The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Ilex, or holly, is a genus of about 480 species of flowering plants in the family Aquifoliaceae, the only living genus in that family. The species are evergreen or deciduous trees and climbers from tropics to temperate zones worldwide; the genus Ilex includes about 480 species, divided into three subgenera: Ilex subg. Byronia, with the type species Ilex polypyrena Ilex subg. Prinos, with 12 species Ilex subg. Ilex, with the rest of the speciesThe genus is widespread throughout the temperate and subtropical regions of the world, it includes species of trees and climbers, with evergreen or deciduous foliage and inconspicuous flowers. Its range was more extended in the Tertiary period and many species are adapted to laurel forest habitat, it occurs from sea level to more than 2,000 metres with high mountain species. It is a genus of evergreen trees with smooth, glabrous, or pubescent branchlets; the plants are slow-growing with some species growing to 25 m tall. The type species is the European holly Ilex aquifolium described by Linnaeus.
Plants in this genus have simple, alternate glossy leaves with a spiny leaf margin. The inconspicuous flower is greenish white, with four petals, they are dioecious, with male and female flowers on different plants. The small fruits of Ilex, although referred to as berries, are technically drupes, they range in color from red to brown to black, green or yellow. The "bones" contain up to ten seeds each; some species produce fruits parthenogenetically, such as the cultivar'Nellie R. Stevens'; the fruits ripen in winter and thus provide winter colour contrast between the bright red of the fruits and the glossy green evergreen leaves. Hence the cut branches of I. aquifolium, are used in Christmas decoration. The fruits are slightly toxic to humans, can cause vomiting and diarrhea when ingested. However, they are an important food source for birds and other animals, which help disperse the seeds; this can have negative impacts as well. Along the west coast of North America, from California to British Columbia, English holly, grown commercially, is spreading into native forest habitat, where it thrives in shade and crowds out native species.
It has been placed on the Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board's monitor list, is a Class C invasive plant in Portland. Ilex in Latin means the evergreen oak. Despite the Linnaean classification of Ilex as holly, as late as the 19th century in Britain, the term Ilex was still being applied to the oak as well as the holly – due to the superficial similarity of the leaves; the name "holly" in common speech refers to Ilex aquifolium stems with berries used in Christmas decoration. By extension, "holly" is applied to the whole genus; the origin of the word "holly" is considered a reduced form of Old English holen, Middle English Holin Hollen. The French word for holly, derives from the Old Low Franconian *hulis. Both are related to Old High German hulis, huls, as are Low German/Low Franconian terms like Hülse or hulst; these Germanic words appear to be related to words for holly in Celtic languages, such as Welsh celyn, Breton kelen and Irish cuileann. Several Romance languages use the Latin word acrifolium "sharp leaf", so Italian agrifoglio, Occitan grefuèlh, etc.
The phylogeography of this group provides examples of various speciation mechanisms at work. In this scenario ancestors of this group became isolated from the remaining Ilex when the Earth mass broke away into Gondwana and Laurasia about 82 million years ago, resulting in a physical separation of the groups and beginning a process of change to adapt to new conditions; this mechanism is called allopatric speciation. Over time, survivor species of the holly genus adapted to different ecological niches; this led to an example of ecological speciation. In the Pliocene, around five million years ago, mountain formation diversified the landscape and provided new opportunities for speciation within the genus; the fossil record indicates that the Ilex lineage was widespread prior to the end of the Cretaceous period. Based on the molecular clock, the common ancestor of most of the extant species appeared during the Eocene, about 50 million years ago, suggesting that older representatives of the genus belong to now extinct branches.
The laurel forest covered great areas of the Earth during the Paleogene, when the genus was more prosperous. This type of forest extended during the Neogene, more than 20 million years ago. Most of the last remaining temperate broadleaf evergreen forests are believed to have disappeared about 10,000 years ago at the end of the Pleistocene. Many of the then-existing species with the strictest ecological requirements became extinct because they could not cross the barriers imposed by the geography, but others found refuge as a species relict in coastal enclaves and coastal mountains sufficiently far from areas of extreme cold and aridity and protected by the oceanic influence; the genus is distributed throughout the world's different climates. Most species make their home in the tropics and subtropics, with a worldwide distribution in temperate zones; the greatest diversity of species is found in Southeast Asia. Ilex mucronata the type species of Nemopanthus, is native to eastern North America.
