Billboard is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries. It publishes pieces involving news, opinion, reviews and style, is known for its music charts, including the Hot 100 and Billboard 200, tracking the most popular songs and albums in different genres, it hosts events, owns a publishing firm, operates several TV shows. Billboard was founded in 1894 by William Donaldson and James Hennegan as a trade publication for bill posters. Donaldson acquired Hennegen's interest in 1900 for $500. In the early years of the 20th century, it covered the entertainment industry, such as circuses and burlesque shows, created a mail service for travelling entertainers. Billboard began focusing more on the music industry as the jukebox and radio became commonplace. Many topics it covered were spun-off into different magazines, including Amusement Business in 1961 to cover outdoor entertainment, so that it could focus on music.
After Donaldson died in 1925, Billboard was passed down to his children and Hennegan's children, until it was sold to private investors in 1985, has since been owned by various parties. The first issue of Billboard was published in Cincinnati, Ohio by William Donaldson and James Hennegan on November 1, 1894, it covered the advertising and bill posting industry, was known as Billboard Advertising. At the time, billboards and paper advertisements placed in public spaces were the primary means of advertising. Donaldson handled editorial and advertising, while Hennegan, who owned Hennegan Printing Co. managed magazine production. The first issues were just eight pages long; the paper had columns like "The Bill Room Gossip" and "The Indefatigable and Tireless Industry of the Bill Poster". A department for agricultural fairs was established in 1896; the title was changed to The Billboard in 1897. After a brief departure over editorial differences, Donaldson purchased Hennegan's interest in the business in 1900 for $500 to save it from bankruptcy.
That May, Donaldson changed it from a monthly to a weekly paper with a greater emphasis on breaking news. He improved editorial quality and opened new offices in New York, San Francisco and Paris, re-focused the magazine on outdoor entertainment such as fairs, circuses and burlesque shows. A section devoted to circuses was introduced in 1900, followed by more prominent coverage of outdoor events in 1901. Billboard covered topics including regulation, a lack of professionalism and new shows, it had a "stage gossip" column covering the private lives of entertainers, a "tent show" section covering traveling shows, a sub-section called "Freaks to order". According to The Seattle Times, Donaldson published news articles "attacking censorship, praising productions exhibiting'good taste' and fighting yellow journalism"; as railroads became more developed, Billboard set up a mail forwarding system for traveling entertainers. The location of an entertainer was tracked in the paper's Routes Ahead column Billboard would receive mail on the star's behalf and publish a notice in its "Letter-Box" column that it has mail for them.
This service was first introduced in 1904, became one of Billboard's largest sources of profit and celebrity connections. By 1914, there were 42,000 people using the service, it was used as the official address of traveling entertainers for draft letters during World War I. In the 1960s, when it was discontinued, Billboard was still processing 1,500 letters per week. In 1920, Donaldson made a controversial move by hiring African-American journalist James Albert Jackson to write a weekly column devoted to African-American performers. According to The Business of Culture: Strategic Perspectives on Entertainment and Media, the column identified discrimination against black performers and helped validate their careers. Jackson was the first black critic at a national magazine with a predominantly white audience. According to his grandson, Donaldson established a policy against identifying performers by their race. Donaldson died in 1925. Billboard's editorial changed focus as technology in recording and playback developed, covering "marvels of modern technology" such as the phonograph, record players, wireless radios.
It began covering coin-operated entertainment machines in 1899, created a dedicated section for them called "Amusement Machines" in March 1932. Billboard began covering the motion picture industry in 1907, but ended up focusing on music due to competition from Variety, it created a radio broadcasting station in the 1920s. The jukebox industry continued to grow through the Great Depression, was advertised in Billboard, which led to more editorial focus on music; the proliferation of the phonograph and radio contributed to its growing music emphasis. Billboard published the first music hit parade on January 4, 1936, introduced a "Record Buying Guide" in January 1939. In 1940, it introduced "Chart Line", which tracked the best-selling records, was followed by a chart for jukebox records in 1944 called Music Box Machine charts. By the 1940s, Billboard was more of a music industry specialist publication; the number of charts it published grew after World War II, due to a growing variety of music interests and genres.
