Stuffing or filling is an edible substance or mixture consisting of small cut-up pieces of bread or a similar starch and served as a side dish or used to fill a cavity in another food item while cooking. Many foods may be stuffed, including eggs, seafood and vegetables, but chickens and turkey are the most common. Stuffing serves the dual purpose of helping to keep the meat moist while adding to the mix of flavours of both the stuffing and the thing it is stuffed in. Poultry stuffing consists of dried breadcrumbs, celery, salt and other spices and herbs, a popular herb being sage. Giblets are used. Popular additions in the United Kingdom include dried fruits and nuts, chestnuts, it is not known. The earliest documentary evidence is the Roman cookbook, Apicius De Re Coquinaria, which contains recipes for stuffed chicken, dormouse and pig. Most of the stuffings described consist of vegetables and spices, spelt, contain chopped liver and other organ meat. Names for stuffing include "farce", "stuffing", "forcemeat", more in the United States.
In addition to stuffing the body cavity of animals, including birds and mammals, various cuts of meat may be stuffed after they have been deboned or a pouch has been cut into them. Popular recipes include stuffed chicken legs, stuffed pork chops, stuffed breast of veal, as well as the traditional holiday stuffed turkey or goose. Many types of vegetables are suitable for stuffing, after their seeds or flesh has been removed. Tomatoes, vegetable marrows may be prepared in this way. Cabbages and similar vegetables can be stuffed or wrapped around a filling, they are blanched first, in order to make their leaves more pliable. The interior may be replaced by stuffing, or small amounts of stuffing may be inserted between the individual leaves, it is sometimes claimed that ancient medieval cooks stuffed animals with other animals. An anonymous Andalusian cookbook from the 13th century includes a recipe for a ram stuffed with small birds. A similar recipe for a camel stuffed with sheep stuffed with bustards stuffed with carp stuffed with eggs is mentioned in T.
C. Boyle's book Water Music. British celebrity chef Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall has championed the ten-bird roast, calling it "one of the most spectacular and delicious roasts you can lay before your loved ones at Yuletide". A large turkey is stuffed with a goose, mallard, guinea fowl, pheasant, partridge and woodcock; the roast feeds 30 people and, as well as the ten birds, includes stuffing made from two pounds of sausage meat and half a pound of streaky bacon, along with sage, port and red wine. In the United States and eastern Canada, multi-bird dishes are sometimes served on special occasions. See gooducken and turducken. Anything can serve as a stuffing. Many popular Anglo-American stuffings contain bread or cereals together with vegetables and spices, eggs. Middle Eastern vegetable stuffings may be based on seasoned rice, on minced meat, or a combination thereof. Other stuffings may contain only herbs; some types of stuffing contain sausage meat, or forcemeat, while vegetarian stuffings sometimes contain tofu.
Roast pork is accompanied by sage and onion stuffing in England. Oysters are used in one traditional stuffing for Thanksgiving; these may be combined with mashed potatoes, for a heavy stuffing. Fruits and dried fruits can be added to stuffing including apples, dried prunes, raisins. In England, a stuffing is sometimes made of minced pork shoulder seasoned with various ingredients, onion, chestnuts, dried apricots, dried cranberries etc; the stuffing mixture may be served as a side dish. This may still be called stuffing or it may be called dressing; the United States Department of Agriculture states that cooking animals with a body cavity filled with stuffing can present potential food safety issues. These can occur because when the meat reaches a safe temperature, the stuffing inside can still harbor bacteria. For turkeys, for instance, the USDA recommends cooking stuffing/dressing separately from the bird and not buying pre-stuffed birds
A fajita in Tex-Mex cuisine is any grilled meat, served as a taco on a flour or corn tortilla. The term referred to skirt steak, the cut of beef first used in the dish. Popular meats today include chicken and other cuts of beef, as well as vegetables instead of meat. In restaurants, the meat is cooked with onions and bell peppers. Popular condiments include shredded lettuce, sour cream, salsa, pico de gallo, shredded cheese, refried beans, diced tomatoes. Arrachera is a northern Mexican variant of the dish. Fajita is a Tex-Mex, Texan-Mexican American or Tejano, diminutive term for little strips of meat cut from the beef skirt, the most common cut used to make fajitas; the word fajita is not known to have appeared in print until 1971, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. Although fajita referred to these strips of beef skirt, fajitas now are made with a variety of fillings, such as green/red/yellow peppers, onions and jalapeno peppers; the first culinary evidence of the fajitas with the cut of meat, the cooking style, the Spanish nickname goes back as far as the 1930s in the ranch lands of South and West Texas.