Nemopanthus was treated as a separate genus with eight species. Of the family Aquifoliaceae, now transferred to Ilex on molecular data. In Europe the genus is represented by a single species, th
A consul is an official representative of the government of one state in the territory of another acting to assist and protect the citizens of the consul's own country, to facilitate trade and friendship between the people of the two countries. A consul is distinguished from an ambassador, the latter being a representative from one head of state to another. There can be only one ambassador from one country to another, representing the first country's head of state to that of the second, his or her duties revolve around diplomatic relations between the two countries. A less common usage is an administrative consul, who takes a governing role and is appointed by a country that has colonised or occupied another. In classical Greece, some of the functions of the modern consul were fulfilled by a proxenos. Unlike the modern position, this was a citizen of the host polity; the proxenos was a wealthy merchant who had socio-economic ties with another city and who helped its citizens when they were in trouble in his own city.
The position of proxenos was hereditary in a particular family. Modern honorary consuls fulfill a function, to a degree similar to that of the ancient Greek institution. Consuls were the highest magistrates of the Roman Roman Empire; the term was revived by the Republic of Genoa, unlike Rome, bestowed it on various state officials, not restricted to the highest. Among these were Genoese officials stationed in various Mediterranean ports, whose role included duties similar to those of the modern consul, i. e. helping Genoese merchants and sailors in difficulties with the local authorities. The consolat de mar was an institution established under the reign of Peter IV of Aragon in the fourteenth century, spread to 47 locations throughout the Mediterranean, it was a judicial body, administering maritime and commercial law as Lex Mercatoria. Although the consolat de mar was established by the Corts General of the Crown of Aragon, the consuls were independent from the King; this distinction between consular and diplomatic functions remains to this day.
Modern consuls retain limited judicial powers to settle disputes on ships from their country. The consulado de mercaderes was set up in 1543 in Seville as a merchant guild to control trade with Latin America; as such, it had branches in the principal cities of the Spanish colonies. The connection of "consul" with trade and commercial law is retained in French. In Francophone countries, a juge consulaire is a non-professional judge elected by the chamber of commerce to settle commercial disputes in the first instance; the office of a consul is a consulate and is subordinate to the state's main representation in the capital of that foreign country an embassy or – between Commonwealth countries – high commission. Like the terms embassy or high commission, consulate may refer not only to the office of consul, but to the building occupied by the consul and his or her staff; the consulate may share premises with the embassy itself. A consul of the highest rank is termed a consul-general, is appointed to a consulate-general.
There are one or more deputy consuls-general, vice-consuls, consular agents working under the consul-general. A country may appoint more than one consul-general to another nation. Consuls of various ranks may have specific legal authority for certain activities, such as notarizing documents; as such, diplomatic personnel with other responsibilities may receive consular letters patent. Aside from those outlined in the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, there are few formal requirements outlining what a consular official must do. For example, for some countries, consular officials may be responsible for the issue of visas. Nonetheless, consulates proper will be headed by consuls of various ranks if such officials have little or no connection with the more limited sense of consular service. Activities of a consulate include protecting the interests of their citizens temporarily or permanently resident in the host country, issuing passports. However, the principal role of a consulate lies traditionally in promoting trade—assisting companies to invest and to import and export goods and services both inwardly to their home country and outward to their host country.
Although it is not admitted publicly, like embassies, may gather intelligence information from the assigned country. Contrary to popular belief, many of the staff of consulates may be career diplomats, but they do not have diplomatic immunity unless they are accredited as such. Immunities and privileges for consuls and accredited staff of consulates are limited to actions undertaken in their official capacity and, with respect to the consulate itself, to those required for official duties. In practice, the extension and application of consular privileges and immunities can differ from country to country. Consulates are more numerous than diplomatic missions, such as embassies. Ambassadors are posted only in a foreign nation'
Hiking is the preferred term, in Canada and the United States, for a long, vigorous walk on trails, in the countryside, while the word walking is used for shorter urban walks. On the other hand, in the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, the word "walking" is acceptable to describe all forms of walking, whether it is a walk in the park or backpacking in the Alps; the word hiking is often used in the UK, along with rambling and fell walking. The term bushwalking is endemic to Australia, having been adopted by the Sydney Bush Walkers club in 1927. In New Zealand a long, vigorous walk or hike is called tramping, it is a popular activity with numerous hiking organizations worldwide, studies suggest that all forms of walking have health benefits. In the United States, the Republic of Ireland, United Kingdom, hiking means walking outdoors on a trail, or off trail, for recreational purposes. A day hike refers to a hike. However, in the United Kingdom, the word walking is used, as well as rambling, while walking in mountainous areas is called hillwalking.