It had eight charts by 1987, covering different genres and formats, 28 charts by 1994. By 1943, Billboard had about 100 employees; the magazine's offices moved to Brighton, Ohio in 1946 to New York City in 1948. A five-column tabloid format was adopted in November 1950 and coated paper was first used in Billboard's print issues in January 1963, allowing for photojournalis
A pickup truck is a light-duty truck having an enclosed cab and an open cargo area with low sides and tailgate. Once a work tool with few creature comforts, in the 1950s, consumers began purchasing pickups for lifestyle reasons, by the 1990s, less than 15% of owners reported use in work as the pickup truck's primary purpose. Today in North America, the pickup is used like a passenger car and accounts for about 18% of total vehicles sold in the United States. Full-sized pickups and SUVs are an important source of revenue for GM, FCA's Ram, accounting for more than two-thirds of their global pretax earnings, though the vehicles make up just 16% of North American vehicle production; the vehicles have a high profit margin and a high price, with 40% of Ford F-150s selling for US$40,000 or more. The term pickup is of unknown origin, it was used by Studebaker in 1913 and by the 1930s, "pick-up" had become the standard term. In Australia and New Zealand, "ute", short for utility vehicle, is used for both pickups and coupé utilities.
In South Africa, people of all language groups use the term bakkie, a diminutive of bak, Afrikaans for bowl/container, due to the cargo area's similarities with a bowl. In the early days of automobile manufacturing, vehicles were sold as a chassis only, third parties added bodies on top. In 1913, the Galion Allsteel Body Company, an early developer of the pickup and dump truck and installed hauling boxes on modified Ford Model T chassis, from 1917 on the Model TT. Seeking part of this market share, Dodge introduced a 3/4-ton pickup with cab and body constructed of wood in 1924. In 1925, Ford followed up with a Model T-based, steel-bodied, half-ton with an adjustable tailgate and heavy-duty rear springs. Billed as the "Ford Model T Runabout with Pickup Body", it sold for US$281. In 1928, it was replaced by the Model A which had a closed-cab, safety-glass windshield, roll-up side windows and three-speed transmission. In 1931, Chevrolet produced its first factory-assembled pickup. Ford Australia produced the first Australian "ute" in 1932.
During the Second World War, the United States government halted the production of owned pickup trucks. In the 1950s, consumers began purchasing pickups for lifestyle rather than utilitarian reasons. Car-like, smooth-sided, fenderless trucks were introduced, such as the Chevrolet Fleetside, the Chevrolet El Camino, the Dodge Sweptline, in 1957, Ford's purpose-built Styleside. Pickups began to feature comfort items such as air conditioning. Trucks became more passenger oriented with the introduction of crew cabs in the Toyota Stout and the Hino Briska, was introduced in 1962. Dodge followed with a crew cab in 1963, Ford in 1965, General Motors in 1973. In 1963, the U. S. chicken tax directly curtailed the import of the Volkswagen Type 2, distorting the market in favor of American manufacturers. The tariff directly affected any country seeking to bring light trucks into the U. S. and "squeezed smaller Asian truck companies out of the American pickup market." Over the intervening years, Detroit lobbied to protect the light-truck tariff, thereby reducing pressure on Detroit to introduce vehicles that polluted less and that offered increased fuel economy.
The US government's 1973 Corporate Average Fuel Economy policy sets higher fuel-economy requirements for cars than pickups. CAFE led to the replacement of the station wagon by the minivan, the latter being in the truck category, which allowed it compliance with less-strict emissions standards; this same idea led to the promotion of sport utility vehicles. Pickups, unhindered by the emissions controls regulations on cars, began to replace muscle cars as the performance vehicle of choice; the Dodge Warlock appeared in Dodge's "adult toys" line, along with the Macho Power Wagon and Street Van. The gas guzzler tax, which taxed fuel-inefficient cars while exempting pickup trucks, further distorted the market in favor of pickups. In the 1980s, the compact Mazda B-series, Isuzu Faster, Mitsubishi Forte appeared. Subsequently, American manufacturers built their own compact pickups for the domestic market: the Ford Ranger, the Chevrolet S-10. Minivans make inroads into the pickups' market share. In the 1990s, pickups' market share was further eroded by the popularity of SUVs.
