it is mentioned in 1009 as Civitate Nova, Civitas Nova, Civitatem Novam e Nova Civitas.
People go live near the coast, on the San Marone hill, where you can find a "Memoria" dedicated to the martyr San Marone protector of Civitanova. With the arrive of the Franks Cluentis Vicus becomes feudal town; the ancient Aldonesi family in 1075 guarantee, with the bishop of Fermo Pietro I the defense of the city. The it was under the da Varano, Malatesta and Visconti. In 1440, under Francesco Sforza, a new line of walls was built, while a fortress was erected to protect the port; the city, attacked by Turk pirates and struck by inner feuds and by the plague, started to decay from the 16th century. In 1551 pope Julius III nominates Cesarini as Duke, that in 1674 gets the name Cesarini–Sforza, following the marriage between Livia Cesarini and Federico Sforza of Santa Fiora; this event signs a period of renaissance and urban renovation: new wall for the "Città Alta" are built suchs as new roads and palaces. Anyway, this doesn't bring any good to the citizens lives. Among the dukes of Civitanova Virginio Cesarini is to be remembered, Italian poet, friend of Galileo Galilei and member of the Accademia dei Lincei.
During the XVII° and the XVIII° centuries, the "Città Alta" gets renovated, the main square gets ampliated and the church of San Paolo gets built, taking the place of the collegiate of the same name, the civic tower gets substituted by the clock tower. The port gives place to another small town. In 1782 Civitanova hosts 6057 inhabitants whom 5717 in "Città Alta", while 65 in San Marone and 275 at the port. On 12 December 1828, pope Leo XII concedes the title of City to the two towns, Civitanova Alta and Civitanova Porto. In 1833 the city counts 8.400 inhabitants. In 1841 the first church, Saint Paul, gets built in the port and completed in 1853. In 1913 the fraction of Civitanova Porto gets elevated to independent municipal and in 1938 Civitanova Porto e Civitanova Alta become as one with the name of Civitanova Marche; the following industrial development transforms Civitanova Porto in a location of summer resorts lived by the noble families of the hinterland. Count Pieralberto Conti builds a racecourse and, in 1910, a house in liberty stile financed by his first wife, Countess Augusta Morrone Mozzi.
The city develops itself with new roads, building in libery stile and ricreative places that gave Civitanova the configuration of a renowned vacation centre. Civitanova was diocesan centre. According to the Catholic Church tradition the title of the suppressed diocesies is given to the bishops destined at diocesan administrations or diplomatic functions. Today, the owner of the ancient diocese is Arch Bishop Claudio Maria Celli; the Ducal Palace Cesarini Sforza was built circa 1550 atop the base of a pre-existing building. Construction started about a year prior to the cession of Civitanova by Pope Julius III to the Roman noble Giuliano Cesarini in payment for a debt contracted by the Apostolic Camera; the interior conserves some 16th-century frescoes by Pellegrino Tibaldi. In 1674, the palace acquired the Sforza label, when Livia Cesarini married Federico Sforza of Santa Fiora; the palace was refurbished in the 19th century. It is situated in Piazza della Libertà of Civitanova Alta. Palazzo Cesarini-Sforza was built in 1862 upon the remains of a 15th-century fortress.
The Palace overlooks "Piazza XX Settembre" gardens which conserve the fountain that once decorated the centre of the square. Built in 1867 according to the project of engineer Gugl
The Esino is a river in the Marche region of central Italy. The source of the river is east of Monte Penna in the province of Macerata near the border with the province of Ancona; the river flows east past Esanatoglia and curves north by Matelica before crossing the border into the province of Ancona near Cerreto d'Esi. The river continues flowing north before curving northeast near Genga, it flows northeast near Serra San Quirico, Maiolati Spontini, Castelbellino, Jesi and Montemarciano before flowing into the Adriatic Sea near Falconara Marittima. Since 1995, the area around the Esino has been permitted to produce white Italian DOC wines. Grapes are limited to a harvest yield of 12 tonnes/ha with the finished wines requiring a minimum alcohol level of 10.5%. Reds are a minimum 60% of Montepulciano and/or Sangiovese with other local grape varieties permitted to fill out of the rest. Whites are predominantly composed of Verdicchio with other local varieties permitted to fill out the rest. List of Italian DOC wines
Teramo is a city and comune in the Italian region of Abruzzo, the capital of the province of Teramo. The city, 150 kilometres from Rome, is situated between the highest mountains of the Apennines and the Adriatic coast; the town is located by the confluence of the Vezzola and Tordino rivers, on a hillside area where the terrain features along with the Mediterranean climate make the territory rich in vineyards and olive groves. The economy of the town is based on activities connected with agriculture and commerce, as well as a sound industrial sector: textiles, engineering, building materials and ceramics. Teramo can be reached from the A24 motorways; the climate is fresh-temperate. In the coolest month temperatures average 5.5 °C, in the warmest month they average 24 °C. In the winter time though they can experience copious amounts of snowfall, as in 2005; the precipitations are not frequent and concentrated in late spring. The summers are characterized by days of somewhat intense heat. Interamna was the name of several cities in different parts of Italy.