In Northern England, Including the Lake District and Yorkshire Dales, fellwalking describes hill or mountain walks, as fell is the common word for both features there. Hiking is sometimes referred to as such; this refers to difficult walking through dense forest, undergrowth, or bushes, where forward progress requires pushing vegetation aside. In extreme cases of bushwhacking, where the vegetation is so dense that human passage is impeded, a machete is used to clear a pathway; the Australian term bushwalking refers to both on and off-trail hiking. Common terms for hiking used by New Zealanders are walking or bushwalking. Trekking is the preferred word used to describe multi-day hiking in the mountainous regions of India, Nepal, North America, South America and the highlands of East Africa. Hiking a long-distance trail from end-to-end is referred to as trekking and as thru-hiking in some places. In North America, multi-day hikes with camping, are referred to as backpacking; the idea of taking a walk in the countryside for pleasure developed in the 18th century, arose because of changing attitudes to the landscape and nature associated with the Romantic movement.
In earlier times walking indicated poverty and was associated with vagrancy. Thomas West, an English priest, popularized the idea of walking for pleasure in his guide to the Lake District of 1778. In the introduction he wrote that he aimed to encourage the taste of visiting the lakes by furnishing the traveller with a Guide. To this end he included various'stations' or viewpoints around the lakes, from which tourists would be encouraged to enjoy the views in terms of their aesthetic qualities. Published in 1778 the book was a major success. Another famous early exponent of walking for pleasure, was the English poet William Wordsworth. In 1790 he embarked on an extended tour of France and Germany, a journey subsequently recorded in his long autobiographical poem The Prelude, his famous poem Tintern Abbey was inspired by a visit to the Wye Valley made during a walking tour of Wales in 1798 with his sister Dorothy Wordsworth. Wordsworth's friend Coleridge was another keen walker and in the autumn of 1799, he and Wordsworth undertook a three weeks tour of the Lake District.
John Keats, who belonged to the next generation of Romantic poets began, in June 1818, a walking tour of Scotland and the Lake District with his friend Charles Armitage Brown. More and more people undertook walking tours through the 19th century, of which the most famous is Robert Louis Stevenson's journey through the Cévennes in France with a donkey, recorded in his Travels with a Donkey. Stevenson published in 1876 his famous essay "Walking Tours"; the subgenre of travel writing produced many classics in the subsequent 20th century. An early American example of a book that describes an extended walking tour is naturalist John Muir's A Thousand Mile Walk to the Gulf, a posthumous published account of a long botanizing walk, undertaken in 1867. Due to industrialisation in England, people began to migrate to the cities where living standards were cramped and unsanitary, they would escape the confines of the city by rambling about in the countryside. However, the land in England around the urban areas of Manchester and Sheffield, was owned and trespass was illegal.
Rambling clubs soon sprang up in the north and began politically campaigning for the legal'right to roam'. One of the first such clubs, was'Sunday Tramps' founded by Leslie White in 1879; the first national grouping, the Federation of Rambling Clubs, was formed in London in 1905 and was patronized by the peerage. Access to Mountains bills, that would have legislated the public's'right to roam' across some private land, were periodically presented to Parliament from 1884 to 1932 without success. In 1932, the Rambler’s Right Movement organized a mass trespass on Kinder Scout in Derbyshire. Despite attempts on the part of the police to prevent the trespass from going ahead it was achieved due to massive publicity; however the Mountain Access Bill, passed in 1939 was opposed by many walkers' organizations, including The Ramblers, who felt that it did not
A bust is a sculpted or cast representation of the upper part of the human figure, depicting a person's head and neck, a variable portion of the chest and shoulders. The piece is supported by a plinth; the bust is a portrait intended to record the appearance of an individual, but may sometimes represent a type. They may be of any medium used for sculpture, such as marble, terracotta, wax or wood. Sculptural portrait heads from classical antiquity, stopping at the neck, are sometimes displayed as busts. However, these are fragments from full-body statues, or were created to be inserted into an existing body, a common Roman practice. Sculpted heads stopping at the neck are sometimes mistakenly called busts; the portrait bust was a Hellenistic Greek invention, though few original Greek examples survive, as opposed to many Roman copies of them. There are four Roman copies as busts of Pericles with the Corinthian helmet, but the Greek original was a full-length bronze statue, they were popular in Roman portraiture.