While the Ford F-150 has been the best-selling vehicle in the United States since 1982, the Ford F-150, or indeed any full-sized pickup truck, is a rare sight in Europe, where high fuel prices and narrow city roads make it difficult to use daily. In America, pickups are favored by a cultural attachment to the style, low fuel prices, taxes and regulations that distort the market in favor of domestically built trucks; as of 2016, the IRS offers tax breaks for "any vehicle equipped with a cargo area... of at least six feet in interior length, not accessible from the passenger compartment". In Europe, pickups represent less than 1% of light vehicles sold, the most popular being the Ford Ranger with 27,300 units sold in 2015. Other models include the Renault Alaskan, the Toyota Hilux; the NOx law and other differing regulations prevent pickups from being imported to Japan, but the Japanese Domestic Market Mitsubishi Triton was available for a limited time. The most-recent pickup truck on sale in Japan is Toyota Hilux.
In China the Great Wall Wingle is exported to Australia. In Thailand pickups manufactured for local sale and export include the Isuzu D-Max and the Mitsubishi Triton. In Latin and South America, the Toyota Hilux, Ford Ranger, VW Amarok, Dodge Ram, Chevrolet S-10, Chevrolet D-20, Chevrolet Montana are sold. In S
So Help Me Girl
"So Help Me Girl" is a song written by Howard Perdew and Andy Spooner, recorded by American country singer Joe Diffie. It was released in January 1995 as the third single from his fourth studio album, Third Rock from the Sun; the song reached number 2 on the Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks chart and number 84 on the Billboard Hot 100. The music video was directed by Gerry Wenner and premiered in early 1995. "So Help Me Girl" debuted at number 59 on the U. S. Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks for the week of February 4, 1995. "So Help Me Girl" was covered by Gary Barlow and released as the third single from his debut solo album Open Road in Europe on July 11, 1997, as the lead single from the album in the United States on September 30, 1997. The single topped the charts in 13 countries. Following the success of the album in the United Kingdom, Barlow signed a record deal with Arista records for the album to be released in America, he reworked the album for the American market and subsequently released a remixed version of "So Help Me Girl" as the lead single there.
Billboard gave the American version a positive review, saying that it did not stray from Barlow's work in the group Take That. He praised Barlow's "boyish teen-idol charm" and "flexible tenor." Two music videos were released for So Help Me Girl. The first video, accompanying the European release of the single, features Barlow taking a girl home after a night out, waking up the next morning and realising that he has cheated on his girlfriend, he performs the majority of the song in the bedroom, before moving to a piano for the final scenes, which depict a fight between his girlfriend and the girl he took home. The second video, accompanying the American release of the single, begins with Barlow sitting alone on a bridge and throwing a rose into the water below, whilst a mysterious woman looks on, he continues to perform the song whilst looking through the windows of a darkened house, where he spots a young girl. The video continues with Barlow walking through a lighted tunnel of moving cars, before returning to the house and performing the final line of the song to the girl personally.
UK CD1"So Help Me Girl" "Million To One" "Offer My Peace" "So Help Me Girl" UK CD2"So Help Me Girl" "So Help Me Girl" "Interview" Cassette / 7" Jukebox Vinyl"So Help Me Girl" "Million To One" American Single"So Help Me Girl" "Back For Good" The single achieved relative success through Europe, peaked at number 11 on the UK Singles Chart. In America the single peaked at number 3 on the US Billboard Adult Contemporary Chart, number 44 on the US Billboard Hot 100 and number 58 on the US Billboard Radio Charts. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
I'm in Love with a Capital "U"
"I'm in Love with a Capital "U"" is a song recorded by American country music artist Joe Diffie. It was released in May 1995 as the fourth single from the album Third Rock from the Sun; the song reached # 21 on the Billboard Hot Country Tracks chart. The song was written by Paul Nelson and Craig Wiseman
Homecoming is the tradition of welcoming back former students and members and celebrating an organization's existence. It is a tradition in many high schools and churches in the United States and Canada. Homecoming is an annual tradition in the United States. People, high schools, colleges come together in late September or early October, to welcome back alumni and former residents, it is built around a central event, such as a banquet or dance and, most a game of American football, or, on occasion, ice hockey, or soccer. When celebrated by schools, the activities vary widely. However, they consist of a football game played on a school's home football field, activities for students and alumni, a parade featuring the school's choir, marching band, sports teams, the coronation of a homecoming queen. A dance follows the game or the day following the game; when attached to a football game, homecoming traditionally occurs on the team's return from the longest road trip of the season. The game itself, whether it be football or another sport, will feature the home team playing a weaker opponent.
