A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com
Sierra Maestra is a mountain range that runs westward across the south of the old Oriente Province in southeast Cuba, rising abruptly from the coast. The Sierra Maestra itself is located in Santiago de Cuba Province and in Granma Province; some view it as a series of connecting ranges. The Sierra Maestra is the highest area of Cuba, it is rich in minerals copper, manganese and iron. At 1,974 m, Pico Turquino is the range's highest point; the Sierra Maestra has a long history of guerrilla warfare, starting with the resistance of the Taínos under Guamá, the Cimarrón Neo-Taíno nations escaped slave cultures, the Ten Years' War and the Cuban War of Independence, various minor conflicts such as the Race War of 1912, the uprisings of Antonio Guiteras against Gerardo Machado and Fulgencio Batista. After Fidel Castro returned to Cuba in 1956 from exile in Mexico, he and the few other survivors from the failed 1953 attack on Moncada Barracks hid out in Sierra Maestra. There they succeeded in expanding their 26th of July Movement, starting a revolution throughout the region.
They built up guerrilla columns, in collaboration with other groups in the central provinces, Escopeteros on the foot-hills and plains, the urban resistance overthrew Fulgencio Batista on 1 January 1959. The ivory-billed woodpecker, now extinct, was last seen in the Sierra Maestra in 1998. Geography of Cuba Turquino National Park Notes SourcesAchenbach and Peter Essic 2006 The next big one and special supplement: Earthquake risk Zones. Nation Geographic 209, 120-147 and map. Anderson, Jon Lee 1997. Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life. Bantam Press, ISBN 0-553-40664-7 or Grove Press, ISBN 0-8021-1600-0 AP Latin America January 22, 2005 Ship Begins Sound Wave Research Off Yucatan Braddock, Daniel M. 1958 Revolutionary Activity in Western Oriente Province. Despatch From the Embassy in Cuba to the Department of State. No. 656 Havana, February 18, 1958 http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/cable/cable-2-18-58.htm Carney, Bob revised July 11, 2005 Explorations: Gulf of Mexico: Background Geological Setting.
Louisiana State University National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | U. S. Department of Commerce http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/02mexico/background/geology/geology.html Castellanos Garcia, Gerardo 1927. "Tierras y Glorias de Oriente" Editorial Hermes Havana p. 155. Castro Medel and Aldo Daniel Naranjo 2003 490 aniversario Ciudad India y Rebelde. La Demajagua https://web.archive.org/web/20051023220835/http://www.lademajagua.co.cu/infgran778.htm Cazanas X.. C.. A. 1998. El deposito volcanogenico de Cu-Zn-Pb-Au El Cobre, Cuba Oriental: Estructura y mineralogía The Cu-Zn-Pb-Au volcanogenic deposit El Cobre, Western Cuba: Structure and mineralogy Source: Acta Geologica Hispanica 33. 277-333. Cazanas X.. C.. C.. A.. Rico-Gray V.. Journal of Biogeography 28 535-542 Duarte Oropesa, José 1989 Historiología Cubana. Ediciones Universal Miami Vol 1. ISBN 0-89729-490-4, All volumes ISBN 84-399-2580-8 Enamorado, Calixto 1917 Tiempos. Heroicos Persecucion. Rambla and Company, Havana. Guevara, Ernesto Che 1958 Pino del Agua, II.
Che Guevara http://chehasta.narod.ru/pda2.htm. James, Daniel 2001 Che Guevara. Cooper Square Press. New York ISBN 0-8154-1144-8 Kueny, J. A. 1998 An assessment of protected karst landscapes in the Caribbean Caribbean Geography 9. 87-100. Lescaille Durand, Lisván 2003 Puede ser el cacique Guamá. Cuba Una identità in movimento https://web.archive.org/web/20070519175949/http://freeweb.supereva.com/carlo260/guama.html?p Marrero, Levi 1981 5th edition "Geografia de Cuba" La Moderna Poesia, Coral Gables Florida. Maso, Calixto C. 1998 Historia De Cuba. Ediciones Universal. 3rd Edition Miami ISBN 0-89729-875-6 McGuire, Bill 2005 Global disaster paves way for global thinking. Geographical. 77 14-18. Mora, Pedro 2003 Aniversario 45 de Pino del Agua II. Importante golpe de la guerrilla. Verde Olivo https://web.archive.org/web/20030826173750/http://www.venceremos.cubaweb.cu/Textos/importante_golpe_dela_guerrilla_verde_olivo.htm Morán Arce, Lucas 1980 La revolución cubana, 1953–1959: Una versión rebelde. Imprenta Universitaria, Universidad Católica de Puerto Rico.
