Jasper is a city in Pickens County, United States. The population was 3,684 at the 2010 census; the city is the county seat of Pickens County. Jasper was founded in 1853 as seat of the newly formed Pickens County, it was incorporated in 1857 in 1957 as a city. The community is named for a hero of the American Revolutionary War. Jasper is located at 34°28′9″N 84°26′3″W. Jasper is 50 miles north of Atlanta and 50 miles south of the Georgia/Tennessee/North Carolina tripoint. Routes 53 and 108 pass through Jasper. Interstate 575, which ends shortly before reaching Jasper, is the main way to Atlanta. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.3 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,167 people, 942 households, 575 families residing in the city; the population density was 657.0 people per square mile. There were 1,030 housing units at an average density of 312.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91.74% White, 4.38% African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.74% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 2.12% from other races, 0.78% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.23% of the population. There were 942 households out of which 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.5% were married couples living together, 13.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.9% were non-families. 35.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.82. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.9% under the age of 18, 7.5% from 18 to 24, 26.9% from 25 to 44, 23.5% from 45 to 64, 19.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 80.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 75.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $31,944, the median income for a family was $40,833. Males had a median income of $30,774 versus $25,489 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,184. About 9.2% of families and 15.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.1% of those under age 18 and 19.5% of those age 65 or over.
Notable residents include judge James Larry Edmondson. The Pickens County School District holds pre-school to grade twelve, consists of four elementary schools, two middle schools, a high school; the district has 248 full-time teachers and 4,400 students. Harmony Elementary School Hill City Elementary School Tate Elementary School Jasper Middle School Pickens Jr High School Pickens High School Chattahoochee Technical College- Appalachian Campus Nicknamed "The First Mountain City," Jasper is located 50 miles north of Atlanta, Georgia; the Tate House was built by local marble baron Sam Tate in the 1920s and now sits adjacent to Tate Elementary. Standing on an old Cherokee place of worship, the historic Woodbridge Inn is a inn. Jasper is located near several large acreage mountain neighborhoods such as Big Canoe, Bent Tree, the Preserve at Sharp Mountain; the Georgia Marble Festival is held on the first weekend in October every year. It is sponsored by the Pickens County Chamber of Commerce, held at Lee Newton Park.
The festivities start with the Marble Festival Road Race. There are booths with local vendors selling handmade crafts, among other things. Another highlight is the art show, with exhibits of carved marble, as well as paintings and pottery; the Apple Festival is held the following two weekends in Georgia. Weldon Henley - former MLB pitcher Mathew Pitsch - Republican member of the Arkansas House of Representatives from Fort Smith since 2015.
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Etowah River is a 164-mile-long waterway that rises northwest of Dahlonega, north of Atlanta. On Matthew Carey's 1795 map the river was labeled "High Town River". On maps, such as the 1839 Cass County map, it was referred to as "Hightower River", a name, used in most early Cherokee records; the large Amicalola Creek is a primary tributary near the beginning of the river. The Etowah flows west-southwest through Canton and soon forms Lake Allatoona. From the dam at the lake, it passes the Etowah Indian Mounds archaeological site, it flows to Rome, where it meets the Oostanaula River and forms the Coosa River at their confluence. The river is the northernmost portion of the Etowah-Coosa-Alabama-Mobile Waterway, stretching from the mountains of north Georgia to Mobile Bay in Alabama; the Little River is the largest tributary of the Etowah, their confluence now flooded by Lake Allatoona. Allatoona Creek is another major tributary, flowing north from Cobb County and forming the other major arm of the lake.
The U. S. Board on Geographic Names named the river in 1897; the river ends at 571 feet above mean sea level. The river is home to the Etowah darter, listed on the Endangered Species List. Country singer-songwriter Jerry Reed made the Etowah the home of the wild, misunderstood swamp dweller Ko-Ko Joe in the 1971 song "Ko-Ko Joe"; the fictional character, reviled by respectable people but dies a hero while saving a child's life, is alternately known as the "Etowah River Swamp Rat" in the song. Reed, a native of Atlanta, took some liberties with Georgia geography in the song, including the non-existent "Appaloosa County" and "Ko-Ko Ridge" as part of the song narrative’s setting. Acworth Creek Allatoona Creek Amicalola River Big Dry Creek Boston Creek Butler Creek Cane Creek Canton Creek Clark Creek Downing Creek Dykes Creek Euharlee Creek Hall Creek Hickory Log Creek Illinois Creek Kellogg Creek Little Allatoona Creek Little River Long Swamp Creek McKaskey Creek Noonday Creek Owl Creek Petit Creek Proctor Creek Pumpkinvine Creek Raccoon Creek Rocky Creek Rubes Creek Shoal Creek Sixes Creek Settin Down Creek Stamp Creek Tanyard Creek Two Run Creek Lumpkin County, Georgia Dahlonega Dawson County, Georgia Dawsonville Forsyth County, Georgia Cherokee County, Georgia Canton Bartow County, Georgia Cartersville Floyd County, Georgia Rome U.