Its etymology pointed out by Varro and Festus, indicates their position at the confluence of two streams. The form "Interamnium", the ethnic form Interamnis are found, but more rarely; the name referred to the two rivers Tordino, between which it lies. The name is defined in extant manuscripts of the Liber Coloniarum into Teramne, whence its modern form of Teramo, but in the Middle Ages it appears to have been known by the name of Aprutium, supposed to be a corruption of Praetutium, or rather of the name of the people Praetutii, applied to their chief city. Thus the name Abrutium is present among the cities of Picenum enumerated by the Geographer of Ravenna; the name has been retained in that of Abruzzo, now a region of Italy. A settlement of the 1st millennium BC and some buildings of ancient Italic tribes were the object of archaeological excavations; the most ancient historical remains were found in the outskirts of the city in the neighborhood Madonna delle grazie, among many, a burial place with a dagger and a halberd were found.
The development of the old settlement was due to the commercial center founded by the Etruscan and Phoenician civilization. According to the Roman author Sextus Julius Frontinus, the ancient Perut or Pretut developed in dimensions and importance until it became the capital of the Praetutii tribe. In the battle of Sentinum, the Romans defied the Italian confederation (Sabellians, Etrusci and their allies the Gauls, starting the Samnite Wars. In 290 BC the Sabine area, along with the Praetutii’s region was occupied by the legions sent by the consul general Manius Curius Dentatus; the city took the Latin name of Interamnia Praetuttorium. During the reign of Augustus Interamnia is included in the Picenum district; the area of the current province was divided from south to north into the Ager Hatrianus, Ager Praetutianus and Ager Palmense. After the Second Social War Interamnia became a municipium; the city lost the status of Municipium because of the participation of Lucius Cornelius Sulla in the Social war, but the city will subsequently regain it for expressed will of Julius Caesar.
During the Roman age, thanks to its nearness to the capital of the empire, the city lived a prosperous and favorable moment as proven by the numerous mosaics, thermal baths and the amphitheater remains. As historians like Ptolemy and Pliny remember, the city reached its best period under the emperor Hadrian, with the constructions of the temples dedicated to Mars and Apollo. Little is known about Teramo in the early Middle Ages, after first destruction of the city in the year 410 by the Visigoths under Alaric I; the Ostrogoths ruled Interamnia 552–554 AD. Right after the Gothic War, the city became a Byzantine possession. Teramo was included in the Marchia Firmana, part of the Exarchate of Ravenna, it was a Lombard fief and part of the Duchy of Spoleto. In 1129 the city was conquered as part of the County of Apulia. In 1140 it became a possession of Roger II of the first King of Sicily. During the strife following Roger's coronation, Teramo was destroyed by a Norman force under Robert II of Loritello.
Only the tower of Piazza Sant’Anna was saved from this sack. In the 1268 the domination of the House of Hohenstaufen, who had inherited Sicily from Roger II's line, ended; the ecclesiastical authority of the Aprutina Diocese, led by the bishops Rainaldo Acquaviva, Niccolò degli Arcioni, Stefano da Teramo and Pietro di Valle boosted the city's economy, as witnessed by the construction of castles, churches and palaces along with the great privileges granted by the sovereigns. Within the following two centuries Teramo became part of the Kingdom of Naples; the 15th century saw the struggles between the most important families of the city. The exemplary hanging of 13 followers of Melatino’s family is still remembered in a stone shield in the center of the city; the monument represents two heads with their tongues out under the writing “A lo parlare agi mesura”. During the first years of the century, the tyrant Antonello de Valle was assass
Montorio al Vomano
Montorio al Vomano is a town and comune in the province of Teramo, in the Abruzzo region of central-southern Italy. It is located in the natural park known as the Gran Sasso e Monti della Laga National Park; the city is located at the upper inland entrance of the Vomano valley, on the banks of the river with the same name. The territory of the Montorio al Vomano commune contains a mountainous area but in larger part is made up of hills and open plains. A hilly incline known as Il Colle leads up from the right bank of this river and provides a beautiful view of the valley below. Above the town are the ruins of the Fortress San Carlo, initiated in 1686 by the Spanish Marchese del Carpio to fight against the brigand forces. There are several hypotheses regarding the origination of the name "Montorio"; the most is that the name derives from the Latin Mons Aureus, referring to the plains surrounding the town that were once covered in a luxurious open expanses of golden grains. Supporting this theory are the shape and configuration of the town symbol which shows three hills, each with a sheaf of grain planted atop.