Ponce, Puerto Rico. ISBN B0000EDAW9 MVC 2005 Investiga Cuba restos de meteorite Notimex. El Universal Viernes 11 de noviembre de 2005 El Universal Online, México. Https://web.archive.org/web/20051125004751/http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/articulos/26483.html Naranjo Tamayo, Aldo Daniel and
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Cuba the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean meet, it is east of the Yucatán Peninsula, south of both the U. S. state of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Haiti and north of both Jamaica and the Cayman Islands. Havana is capital; the area of the Republic of Cuba is 110,860 square kilometres. The island of Cuba is the largest island in Cuba and in the Caribbean, with an area of 105,006 square kilometres, the second-most populous after Hispaniola, with over 11 million inhabitants; the territory, now Cuba was inhabited by the Ciboney Taíno people from the 4th millennium BC until Spanish colonisation in the 15th century. From the 15th century, it was a colony of Spain until the Spanish–American War of 1898, when Cuba was occupied by the United States and gained nominal independence as a de facto United States protectorate in 1902.
As a fragile republic, in 1940 Cuba attempted to strengthen its democratic system, but mounting political radicalization and social strife culminated in a coup and subsequent dictatorship under Fulgencio Batista in 1952. Open corruption and oppression under Batista's rule led to his ousting in January 1959 by the 26th of July Movement, which afterwards established communist rule under the leadership of Fidel Castro. Since 1965, the state has been governed by the Communist Party of Cuba; the country was a point of contention during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, a nuclear war nearly broke out during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. Cuba is one of few Marxist–Leninist socialist states, where the role of the vanguard Communist Party is enshrined in the Constitution. Independent observers have accused the Cuban government of numerous human rights abuses, including arbitrary imprisonment. Culturally, Cuba is considered part of Latin America, it is a multiethnic country whose people and customs derive from diverse origins, including the aboriginal Taíno and Ciboney peoples, the long period of Spanish colonialism, the introduction of African slaves and a close relationship with the Soviet Union in the Cold War.
Cuba is a sovereign state and a founding member of the United Nations, the G77, the Non-Aligned Movement, the African and Pacific Group of States, ALBA and Organization of American States. The country is a middle power in world affairs, it has one of the world's only planned economies, its economy is dominated by the exports of sugar, tobacco and skilled labor. According to the Human Development Index, Cuba has high human development and is ranked the eighth highest in North America, though 67th in the world, it ranks in some metrics of national performance, including health care and education. It is the only country in the world to meet the conditions of sustainable development put forth by the WWF. Historians believe the name Cuba comes from the Taíno language, however "its exact derivation unknown"; the exact meaning of the name is unclear but it may be translated either as'where fertile land is abundant', or'great place'. Fringe theory writers who believe that Christopher Columbus was Portuguese state that Cuba was named by Columbus for the town of Cuba in the district of Beja in Portugal.
Before the arrival of the Spanish, Cuba was inhabited by three distinct tribes of indigenous peoples of the Americas. The Taíno, the Guanahatabey and the Ciboney people; the ancestors of the Ciboney migrated from the mainland of South America, with the earliest sites dated to 5,000 BP. The Taíno arrived from Hispanola sometime in the 3rd century A. D; when Columbus arrived they were the dominant culture in Cuba, having an estimated population of 150,000. The Taíno were farmers, while the Ciboney were farmers as well as hunter-gatherers. After first landing on an island called Guanahani, Bahamas, on 12 October 1492, Christopher Columbus commanded his three ships: La Pinta, La Niña and the Santa María, to land on Cuba's northeastern coast on 28 October 1492. Columbus claimed the island for the new Kingdom of Spain and named it Isla Juana after Juan, Prince of Asturias. In 1511, the first Spanish settlement was founded by Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar at Baracoa. Other towns soon followed, including San Cristobal de la Habana, founded in 1515, which became the capital.
