Normandie Avenue is one of Los Angeles County's longest north-south streets, with a stretch of about 22.5 miles. It lies between Western Avenue to Vermont Avenue to the east; the avenue begins in the south by branching off from Vermont Avenue south of Pacific Coast Highway in Harbor City. Through traffic on Normandie is directed onto Irolo Street between just north of Olympic Boulevard and Wilshire Boulevard. After crossing Franklin Avenue, Normandie resumes as a residential street before reaching its northern terminus at Ambrose Avenue in the Los Feliz district of Los Angeles. Normandie was named after Normandie Heights, California; the intersection of Florence and Normandie Avenues was known as the starting point of the 1992 Los Angeles Riots. The street has since been redeveloping. Metro Local lines: 206 and 209 operate on Normandie Avenue, as well as Gardena Transit lines 2 and 4. A subway station is served by the Metro Purple Line at its interesction with Wilshire Boulevard. Harbor-UCLA Medical Center Gardena High School Hotel Normandie Rosedale Cemetery Sammy Lee Square, at the corner of Olympic Boulevard
Salvadoran Civil War
The Salvadoran Civil War was a conflict between the military-led government of El Salvador and the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front, a coalition or "umbrella organization" of left-wing groups. A coup on October 15, 1979 was followed by killings of anti-coup protesters by the government and of anti-disorder protesters by the guerrillas, is seen as the tipping point toward civil war; the fully-fledged civil war lasted for more than 12 years and included the deliberate terrorizing and targeting of civilians by death squads, the recruitment of child soldiers and other human rights violations by the military. An unknown number of people disappeared while the UN reports that the war killed more than 75,000 people between 1980 and 1992. In 2016, the El Salvador Supreme Court ruled that the 1993 amnesty law was unconstitutional and that the El Salvador government could prosecute war criminals; the United States contributed to the conflict by providing military aid of $1–2 million per day to the government of El Salvador during the Carter and Reagan administrations.
The Salvadoran government was considered "friendly" and allies by the U. S. in the context of the Cold War. By May 1983, US officers took over positions in the top levels of the Salvadoran military, were making critical decisions and running the war; the United Nations has estimated that the FMLN guerrillas were responsible for 5% of the murders of civilians during the civil war, while 85% were committed by the Salvadoran armed forces and death squads. In 1990 the UN began peace negotiations and on January 16, 1992, a final agreement, The Chapultepec Peace Accords, was signed by the combatants in Mexico City, formally ending the conflict. El Salvador has been characterized by marked socioeconomic inequality. In the late 19th century coffee became a major cash crop for El Salvador, bringing in about 95% of the country's income. However, this income was restricted to only 2% of the population, exacerbating a divide between a small but powerful land owning elite and an impoverished majority; this divide grew through the 1920s and was compounded by a drop in coffee prices following the stock-market crash of 1929.
In 1932 the Central American Socialist Party was formed and led an uprising of peasants and indigenous people against the government. The rebellion was brutally suppressed in the 1932 Salvadoran peasant massacre. La Matanza,'the slaughter' in Spanish, as it came to be known, allowed a military led government to maintain power and reinforced the animosity of many Salvadorans towards the government and landed elite; that tension grew throughout the 20th century. The Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front, a leftist group that formed in the 1970s, took its name from one of the rebellion's communist leaders. On July 14, 1969, an armed conflict erupted between El Salvador and Honduras over immigration disputes caused by Honduran land reform laws; the conflict had major long-term effects for Salvadoran society. Trade was disrupted between El Salvador and Honduras, causing tremendous economic damage to both nations. An estimated 300,000 Salvadorans were displaced due to battle, many of whom were exiled from Honduras.
The Football War strengthened the power of the military in El Salvador, leading to heightened corruption. In the years following the war, the government expanded its purchases of arms from sources such as Israel, West Germany and the United States; the 1972 Salvadoran presidential election was marred by massive electoral fraud, which favored the military-backed National Conciliation Party, whose candidate Arturo Armando Molina was a Colonel in the Salvadoran Army. Opposition to the Molina government was strong on the left. In 1972, the Marxist-Leninist Fuerzas Populares de Liberación Farabundo Martí -established in 1970 as an offshoot of the Communist Party of El Salvador- began conducting guerrilla operations in El Salvador. Other organizations such as the People's Revolutionary Army began to develop; the growth of left-wing insurgency in El Salvador occurred against a backdrop of rising food prices and decreased agricultural output exacerbated by the 1973 oil crisis. This worsened the existent socioeconomic inequality in the country.