The Roman tradition may have originated in the tradition of Roman patrician families keeping wax masks death masks, of dead members, in the atrium of the family house. When another family member died, these were worn by people chosen for the appropriate build in procession at the funeral, in front of the propped-up body of the deceased, as an "astonished" Polybius reported, from his long stay in Rome beginning in 167 BC; these seem to have been replaced or supplemented by sculptures. Possession of such imagines maiorum was a requirement for belonging to the Equestrian order. Herma Portrait Belting, Hans, An Anthropology of Images: Picture, Body, 2014, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0691160961, 9780691160962, google books Stewart, Statues in Roman Society: Representation and Response, 2003, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0199240949, 9780199240944, google books Livius.org: Bust gallery of famous ancient Greeks Oxford definition Dictionary.com definition
A parasitic plant is a plant that derives some or all of its nutritional requirement from another living plant. They make up about 1% of angiosperms and are in every biome in the world. All parasitic plants have modified roots, called haustoria, which penetrates the host plants, connecting them to the conductive system – either the xylem, the phloem, or both. For example, plants like Striga or Rhinanthus connect only to the xylem, via xylem bridges. Alternately, plants like Cuscuta and Orobanche connect only to the phloem of the host; this provides them with the ability to extract water and nutrients from the host. Parasitic plants are classified depending on where the parasitic plant latches onto the host and the amount of nutrients it requires; some parasitic plants are able to locate their host plants by detecting chemicals in the air or soil given off by host shoots or roots, respectively. About 4,500 species of parasitic plant in 20 families of flowering plants are known. Parasitic plants are characterized: 1a.
Obligate parasite – a parasite that cannot complete its life cycle without a host. 1b. Facultative parasite – a parasite that can complete its life cycle independent of a host. 2a. Stem parasite – a parasite that attaches to the host stem. 2b. Root parasite – a parasite that attaches to the host root. 3a. Hemiparasite – a plant parasitic under natural conditions, but photosynthetic to some degree. Hemiparasites may just obtain mineral nutrients from the host plant. 3b. Holoparasite - a parasitic plant that derives all of its fixed carbon from the host plant. Lacking chlorophyll, holoparasites are colors other than green. For hemiparasites, one from each of the three sets of terms can be applied to the same species, e.g. Nuytsia floribunda is an obligate root hemiparasite. Rhinanthus is a facultative root hemiparasite. Mistletoe is an obligate stem hemiparasite. Holoparasites are always obligate so only two terms are needed, e.g. Dodder is a stem holoparasite. Hydnora spp. are root holoparasites. Plants considered holoparasites include broomrape, dodder and the Hydnoraceae.
Plants considered hemiparasites include Castilleja, Western Australian Christmas tree, yellow rattle. Parasitic behavior evolved in angiosperms 12-13 times independently, a classic example of convergent evolution. 1% of all angiosperm species are parasitic, with a large degree of host dependence. The taxonomic family Orobanchaceae is the only family that contains both holoparasitic and hemiparasitic species, making it a model group for studying the evolutionary rise of parasitism; the remaining groups contain only holoparasites. The evolutionary event which gave rise to parasitism in plants was the development of haustoria; the first, most ancestral, haustoria are thought to be similar to that of the facultative hemiparasites within Tryphysaria, lateral haustoria develop along the surface of the roots in these species. Evolution led to the development of terminal or primary haustoria at the tip of the juvenile radicle, seen in obligate hemiparasitic species within Striga. Lastly, obligate holoparasitic behavior originated with the loss of the photosynthetic process, seen in the genus Orobanche.