The game is supposed to be an "easy win" and thus weaker schools will sometimes play lower division schools. The tradition of homecoming has its origin in alumni football games held at colleges and universities since the 19th century. Many schools including Baylor, Southwestern and Missouri have made claims that they held the first modern homecoming; the NCAA, Trivial Pursuit, Jeopardy!, references from the American TV drama NCIS give the title to the University of Missouri's 1911 football game during which alumni were encouraged to attend. It was the first annual homecoming centered on a football game. In 1891, the Missouri Tigers first faced off against the Kansas Jayhawks in the first installment of the Border War, the oldest college football rivalry west of the Mississippi River until the teams stopped playing each other in 2012; the intense rivalry took place at neutral sites in Kansas City, until a new conference regulation was announced that required intercollegiate football games to be played on collegiate campuses.
To renew excitement in the rivalry, ensure adequate attendance at the new location, celebrate the first meeting of the two teams on the Mizzou campus in Columbia, Mizzou Athletic Director Chester Brewer invited all alumni to "come home" for the game in 1911. Along with the football game, the celebration included a spirit rally with bonfire; the event was a success, with nearly 10,000 alumni coming home to take part in the celebration and watch the Tigers and Jayhawks play to a 3–3 tie. The Missouri annual homecoming, with its parade and spirit rally centered on a large football game is the model that has gone on to take hold at colleges and high schools across the United States. At least two collegiate homecoming celebrations predate the University of Missouri football game homecoming event: Southwestern University, in Georgetown, TX and Baylor University, in Waco, TX. By multiple historical accounts, Southwestern held the first homecoming on record on Wednesday, April 21, 1909 in San Gabriel Park.
Former students raised funds, provided homes and served a barbecue supper, decorated the town buildings. Members of the senior class waited tables. Northern Illinois University has one of the longest-celebrated homecoming traditions in the country; the alumni football game played on Oct. 10, 1903, began NIU's homecoming tradition. Baylor's homecoming history dates back to November 1909 and included a parade, reunion parties, an afternoon football game, a tradition that continued and celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2009. There was a gap between 1910 and 1915 when there was no homecoming event, however there has been continuity since 1915; the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign first held its homecoming event in 1910, celebrating the 100th anniversary in 2010. This event was held annually except for 1918, when it was cancelled because of the influenza epidemic; the homecoming court is a representative group of students that, in a coeducational institution, consists of a king and queen, prince and princess.
In a single-sex institution, the homecoming court will consist of only a king and a prince or a queen and a princess, although some schools may choose to join with single-gender schools of the other gender to elect the homecoming court jointly. The king and queen are students completing their final years of study at their school, while the prince and princess are underclassmen with a prince/princess for each grade; some high schools have chosen to add categories, such as duke and duchess, to extend the representation of students to include a category in which students with special needs are elected. In high school, 17 - or 18-year-old students in their final year are represented by a queen. Local rules determine when the homecoming queen are crowned. Sometimes, the big announcement comes at a pep rally, school assembly, or public ceremony one or more days before the football game. Other schools crown their royalty at a dance, or other school event; the previous year's king and queen are invited back to crown their successors.