In response, President Arturo Armando Molina enacted a series of land reform measures, calling for large landholdings to be redistributed among the peasant population. The reforms failed, thanks to opposition from the landed elite, reinforcing the widespread discontent with the government. On 20 February 1977, the PCN defeated the National Opposing Union in the presidential elections; as was the case in the 1972, the results of the 1977 election were again fraudulent and favored a military candidate, General Carlos Humberto Romero. State sponsored paramilitary forces – such as the infamous ORDEN – strong armed peasants into voting for the military candidate by threatening them with machetes; the period between the election and the formal inauguration of President Romero on 1 July 1977 was characterized by massive protests from the popular movement, which were met by state repression. On 28 February 1977 a crowd of political demonstrators gathered in downtown San Salvador to protest the electoral fraud.
Security forces arrived on the scene and opened fire, resulting in a massacre as they indiscriminately killed demonstrators and bystanders alike. Estimates of the number of civilians killed range between 200 and 1,500. President Molina blamed the protests on "foreign Communists" and exiled a number of top UNO party members from the country. Repression continued after the inauguration of President
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
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Exposition Park, Los Angeles
The Exposition Park neighborhood of Los Angeles is in the south region of Los Angeles, California. It is home to Exposition Park, which includes the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, Banc of California Stadium, Exposition Rose Garden and three museums: the California African American Museum, the California Science Center and the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, it is home to a Science Center Academy. According to the Mapping L. A. project of the Los Angeles Times, The Exposition Park 1.85-square-mile neighborhood is flanked by Adams-Normandie on the north, University Park on the northeast, Historic South Central on the east, Vermont Square on the south, Hyde Park and Leimert Park on the west. It is bounded by Jefferson Boulevard on the north, Vermont Avenue on the east, Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard on the south and Arlington Avenue on the west, to, added all of Exposition Park and additional land along both sides of Figueroa Street east and Exit 20A of the Interstate 110 Freeway.
A total of 31,062 residents counted in its 1.85 square miles, including the park land as well as Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum according to the 2000 U. S. census—an average of 16,819 people per square mile among the highest population densities for both the city and the county. By 2008 the population had increased to 33,458, the city has estimated; the median age was 26, considered young for both the city and the county, the percentages of residents aged birth through 18 were among the county's highest. There were 1,818 families headed by single parents. Within the neighborhood, Latinos made up 36.9% of the population, while African American were at 38.1%— both considered high percentages for the county. Other ethnicities were White, 2.2%. Mexico and El Salvador were the most common places of birth for the 38.5% of the residents who were born abroad, an average percentage of foreign-born when compared with the city as a whole. The median household income in 2008 dollars was $33,999, considered low for both the city and county.
The percentage of households earning $20,000 or less was high, compared to the county at large. The average household size of 3.3 people was about the same as in the city at large. Renters occupied 69% of the housing units, homeowners occupied the rest; the percentages of never-married people were among the county's highest—45.5% for men and 39.1% for women. Only 7.3% of the neighborhood residents aged 25 and older had a four-year degree, a low percentage for both the city and the county. The percentage of residents of that age with less than a high school diploma was high; the schools operating with the Exposition Park neighborhood boundaries are: Alliance College-Ready Academy High No. 5, 1729 West Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard Foshay Learning Center, 3751 South Harvard Boulevard Thurgood Marshall Charter Middle School, 3200 West Adams Boulevard Lenicia B. Weemes Elementary School, 1260 West 36th Place Dr. Theo T. Alexander Jr. Science Center, 3737 S. Figueroa Street, within Exposition Park, the school first opened on September 9, 2004 Martin Luther King Jr.