To maximize resources, many parasitic plants have evolved self-incompatibility, to avoid parasitizing themselves. Others such as Triphysaria avoid parasitizing other members of their species, but some parasitic plants have no such limits; the albino redwood is a mutant Sequoia sempervirens. Parasitic plants germinate in a variety of ways; these means can either be chemical or mechanical and the means used by seeds depends on whether or not the parasites are root parasites or stem parasites. Most parasitic plants need to germinate in close proximity to their host plants because their seeds are limited in the amount of resources necessary to survive without nutrients from their host plants. Resources are limited due in part to the fact that most parasitic plants are not able to use autotrophic nutrition to establish the early stages of seeding. Root parasitic plant seeds tend to use chemical cues for germination. In order for germination to occur, seeds need to be close to their host plant. For example, the seeds of witchweed need to be within 3 to 4 millimeters of its host in order to pick up chemical signals in the soil to signal germination.
This range is important. Chemical compound cues sensed by parasitic plant seeds are from host plant root exudates that are leached in close proximity from the host’s root system into the surrounding soil; these chemical cues are a variety of compounds that are unstable and degraded in soil and are present within a radius of a few meters of the plant exuding them. Parasitic plants germinate and follow a concentration gradient of these compounds in the soil toward the host plants if close enough; these compounds are called strigolactones. Strigolactone stimulates ethylene biosynthesis in seeds causing them to germinate. There are a variety of chemical germination stimulants. Strigol was the first of the germination stimulants to be isolated, it was isolated from a non-host cotton plant and has been found in true host plants such as corn and millets. The stimulants are plant specific, examples of other germination stimulants include sorgolactone
A mountain pass is a navigable route through a mountain range or over a ridge. Since many of the world's mountain ranges have presented formidable barriers to travel, passes have played a key role in trade and both human and animal migration throughout Earth's history. At lower elevations it may be called a hill pass; the highest vehicle-accessible pass in the world appears to be Mana Pass, located in the Himalayas on the border between India and Tibet, China. Mountain passes make use of a gap, saddle, or col. A topographic saddle is analogous to the mathematical concept of a saddle surface, with a saddle point marking the highest point between two valleys and the lowest point along a ridge. On a topographic map, passes are characterized by contour lines with an hourglass shape, which indicates a low spot between two higher points. Passes are found just above the source of a river, constituting a drainage divide. A pass may be short, consisting of steep slopes to the top of the pass, or may be a valley many kilometres long, whose highest point might only be identifiable by surveying.
Roads have long been built through passes, as well as railways more recently. Some high and rugged passes may have tunnels bored underneath a nearby mountainside to allow faster traffic flow throughout the year; the top of a pass is the only flat ground in the area, is a high vantage point. In some cases this makes it a preferred site for buildings. If a national border follows a mountain range, a pass over the mountains is on the border, there may be a border control or customs station, a military post as well. For instance Argentina and Chile share the world's third-longest international border, 5,300 kilometres long; the border runs north -- south with a total of 42 mountain passes. On a road over a pass, it is customary to have a small roadside sign giving the name of the pass and its elevation above mean sea level; as well as offering easy travel between valleys, passes provide a route between two mountain tops with a minimum of descent. As a result, it is common for tracks to meet at a pass.
Passes traditionally were places for trade routes, cultural exchange, military expeditions etc. A typical example is the Brenner pass in the Alps; some mountain passes above the tree line have problems with snow drift in the winter. This might be alleviated by building the road a few meters above the ground, which will make snow blow off the road. There are many words for pass in the English-speaking world. In the United States, pass is common in the West, the word gap is common in the southern Appalachians, notch in parts of New England, saddle in northern Idaho. Scotland has the Gaelic term bealach. In the Lake District of north-west England, the term hause is used, although the term pass is common—one distinction is that a pass can refer to a route, as well as the highest part thereof, while a hause is that highest part flattened somewhat into a high-level plateau. There are thousands of named passes around the world, some of which are well-known, such as the Great St. Bernard Pass at 2,473 metres in the Alps, the Chang La at 5,360 metres, the Khardung La at 5,359 metres in Jammu and Kashmir, India.
The roads at Mana Pass at 5,610 metres and Marsimik La at 5,582 metres, on and near the China-India border appear to be world's two highest motorable passes. Khunjerab Pass between Pakistan and China at 4,693 metres is a high-altitude motorable mountain pass. Media related to Mountain passes at Wikimedia Commons