The discovery of the ruins of a temple dedicated to Hercules attests to ancient origins of the city. It is believed that present-day Montorio al Vomano sits in the location of the old city of Beregra, mentioned by geographers in the classical age of Rome. Others historians and archaeologists believe that Beregra was located more to the north, near the current town of Civitella del Tronto). During medieval times, Montorio al Vomano experienced an important period of development. Records show the town referred to as Mons Aureus before taking on its current name of Montorio al Vomano. In the 15th century, by decree of Alfonso V of Naples, the town was annexed by the feudal state of Pietro Camponeschi from nearby L'Aquila. By way of marriage, Montorio al Vomano passed into the hands of the Carafa and Caracciolo families, both from Napoli. In 1596 the Crescenzi family from Rome took control of the town before ceding the area once again to Neapolitans, this time the Marchesi di Santo Spirito. Montorio al Vomano hosts a number of expanding economic enterprises.
A multinational Canadian glass bottle and container factory, Consumers Glass, is known throughout the world. The agriculture of the area is centered on olives as well as wood products. In the future and sulfur thermal springs located in nearby Piane di Collevecchio are to see increased activity and further serve to diversify the local economy. Situated in the principal city square, Piazza Orsini, is the Church of San Rocco. Commissioned by the Countess Vittoria Camponeschi, construction of this church was initiated in 1527; the irregular and asymmetrical façade of the church is built of stone and plaster. San Rocco contains four painted wooden altars decorated with gold leaf dating to the late 17th and early 18th centuries; the Sacristy houses a wooden bust of St. Roch dating from the 16th century, a Neapolitan silver statue of the same saint from about 1735, an ancient bell organ. Several ornate tapestries are on display. One, depicting the Resurrection, dates back to 1530 and a second, The Last Supper, to 1607.
The Capuchin Convent and Church of Santa Maria della Salute was founded in 1576. Its architectural features are influenced by the vows of poverty of the Franciscan Friars; the face of the church is adorned with a decorative rectilinear crown. The Church of the Zoccolanti is in the historical center of the town. Restored in 1755, but earlier records indicate that the church has much older origins. On the main altar is a coat of arms of a Franciscan Minor Order and a wooden statue of Mary Immaculate dating back to 1696. On another altar there is an exceptional painting of a penitent Saint Margaret; the enclosed cloisters contain 17th-century burial vaults with traces of fresco paintings. On the outskirts of town, towards Teramo, is the Church of San Lorenzo which sits atop ancient Roman archaeological findings; the remains of the Temple of Hercules is about 6 kilometres from Montorio al Vomano in the direction of L'Aquila along an ancient Roman road. A somewhat idiosyncratic tradition of the people of Montorio al Vomano occurs during the carnival season.
Its theme is death itself and derives from the comedy of arts, a populist style of theater developed in Italy in the 16th century. The origins of this custom relate to the removal and collection of the trappings of the just-completed carnival season on Ash Wednesday, the first day of Lent. A coffin accompanied by throngs of people, including costumed mourners in funeral attire, is carried through the streets. Funeral dirges are interspersed with irreverent passages of joy and happiness; the tradition of the'Lu Stu, whose origination is unknown, takes place around the Christmas Holidays. During the celebration the townspeople gather together and are met by small groups of people carrying decks of 40 playing cards depicting historical figures; these encounters and card games are characterized by gestures, animated discussions, salty witticisms in the local vernacular dialect. This custom is practiced in few Italian communities and may well have ancient Irish roots from a pre-Christian era. Another important tradition recognizes a great battle known as the "Conspiracy of the Barons" that took place on the outskirts of Teramo on 7 May 1486.