S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Etowah River
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
1984 United States presidential election
The 1984 United States presidential election was the 50th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 6, 1984. Incumbent Republican President Ronald Reagan defeated former Vice President Walter Mondale, the Democratic candidate. Reagan faced only token opposition in his bid for re-nomination by the Republicans, he and Vice President George H. W. Bush were re-nominated. Mondale defeated several other candidates in the 1984 Democratic primaries. Mondale chose Congresswoman Geraldine Ferraro of New York as his running mate, making Ferraro the first woman to serve on either major party's national ticket. Reagan touted a strong economic recovery from the 1970s stagflation and the 1981–82 recession, as well as the widespread perception that his presidency had overseen a revival of national confidence and prestige; the Reagan campaign produced effective television advertising and deftly neutralized concerns regarding Reagan's age. Mondale criticized Reagan's supply-side economic policies and budget deficits, he called for a nuclear freeze and ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment.
Reagan won 58.8% of the popular vote and carried 49 of the 50 states, becoming the oldest person, at the time, to win a presidential election. Reagan's showing ranks fifth in the share of electoral votes received and fifth in the share of the popular vote won. No candidate since 1984 has equaled Reagan's share of the popular vote. Mondale received 40.6% of the popular vote, but carried only the District of Columbia and his home state of Minnesota. Reagan won the highest number of electoral votes of any president thus far. Ben Fernandez, former Special Ambassador to Paraguay, from California Ronald Reagan, President of the United States Harold Stassen, former Governor of Minnesota Ronald Reagan—the incumbent president—was the assured nominee for the Republican Party, with only token opposition; the popular vote from the Republican primaries was as follows: Ronald Reagan: 6,484,987 Unpledged delegates: 55,458 Harold Stassen: 12,749 Benjamin Fernandez: 202 Reagan was renominated by a vote of 2,233 delegates.
For the only time in American history, the vice presidential roll call was taken concurrently with the presidential roll call. Vice President George H. W. Bush was overwhelmingly renominated; this was the last time in the 20th century that the vice presidential candidate of either major party was nominated by roll call vote. Reubin Askew, former Governor of Florida Alan Cranston, U. S. senator from California John Glenn, U. S. senator from Ohio Gary Hart, U. S. senator from Colorado Ernest Hollings, U. S. senator from South Carolina Jesse Jackson and civil rights activist from Illinois George McGovern, former U. S. senator and 1972 Democratic nominee from South Dakota Walter Mondale, former Vice President and former U. S. senator from Minnesota Only three Democratic candidates won any state primaries: Mondale and Jackson. Massachusetts Senator Ted Kennedy, after a failed bid to win the 1980 Democratic nomination for president, was considered the de facto front-runner of the 1984 primary. However, Kennedy announced in December 1982.
Former Vice-President Mondale was viewed as the favorite to win the Democratic nomination. Mondale had the largest number of party leaders supporting him, he had raised more money than any other candidate. However, both Jackson and Hart emerged as surprising, troublesome, opponents. South Carolina Senator Ernest Hollings's wit and experience, as well as his call for a budget freeze, won him some positive attention, but his conservative record alienated liberal Democrats, he was never noticed in a field dominated by Walter Mondale, John Glenn, Gary Hart. Hollings dropped out two days after losing badly in New Hampshire, endorsed Hart a week later, his disdain for his competitors was at times showcased in his comments. He notably referred to Mondale as a "lapdog," and to former astronaut Glenn as "Sky King", "confused in his capsule."California Senator Alan Cranston hoped to galvanize supporters of the nuclear freeze movement that had called on the United States to halt the deployment of existing nuclear weapons and the development of new ones.
Glenn and Askew hoped to capture the support of conservative Democrats. None of them possessed the fundraising ability of Mondale nor the grassroots support of Hart and Jackson, none won any contests. Jackson was the second African-American to mount a nationwide campaign for the presidency, he was the first African-American candidate to be a serious contender, he got 3.5 million votes during the primaries, third behind Mondale. He won the primaries in Virginia, South Carolina, Louisiana, split Mississippi, where there were two separate contests for Democratic delegates. Through the primaries, Jackson helped confirm the black electorate's importance to the Democratic Party in the South at the time. During the campaign, Jackson made an off-the-cuff reference to Jews as "Hymies" and New York City as "Hymietown," for which he apologized. Nonetheless, the remark was publicized, derailed his campaign for the nomination. Jackson ended up winning 21% of the national primary vote but received only 8% of the delegates to the national convention, he charged that his campaign was hurt by the same party rules that allowed Mondale to win.