Elementary School, 3989 South Hobart Street Three Metro Expo Line stations are located within the Exposition Park neighborhood: Expo Park/USC station Vermont station Western station Two Olympic Games were held at various venues within Exposition Park. Exposition Park Denker Recreation Center, 1550 West 35th Place Martin Luther King Jr. Park, 3916 South Western Avenue Jackie Robinson, Hall of Fame and pioneer athlete Betty Hill, activist Loren Miller, Los Angeles County attorney and judge Eric Dolphy, jazz musician William J. Powell, aviator Reb Spikes, jazz musician Ramon Novarro, actor Noble Johnson, film producer List of districts and neighborhoods in Los Angeles List of parks in Los Angeles Neighborhood Spotlight: Exposition Park's sports and transit offerings make it a player to watch Expo Center website, Los Angeles Department of Recreation and Parks North Area Neighborhood Council Exposition Park neighborhood crime map and statistics
Koreatown, Los Angeles
Koreatown is a neighborhood in Central Los Angeles, centered near Eighth Street and Irolo Street, west of MacArthur Park. The rectangular area covers about 150 blocks, spanning 15 avenues. While significant links with Korean culture remain, the residents are a broad mix, with half Latino and a third Asian. Koreans found housing in the Mid-Wilshire area. Many opened businesses as they found tolerance towards the growing Korean population. Many of the historic Art deco buildings with terra cotta facades have been preserved because the buildings remained economically viable for the new businesses. Today, Koreatown is becoming one of LA's most popular neighborhoods. Despite the name evoking a traditional ethnic enclave, the community is complex and has an impact on areas outside the traditional boundaries. While the neighborhood culture has been oriented to the Korean immigrant population, Korean business owners are creating stronger ties to the Latino community in Koreatown; the community is diverse ethnically, with half the residents being Latino and a third being Asian.
Two-thirds of the residents were born outside of the United States, as a high figure compared to the rest of the city. In 1882, the United States and Korea established the United States-Korea Treaty of 1882, which ended Korea’s self-imposed isolation; the establishment of diplomatic relations between the United States and Korea paved the way for Korean immigration to Hawaii in the late 1880s. In the early 1900s, Korean immigrants began making their way to Los Angeles, where they created communities based around ethnic churches; as the number of Koreans increased to the hundreds, their residential and commercial activities spread to the southwestern corner of the Los Angeles business district, putting them within walking distance of Little Tokyo and Chinatown. By the 1930s 650 Koreans resided in Los Angeles, they established churches and community organizations, as well as businesses that focused on vegetable and fruit distribution. In 1936, the Korean National Association, one of the largest Korean immigrant political organizations, moved its central headquarters from San Francisco to Los Angeles to continue promoting political, cultural and religious activities.
However, racial covenant laws and economic constraints limited Korean residents to an area bounded by Adams Boulevard to the north, Slauson Avenue to the south, Western Avenue to the west, Vermont Avenue to the east. The 1930s saw the height of the area's association with Hollywood; the Ambassador Hotel hosted the Academy Awards ceremony in 1930, 1931, 1932, 1934. As the entertainment industry grew in the surrounding Koreatown area, Koreans remained segregated into low-income districts because of discriminatory housing policies. After the 1948 Shelley v. Kraemer Supreme Court case prohibited racially restrictive housing policies, Koreans began to move north of Olympic Boulevard to establish new homes and businesses. In the late 1960s, the surrounding neighborhood began to enter a steep economic decline; the once-glamorous mid-Wilshire area became filled with vacant commercial and office space that attracted wealthier South Korean immigrants. They found many opened businesses in Koreatown. Many of the area's Art Deco buildings with terracotta facades were preserved because they remained economically viable with the new commercial activity that occupied them.
The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 removed restrictions on Asian migration and helped further the growth of the immigrant community in Koreatown. By the late 1970s, most businesses in the Olympic Boulevard and 8th Street areas were owned by Koreans; this economic boom led to the creation of Korean media outlets and community organizations, which played a key role in developing a sense of communal identity in the neighborhood. The ethnic enclave was able to establish itself as the primary hub of the Korean community in Southern California, the residents lobbied for the installation of the first Koreatown sign in 1982; the 1992 Los Angeles riots had a significant impact on the community, solidifying the importance of community-based nonprofit organizations, such as the Koreatown Youth and Community Center and Koreatown Immigrant Workers Alliance. These organizations advocated for reparations and protections for Korean Americans, who received little support from government authorities as a result of their low social status and language barrier.