At this time 500 soldiers from the Teramo area, under the orders of Pope Innocent VIII and led by Captain Roberto Sanseverino, encountered the troops of Alfonso, Duke of Calabria and son of King Ferdinand of Aragon. From the roofs of the houses and the city walls, the townspeople of Montorio al Vomano were able witness this fierce military engagemen
Fermo listen is a town and comune of the Marche, Italy, in the Province of Fermo. Fermo is on a hill, the Sabulo, elevation 319 metres, on a branch from Porto San Giorgio on the Adriatic coast railway; the oldest human remains from the area are funerary remains from the 9th–8th centuries BC, belonging to the Villanovan culture or the proto-Etruscan civilization. The ancient Firmum Picenum was founded as a Latin colony, consisting of 6000 men, in 264 BC, after the conquest of the Picentes, as the local headquarters of the Roman power, to which it remained faithful, it was governed by five quaestors. It was made a colony with full rights after the battle of Philippi, the 4th Legion being settled there, it lay at the junction of roads to Pausulae, Urbs Salvia, Asculum, connected to the coast road by a short branch road from Castellum Firmanum. According to Plutarch's Parallel Lives, Cato the Elder thought of Firman soldiers for their faith and readiness. With the Pentapolis, in the 8th century it passed under the authority of the Holy See was thenceforth subject to the vicissitudes of the March of Ancona.
In the 10th century it became the capital of the Marchia Firmana. Under the predecessors of Honorius III the bishops of city became prince-bishops, first with the secular rights of counts, as princes of Fermo. In 1199 it became a free city, remained independent until 1550, when it was annexed to the Papal States. In the contest between the Hohenstaufen and the papacy, Fermo was besieged and captured several times. After this it was governed by different lords, who ruled as more or less legitimate vassals of the Holy See, e.g. the Monteverdi, Giovanni Visconti and Francesco Sforza, Oliverotto Euffreducci, succeeded by his son Ludovico, killed at the battle of Montegiorgio in 1520, when Fermo became again directly subjected to the Holy See. Fermo has been the capital city of the new province of Fermo since 2009; the municipality borders with Altidona, Belmonte Piceno, Francavilla d'Ete, Lapedona, Magliano di Tenna, Massa Fermana, Monte Urano, Monterubbiano, Ponzano di Fermo, Porto San Giorgio, Porto Sant'Elpidio, Sant'Elpidio a Mare and Torre San Patrizio.
It counts the hamlets of Camera, Cantagallo, Capodarco, Cartiera di Tenna, Contrada Boara, Ete Palazzina, Gabbiano, Lido di Fermo, Madonnetta d'Ete, Marina Palmense, Molini Tenna, Montone, Pompeiana, Ponte Ete Vivo, Sacri Cuori, Salvano, San Biagio, San Girolamo, San Lorenzo, San Marco, San Michele, Lido San Tommaso, Torre di Palme and Villa San Claudio. The Roman theater. Remains of the city wall, of rectangular blocks of hard limestone, may be seen just outside the Porta S. Francesco; the medieval embattled walls superposed on it are picturesque. The cisterns of Fermo are an archaeological site situated on top of the hill, at 310 metres above sea level. Fermo boasts one of the most well-preserved example of Roman cisterns in Italy, they were built around 1st century a. C; the structure is a rectangular construction of about 30 by 70 metres consisting of 30 underground rooms: they provided water for the city through public fountains. The underground pipe network above the cisterns was connected to a canal around the external walls.
From the canal, small pipes brought water into the cisterns: water inlets are still visible inside the rooms. The cisterns are made of Opus caementicium, the waterproofing old Roman concrete; the level of the water inside the rooms was about 70 centimetres and the total amount of water inside was about 3000 mq. Palazzo dei Priori, built between 1296 and 1525, the building is notable for the large metal statue of Pope Sixtus V atop the entrance portal; the palace houses archeologic collections. The Biblioteca Comunale contains a collection of antiquities. Fermo Cathedral: Excavations undertaken in 1934–35 under the church's pavement brought to light remains from the age of Antoninus Pius and of a Palaeo-Christian basilica dating to the 6th century AD; this had three naves divided into four bays, with a raised presbytery. Of its mosaic decorations today only those in the apse are visible, depicting two peacocks near a kantharos surmounted by the chrismon, two typical examples of art in Ravenna at the time.