He poured scorn on Mondale, saying that Hubert Humphrey was the "last significant politician out of the St. Paul-Minneapolis" area. Hart, from Colorado, was a more serious threat to Mondale, after winning several early primaries it looked as if he might take the
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
1988 United States presidential election
The 1988 United States presidential election was the 51st quadrennial United States presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 8, 1988. Incumbent Vice President George H. W. Bush, the Republican nominee, defeated Democratic Governor Michael Dukakis of Massachusetts; the 1988 election is the only election since 1948 in which either major party won a third straight presidential election. Incumbent President Ronald Reagan was ineligible to seek a third term, due to term limits established by the 22nd Amendment to the United States Constitution. With Reagan's support, Bush entered the 1988 Republican primaries as the front-runner, he defeated Senator Bob Dole and televangelist Pat Robertson to win the nomination, selected Senator Dan Quayle of Indiana as his running mate. Dukakis won the 1988 Democratic primaries after Democratic leaders such as Gary Hart and Ted Kennedy withdrew or declined to run, he selected Senator Lloyd Bentsen of Texas – who had defeated Bush in a U. S. Senate race 18 years earlier – as his running mate.
Running an aggressive campaign, Bush continuing Reagan's policies. He attacked Dukakis as an elitist "Massachusetts liberal", Dukakis appeared to fail to respond to Bush's criticism. Despite Dukakis's initial lead, Bush pulled ahead in opinion polling conducted in September and won by a substantial margin in both the popular and electoral vote. No candidate since 1988 has managed to equal or surpass Bush's share of the electoral or popular vote. Dukakis won 45.6% of the popular vote and carried ten states and Washington, D. C. Bush became the first sitting vice president to be elected president since Martin Van Buren in 1836. Republican candidates George H. W. Bush, Vice President of the United States Bob Dole, U. S. senator from Kansas Pat Robertson, televangelist from Virginia Jack Kemp, U. S. representative from New York Pierre S. du Pont, IV, former governor of Delaware Alexander Haig, former Secretary of State, from Pennsylvania Ben Fernandez, former Special Ambassador to Paraguay, from California Paul Laxalt, former Senator from Nevada Donald Rumsfeld, former Secretary of Defense, from Illinois Harold E. Stassen, former Governor of Minnesota Vice President George H. W. Bush had the support of President Ronald Reagan, pledged to continue Reagan's policies, but vowed a "kinder and gentler nation" in an attempt to win over some more moderate voters.
The duties delegated to him during Reagan's second term gave him an unusually high level of experience for a vice president. Bush unexpectedly came in third in the Iowa caucus, which he had won in 1980, behind Dole and Robertson. Dole was leading in the polls of the New Hampshire primary, the Bush camp responded by running television commercials portraying Dole as a tax raiser, while Governor John H. Sununu campaigned for Bush. Dole did nothing to counter these ads and Bush won, thereby gaining crucial momentum, which he called "Big Mo". Once the multiple-state primaries such as Super Tuesday began, Bush's organizational strength and fund raising lead were impossible for the other candidates to match, the nomination was his; the Republican Party convention was held in Louisiana. Bush was nominated unanimously. Bush selected U. S. Senator Dan Quayle of Indiana as his running mate. In his acceptance speech, Bush made the pledge "Read my lips: No new taxes", a comment that would come to haunt him as the economy collapsed in early to mid 1990, which contributed to his loss in the 1992 election.
The candidates seeking the Democratic party nomination were: Michael Dukakis, governor of Massachusetts Jesse Jackson and civil rights leader from Illinois Al Gore, U. S. senator from Tennessee Dick Gephardt, U. S. representative from Missouri Paul Simon, U. S. senator from Illinois Gary Hart, former U. S. senator from Colorado Bruce Babbitt, former governor of Arizona Joe Biden, U. S. senator from Delaware Lyndon LaRouche, economist from Virginia David Duke, white nationalist from Louisiana James Traficant, U. S. representative from Ohio Douglas Applegate, U. S. representative from OhioIn the 1984 presidential election the Democrats had nominated Walter Mondale, a traditional New Deal-type liberal as their candidate. When Mondale was defeated in a landslide, party leaders became eager to find a new approach to get away from the 1980 and 1984 debacles. After Bush's image was affected by his involvement on the Iran-Contra scandal much more than Reagan's, after the Democrats won back control of the U.
S. Senate in the 1986 congressional elections following an economic downturn, the party's leaders felt optimistic about having a closer race with the GOP in 1988, although probabilities of winning the presidency were still marginal given the climate of prosperity. One goal of the party was to find a new, fresh candidate who could move beyond the traditional New Deal-Great Society ideas of the past and offer a new image of the Democrats to the public. To this end party leaders tried to recruit Mario Cuomo, to be a candidate. Cuomo had impressed many Democrats with his keynote speech at the 1984 Democratic Convention, they believed he would be a strong candidate. After Cuomo chose not to run, the Democratic frontrunner for most of 1987 was former Colorado Senator Gary Hart, he had made a strong showing in the 1984 presidential primaries and, after Mondale's defeat, had positioned himself as the moderate centrist many Democrats felt their party would need to win. But questions and rumors about extramarital affairs and past debts dogged Hart's campaign.
Hart had told New York Times reporters who questioned him about these rumors that, if they followed him around, they would "be bored". In a separate investigation, t