If they are absent for whatever reason, someone else—usually, another previous king or queen, a popular teacher, or other designated person—will perform those duties. T
Joe Logan Diffie is an American country music singer. After working as a demo singer in the 1980s, he signed with Epic Records' Nashville division in 1990. Between and 2004, Diffie charted 35 singles on the Billboard Hot Country Songs chart, five of which peaked at No. 1: his debut release "Home", "If the Devil Danced", "Third Rock from the Sun", "Pickup Man" and "Bigger Than the Beatles". In addition to these singles, he has had 12 others reach the Top 10 and ten more others reach the Top 40 on the same chart, he has co-written singles for Holly Dunn, Tim McGraw, Jo Dee Messina, has recorded with Mary Chapin Carpenter, George Jones, Marty Stuart. Diffie released seven studio albums, a Christmas album and a greatest-hits package under the Epic label, he released one studio album each through Monument Records, Broken Bow Records, Rounder Records. Among his albums, 1993's Honky Tonk Attitude and 1994's Third Rock from the Sun are certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America.
His most recent album, Homecoming: The Bluegrass Album, was released in late 2010 through Rounder. His style is defined by a neotraditionalist country influence with a mix of novelty songs and ballads. Joe Diffie was born into a musical family in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in 1958, his first musical performance came at age four. Diffie's father, Joe R. played guitar and banjo, his mother sang. Following in his mother's footsteps, Diffie began to sing at an early age listening to the albums in his father's record collection. Diffie has said that his "Mom and Dad claimed that could sing harmony when was three years old." His family moved to San Antonio, while he was in the first grade, subsequently to Washington state where he attended fourth and fifth grades. He moved to Wisconsin for the years he was in sixth grade through his second year of high school, back to Oklahoma where he attended high school in the town of Velma. In his last two years in high school, Diffie played football and golf in addition to running track.
After graduating, he attended Cameron University in Oklahoma. Although he earned credits toward medical school, he decided against a medical profession after marrying for the first time in 1977, dropped out before graduation. Diffie first worked in oil fields drove a truck that pumped cement in the oilfield in Alice, before he moved back to Duncan to work in a foundry. During this period, he worked as a musician on the side, first in a gospel group called Higher Purpose, in a bluegrass band called Special Edition. Diffie built a recording studio, began touring with Special Edition in adjacent states, sent demo recordings to publishers in Nashville. Hank Thompson recorded Diffie's "Love on the Rocks", Randy Travis put one of Diffie's songs on hold but did not record it. After the foundry closed in 1986, Diffie declared bankruptcy and sold the studio out of financial necessity, he divorced his wife, who left with their two children. Diffie spent several months in a state of depression before deciding to move to Nashville, Tennessee.
There, he took a job at Gibson Guitar Corporation. While at Gibson, he contacted a songwriter and recorded more demos, including songs that would be recorded by Ricky Van Shelton, Billy Dean and The Forester Sisters. By mid-1989, he quit working at the company. Diffie met Debbie, who would become his second wife; that same year, Diffie was contacted by Bob Montgomery, a songwriter and record producer known for working with Buddy Holly. Montgomery, the vice president of A&R at Epic Records, said that he wanted to sign Diffie to a contract with the label, but had to put the singer on hold for a year. In the meantime, Holly Dunn released "There Goes My Heart Again", which Diffie co-wrote and sang the backing vocals. Following this song's chart success, Diffie signed with Epic in early 1990; the label released Diffie's debut album, A Thousand Winding Roads, at the end of 1990, with Montgomery and Johnny Slate as producers. Its first single, "Home", reached the top of the Billboard Hot Country Songs charts.
The song reached number one on the country music charts published by Radio & Records and Gavin Report, making him the first country music artist to have a number one debut single on all three charts, as well as the first country music artist to have a debut single spend more than one week in the number one position at the latter two publications. Diffie co-wrote the album's second and fourth releases, "If You Want Me To" and "New Way". Between these two songs, "If the Devil Danced" became Diffie's second Billboard number one; the album itself peaked at number 23 on Top Country Albums. Diffie performed his first concerts in late 1990, touring with George Strait and Steve Wariner. In that same year, Cash Box magazine named him Male Vocalist of the year. In 1991, Diffie co-wrote the tracks "Livin' on What's Left of Your Love" and "Memory Lane" on labelmate Keith Palmer's debut album. Diffie's second album, titled Regular Joe, was released in 1992 and was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America.