The native Taíno were forced to work under the encomienda system, which resembled a feudal system in Medieval Europe. Within a century the indigenous people were wiped out due to multiple factors Eurasian infectious diseases, to which they had no natural resistance, aggravated by harsh conditions of the repressive colonial subjugation. In 1529, a measles outbreak in Cuba killed two-thirds of those few natives who had survived smallpox. On 18 May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto departed from Havana at the head of some 600 followers into a vast expedition through the Southeastern United States, starting at La Florida, in search of gold, treasure and power. On 1 September 1548, Dr. Gonzalo Perez de Angulo was appointed governor of Cuba, he arrived in Santiago, Cuba on 4 November 1549 and declared the liberty of all natives. He became Cuba's first permanent governor to reside in Havana instead of Santiago, he built Havana's first church made of maso
Turquino National Park
Turquino National Park known as Sierra Maestra National Park, is a national park in Santiago de Cuba Province, southeastern Cuba. The park is located in the Sierra Maestra mountain range, it is 50 km west of Guamá, in Guamá Municipality of Santiago de Cuba Province. The park protects a total area of 229.38 km2. It was established on January 8, 1980, with the passing of bill 27/1980; the park was named for the highest point in Cuba at 1,975 m in elevation. Other mountains in Turquino National Park include Pico Cuba, Pico Real, Pico Suecia; the park has tropical forest habitats, including the lower elevation Cuban moist forests and higher elevation Cuban pine forests ecoregions. The park's area includes a section of Cuba's southeastern coast habitat, at the beach of Marea del Portillo. National parks of Cuba Geography of Santiago de Cuba Province
Turquoise is an opaque, blue-to-green mineral, a hydrated phosphate of copper and aluminium, with the chemical formula CuAl648·4H2O. It is rare and valuable in finer grades and has been prized as a gemstone and ornamental stone for thousands of years owing to its unique hue. In recent times, turquoise has been devalued, like most other opaque gems, by the introduction onto the market of treatments and synthetics; the gemstone has been known by many names. Pliny the Elder referred to the mineral as callais and the Aztecs knew it as chalchihuitl; the word turquoise dates to the 17th century and is derived from the French turquois meaning "Turkish" because the mineral was first brought to Europe through Turkey, from mines in the historical Khorasan Province of Persia. The finest of turquoise reaches a maximum Mohs hardness of just under 6, or more than window glass. Characteristically a cryptocrystalline mineral, turquoise never forms single crystals, all of its properties are variable. X-ray diffraction testing shows its crystal system to be triclinic.
With lower hardness comes lower specific gravity and greater porosity. The lustre of turquoise is waxy to subvitreous, its transparency is opaque, but may be semitranslucent in thin sections. Colour is as variable as the mineral's other properties, ranging from white to a powder blue to a sky blue, from a blue-green to a yellowish green; the blue is attributed to idiochromatic copper while the green may be the result of either iron impurities or dehydration. The refractive index of turquoise is 1.61 or 1.62. A reading of 1.61–1.65 has been taken from rare single crystals. An absorption spectrum may be obtained with a hand-held spectroscope, revealing a line at 432 nm and a weak band at 460 nm. Under longwave ultraviolet light, turquoise may fluoresce green, yellow or bright blue. Turquoise is insoluble in all but heated hydrochloric acid, its streak is a pale bluish white and its fracture is conchoidal, leaving a waxy lustre. Despite its low hardness relative to other gems, turquoise takes a good polish.
Turquoise may be peppered with flecks of pyrite or interspersed with dark, spidery limonite veining. As a secondary mineral, turquoise forms by the action of percolating acidic aqueous solutions during the weathering and oxidation of pre-existing minerals. For example, the copper may come from primary copper sulfides such as chalcopyrite or from the secondary carbonates malachite or azurite. Climate factors appear to play an important role as turquoise is found in arid regions, filling or encrusting cavities and fractures in highly altered volcanic rocks with associated limonite and other iron oxides. In the Southwestern United States turquoise is invariably associated with the weathering products of copper sulfide deposits in or around potassium-feldspar-bearing porphyritic intrusives. In some occurrences alunite, potassium aluminium sulfate, is a prominent secondary mineral. Turquoise mineralization is restricted to a shallow depth of less than 20 metres, although it does occur along deeper fracture zones where secondary solutions have greater penetration or the depth to the water table is greater.
Turquoise assumes no definite external shape. Crystals at the microscopic scale, are exceedingly rare; the form is vein or fracture filling, nodular, or botryoidal in habit. Stalactite forms have been reported. Turquoise may pseudomorphously replace feldspar, other minerals, or fossils. Odontolite is fossil bone or ivory, traditionally thought to have been altered by turquoise or similar phosphate minerals such as the iron phosphate vivianite. Intergrowth with other secondary copper minerals such as chrysocolla is common. Turquoise was among the first gems to be mined, many historic sites have been depleted, though some are still worked to this day; these are all small-scale operations seasonal owing to the limited scope and remoteness of the deposits. Most are worked by hand with no mechanization. However, turquoise is recovered as a byproduct of large-scale copper mining operations in the United States. Iran has been an important source of turquoise for at least 2,000 years, it was named by Iranians "pērōzah" meaning "victory", the Arabs called it "fayrūzah", pronounced in Modern Persian as "fīrūzeh".
In Iranian architecture, the blue turquoise was used to cover the domes of palaces because its intense blue colour was a symbol of heaven on earth. This deposit is blue and turns green when heated due to dehydration, it is restricted to a mine-riddled region in Nishapur, the 2,012 m mountain peak of Ali-mersai near Mashhad, the capital of Khorasan Province, Iran. A weathered and broken trachyte is host to the turquoise, found both in situ between layers of limonite and sandstone and amongst the scree at the mountain's base; these workings are the oldest known, together with those of the Sinai Peninsula. Iran has turquoise mines in Semnan and Kerman provinces. Since at least the First Dynasty in ancient Egypt, before turquoise was us