During the time of the riots and Korean Americans were facing racial strife. In many predominately Black neighborhoods, Korean citizens owned the majority of businesses; when white residents left the area, Koreans purchased their businesses from them for little money. Rapper Ice Cube spoke of this, along with Asian suspicion of Black residents in his 1988 album "Death Certificate" during the song "Black Korea". On March 16, 1991, a Korean store owner, Soon Ja Du, shot and killed a 15-year old, black customer, Latasha Harlins. Du accused Harlins of stealing orange juice, after watching her slamming down the jug and turning to leave, shot her in the head; some historians view Du's posting bail as the breaking point in tensions. The 1992 unrest stimulated a new wave of political activism among Korean-Americans, but split them into two camps; the liberals sought to unite wit
Downtown Los Angeles
Downtown Los Angeles is the central business district of Los Angeles, California, as well as a diverse residential neighborhood of some 58,000 people. A 2013 study found, it is part of Central Los Angeles. A heritage of the city's founding in 1781, Downtown Los Angeles today is composed of different areas ranging from a fashion district to Skid Row, it is the hub for the city's urban rail transit system and the Metrolink commuter rail system for Southern California. Banks, department stores, movie palaces at one time drew residents and visitors into the area, but the district declined economically and suffered a downturn for decades until its recent renaissance starting in the early 2000s. Old buildings are being modified for new uses, skyscrapers have been built. Downtown Los Angeles is known for its government buildings, parks and other public places; the earliest known settlements in the area of what is now Downtown Los Angeles was by the Tongva, a Native American people. European settlement arrived after Father Juan Crespí, a Spanish missionary charged with exploring sites for Catholic missions in California, noted in 1769 that the region had "all the requisites for a large settlement".
On September 4, 1781, the city was founded by a group of settlers who trekked north from present-day Mexico. Land speculation increased in the 1880s, which saw the population of the city explode from 11,000 in 1880 to nearly 100,000 by 1896. Infrastructure enhancements and the laying of a street grid brought development south of the original settlement into what is today the Civic Center and Historic Core neighborhoods. By 1920, the city's private and municipal rail lines were the most far-flung and most comprehensive in the world in mileage besting that of New York City. By this time, a steady influx of residents and aggressive land developers had transformed the city into a large metropolitan area, with DTLA at its center. Rail lines connected four counties with over 1,100 miles of track. During the early part of the 20th century, banking institutions clustered around South Spring Street, forming the Spring Street Financial District. Sometimes referred to as the "Wall Street of the West," the district held corporate headquarters for financial institutions including Bank of America and Merchants Bank, the Crocker National Bank, California Bank & Trust, International Savings & Exchange Bank.
The Los Angeles Stock Exchange was located on the corridor from 1929 until 1986 before moving into a new building across the Harbor Freeway. Commercial growth brought with it hotel construction—during this time period several grand hotels, the Alexandria, the Rosslyn, the Biltmore, were erected — and the need for venues to entertain the growing population of Los Angeles. Broadway became the nightlife and entertainment district of the city, with over a dozen theater and movie palaces built before 1932. Department stores opened flagship stores downtown, including The Broadway, Hamburger & Sons, May Company, JW Robinson's, Bullock's, serving a wealthy residential population in the Bunker Hill neighborhood. Numerous specialty stores flourished including those in the jewelry business which gave rise to the Downtown Jewelry District. Among these early jewelers included the Laykin Diamond Company and Harry Winston & Co. both of which found their beginnings in the Hotel Alexandria at Fifth and Spring streets.
The Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal opened in May 1939, unifying passenger service among various local and long-distance passenger trains. It was built on a grand scale and would be one of the "last of the great railway stations" built in the United States. Following World War II, the development of the Los Angeles freeway network, increased automobile ownership led to decreased investment downtown. Many corporate headquarters dispersed to new suburbs or fell to mergers and acquisitions; the once-wealthy Bunker Hill neighborhood became a haven for low-income renters, its stately Victorian mansions turned into flophouses. From about 1930 onward, numerous old and historic buildings in the plaza area were demolished to make way for street-level parking lots, the high demand for parking making this more profitable than any other option that might have allowed preservation; the drastic reduction in the number of residents in the area further reduced the viability of streetfront businesses that would be able to attract pedestrians.
For most Angelenos, downtown became a drive-out destination. In an effort to combat blight and lure businesses back downtown, the city's Community Redevelopment Agency undertook the Bunker Hill Redevelopment Project in 1955, a massive clearance project that leveled homes and cleared land for future commercial skyscraper development; this period saw the clearing and upzoning of the entire neighborhood, as well as the shuttering of the Angels Flight funicular railway in 1969. Angels Flight resumed operation in 1996 for a period of five years, shutting down once again after a fatal accident in 2001. On March 15, 2010, the railway once again opened for passenger service following extensive upgrades to brake and safety systems. With Class A office space becoming available on Bunker Hill, many of DTLA's remaining financial corporations moved to the newer buildings, leaving the former Spring Street Financial District devoid of tenants above ground floor. Following the corporate headquarters' moving six blocks west, the large department stores on Broadway shuttered, culminating in the 1980s.
However, the Broadway theaters saw much use as Spanish-language movie houses during this time, beginning with the conve