The first two singles from the album both peaked at number five on Billboard: "Is It Cold in Here" and "Ships That Don't Come In", with the latter reaching number on
A-side and B-side
The terms A-side and B-side refer to the two sides of 78, 45, 331⁄3 rpm phonograph records, or cassettes, whether singles, extended plays, or long-playing records. The A-side featured the recording that the artist, record producer, or the record company intended to receive the initial promotional effort and receive radio airplay to become a "hit" record; the B-side is a secondary recording that has a history of its own: some artists released B-sides that were considered as strong as the A-side and became hits in their own right. Others took the opposite approach: producer Phil Spector was in the habit of filling B-sides with on-the-spot instrumentals that no one would confuse with the A-side. With this practice, Spector was assured that airplay was focused on the side he wanted to be the hit side. Music recordings have moved away from records onto other formats such as CDs and digital downloads, which do not have "sides", but the terms are still used to describe the type of content, with B-side sometimes standing for "bonus" track.
The first sound recordings at the end of the 19th century were made on cylinder records, which had a single round surface capable of holding two minutes of sound. Early shellac disc records records only had recordings on one side of the disc, with a similar capacity. Double-sided recordings, with one selection on each side, were introduced in Europe by Columbia Records in 1908, by 1910 most record labels had adopted the format in both Europe and the United States. There were no record charts until the 1930s, radio stations did not play recorded music until the 1950s. In this time, A-sides and B-sides existed. In June 1948, Columbia Records introduced the modern 331⁄3 rpm long-playing microgroove vinyl record for commercial sales, its rival RCA Victor, responded the next year with the seven-inch 45 rpm vinylite record, which would replace the 78 for single record releases; the term "single" came into popular use with the advent of vinyl records in the early 1950s. At first, most record labels would randomly assign which song would be an A-side and which would be a B-side.
Under this random system, many artists had so-called "double-sided hits", where both songs on a record made one of the national sales charts, or would be featured on jukeboxes in public places. As time wore on, the convention for assigning songs to sides of the record changed. By the early sixties, the song on the A-side was the song that the record company wanted radio stations to play, as 45 rpm single records dominated the market in terms of cash sales, it was not until 1968, for example, that the total production of albums on a unit basis surpassed that of singles in the United Kingdom. In the late 1960s, stereo versions of pop and rock songs began to appear on 45s; the majority of the 45s were played on AM radio stations, which were not equipped for stereo broadcast at the time, so stereo was not a priority. However, the FM rock stations did not like to play monaural content, so the record companies adopted a protocol for DJ versions with the mono version of the song on one side, stereo version of the same song on the other.
By the early 1970s, double-sided hits had become rare. Album sales had increased, B-sides had become the side of the record where non-album, non-radio-friendly, instrumental versions or inferior recordings were placed. In order to further ensure that radio stations played the side that the record companies had chosen, it was common for the promotional copies of a single to have the "plug side" on both sides of the disc. With the decline of 45 rpm vinyl records, after the introduction of cassette and compact disc singles in the late 1980s, the A-side/B-side differentiation became much less meaningful. At first, cassette singles would have one song on each side of the cassette, matching the arrangement of vinyl records, but cassette maxi-singles, containing more than two songs, became more popular. Cassette singles were phased out beginning in the late 1990s, the A-side/B-side dichotomy became extinct, as the remaining dominant medium, the compact disc, lacked an equivalent physical distinction.
However, the term "B-side" is still used to refer to the "bonus" tracks or "coupling" tracks on a CD single. With the advent of downloading music via the Internet, sales of CD singles and other physical media have declined, the term "B-side" is now less used. Songs that were not part of an artist's collection of albums are made available through the same downloadable catalogs as tracks from their albums, are referred to as "unreleased", "bonus", "non-album", "rare", "outtakes" or "exclusive" tracks, the latter in the case of a song being available from a certain provider of music. B-side songs may be released on the same record as a single to provide extra "value for money". There are several types of material released in this way, including a different version, or, in a concept record, a song that does not fit into the story lin