After the destruction of this church by Christian of Mainz in 1176 by order of Frederick Barbarossa, the church reconstructed in 1227 by Giorgio da Como. It has a Gothic facade made of Istrian stone, divided by light pillars and with a central rose window, a bell tower from the same age, a side portal. In the vestibule are several tombs, including one from 1366 by Tura da Imola, the modern monument to Giuseppe Colucci, a famous writer on the antiquities of Picenum; the interior reflects the late 18th century reconstruction. The building is now surrounded by a garden; the cathedral own a chasuble. Becket was killed in 1170 and the chasuble presented to Fermo Cathderal by Bishop Presbitero. San Francesco: church's choir dates to 1240, the rest having been restored in the 17th century. San Martino San Domenico San Michele Arcangelo San Rocco Chiesa della Pietà Santa Maria del Carmine San Filippo San Zenone San Agostino Be
Atri is a comune in the Province of Teramo in the Abruzzo region of Italy. Atri is the setting of the poem The Bell of Atri by American writer Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, its name is the origin of the name of the Emperor Hadrian. Ancient Adria was a city of Picenum, situated about 10 kilometres from the Adriatic Sea, between the rivers Vomanus and Matrinus. According to the Antonine Itinerary, it was distant 15 Roman miles from Castrum Novum and 14 from Teate, it has been supposed, with much probability, to be of Etruscan origin, a colony from the more celebrated city of the name, now Adria in the Veneto region, though there is no historical evidence of the fact. The city was founded by Greeks from Aegina and reestablished by Dionysius I the tyrant of Syracuse in the 4th century BC; the first certain historical notice of Adria is the establishment of a Roman colony there about 282 BCE. In the early part of the Second Punic War its territory was ravaged by Hannibal. At a period, according to the Liber de Coloniis, it must have received a fresh colony under Augustus: hence it is termed a Colonia, both by Pliny and in inscriptions.
One of these gives it the titles of Colonia Aelia Hadria, whence it would appear that it had been re-established by the emperor Hadrian, whose family was derived from hence. Hadrian was a native of Italica in Spain, a colony of Italian settlers in Hispania Baetica and his family was the gens Aelia; the territory of Adria, though subsequently included in Picenum, appears to have formed a separate and independent district, bounded on the north by the river Vomanus, on the south by the Matrinus. Great part of the circuit of the ancient walls may be still traced, mosaic pavements and other remains of buildings are preserved. According to the Antonine Itinerary Adria, was the point of junction of the Via Salaria and Via Valeria, a circumstance which contributed to its importance and flourishing condition under the Roman Empire. After the fall of Rome, the region was subjected, along with most of northern and central Italy, to a long period of violent conflict. In the 6th century, the Lombards succeeded in establishing hegemony over the area, Atri and other parts of Abruzzo found themselves annexed to the Duchy of Spoleto.
The Lombards were displaced by the Normans, whose noble House of Acquaviva family ruled the town for decades from about 1393, before merging their lands into the Kingdom of Naples, but remaining dominant in the city as Dukes of Atri until the 19th century. The rule of the Acquaivivas marked the highpoint of splendor, it is now admitted that the coins of Adria belong to the city of Picenum, not that of the Veneto. They belong to the class known as aes grave, are among the heaviest specimens known, exceeding in weight the most ancient Roman aeses. On this account they have been assigned to a remote antiquity, some referring them to the Etruscan, others to the Greek, settlers, but there seems much reason to believe that they are not so ancient, belong, in fact, to the Roman colony, founded previous to the general reduction of the Italian brass coinage. Some historians say that the city was founded by the Illyrians in the eleventh century BCE, they think. The ancient name has been described as the source from which the Adriatic Sea derived its name.
Others maintain that the sea was named for an Etruscan city in Veneto region. Duomo or Cathedral of Santa Maria Assunta: This 13th century church was built on the remains of an earlier Romanesque structure; the cathedral incorporates a 56-metre high campanile, or bell tower, a cloister. It houses a fresco cycle by the 15th-century Abruzzi painter Andrea de Litio; the Diocesian museum is located adjacent to cathedral. The crypt was a large Roman cistern. Palazzo Ducale of Atri: Palace of the Duke of Acquaviva, built on the highest point in the city; the Palazzo now houses offices of both the provincial governments. Medieval Walls and Gates: The three remaining gates in the walls are the Porta Macelli, the Porta San Domenico, the Capo d'Atri. Museo Capitolare San Francesco: This church features a flight of stairs in the Baroque style. San Domenico: This church contains two 17th-century paintings by Giacomo Farelli. Sant'Agostino: 14th-century church. San Nicola Santa Chiara: 13th-century church. Santo Spirito: 12th to 18th century church.
Sant'Andrea Apostolo: 14th century church. Fonte Pila and the Fonte della Strega. Roman Theater: These ruins still contain unexplored grottoes. Belvedere of Viale Vomano and of the public park "Villa Comunale dei Cappuccini di Atri" offer panoramas of the valleys and sea below. The