During cattle roundups, cows were butchered to feed the hands. Throwaway items such as the hide, the head, the entrails, meat trimmings such as the skirt were given to the Mexican cowboys called vaqueros as part of their pay. Hearty border dishes like barbacoa de cabeza and fajitas or arracheras have their roots in this practice. Considering the limited number of skirts per carcass and the fact the meat was not available commercially, the fajita tradition remained regional and obscure for many years only familiar to vaqueros and their families; the food was popularized by various businesses such as Ninfa's in Houston, the Hyatt Regency in Austin, numerous restaurants in San Antonio. In southern Arizona, the term was unknown except as a cut of meat until the 1990s, when Mexican fast food restaurants started using the word in their marketing. In recent years, fajitas have become popular at American casual dining restaurants as well as in home cooking. In many restaurants, the fajita meat and vegetables is brought to the table sizzling loudly on a metal platter or skillet, along with warmed tortillas and condiments such as guacamole, pico de gallo, salsa, shredded cheese, and/or sour cream.
Antojitos Burrito Taco Encyclopedia of American Food and Drink version of fajita origins Cookeryonline - Fajita Page
Mincing is a food preparation technique in which food ingredients are finely divided into uniform pieces. Minced food is in smaller pieces than diced or chopped foods, is prepared with a chef's knife or food processor, or in the case of meat by a specialised meat grinder. For a true mince, the effect is to create a bonded mixture of ingredients and a soft or pasty texture. However, in many recipes, the intention is for firmer foods such as onions and other root vegetables to remain in individual chunks when minced. Flavoring ingredients such as garlic and fresh herbs may be minced in this way to distribute flavor more evenly in a mixture. Additionally bruising of the tissue can release juices and oils to deliver flavors uniformly in a sauce. Mincemeat tarts/mince pies and pâtés employ mincing in the preparation of mouldable paste. Meat is minced and this cooking technique is used in Greek cuisine
The orange is the fruit of the citrus species Citrus × sinensis in the family Rutaceae. It is called sweet orange, to distinguish it from the related Citrus × aurantium, referred to as bitter orange; the sweet orange reproduces asexually. The orange is a hybrid between mandarin; the chloroplast genome, therefore the maternal line, is that of pomelo. The sweet orange has had its full genome sequenced. Sweet orange originated in ancient China and the earliest mention of the sweet orange was in Chinese literature in 314 BC; as of 1987, orange trees were found to be the most cultivated fruit tree in the world. Orange trees are grown in tropical and subtropical climates for their sweet fruit; the fruit of the orange tree can be processed for its juice or fragrant peel. As of 2012, sweet oranges accounted for 70% of citrus production. In 2014, 70.9 million tonnes of oranges were grown worldwide, with Brazil producing 24% of the world total followed by China and India. All citrus trees belong to the single genus Citrus and remain entirely interfertile.
This includes grapefruits, limes and various other types and hybrids. As the interfertility of oranges and other citrus has produced numerous hybrids and cultivars, bud mutations have been selected, citrus taxonomy is controversial, confusing or inconsistent; the fruit of any citrus tree is considered a kind of modified berry. Different names have been given to the many varieties of the genus. Orange applies to the sweet orange – Citrus sinensis Osbeck; the orange tree is an evergreen, flowering tree, with an average height of 9 to 10 m, although some old specimens can reach 15 m. Its oval leaves, alternately arranged, have crenulate margins. Sweet oranges grow in a range of different sizes, shapes varying from spherical to oblong. Inside and attached to the rind is a porous white tissue, the white, bitter mesocarp or albedo; the orange contains a number of distinct carpels inside about ten, each delimited by a membrane, containing many juice-filled vesicles and a few seeds. When unripe, the fruit is green.
The grainy irregular rind of the ripe fruit can range from bright orange to yellow-orange, but retains green patches or, under warm climate conditions, remains green. Like all other citrus fruits, the sweet orange is non-climacteric; the Citrus sinensis group is subdivided into four classes with distinct characteristics: common oranges, blood or pigmented oranges, navel oranges, acidless oranges. Other citrus groups known as oranges are: Mandarin orange is an original species of citrus, is a progenitor of the common orange. Bitter orange known as Seville orange, sour orange, bigarade orange and marmalade orange. Like the sweet orange, it is a pomelo x mandarin hybrid, but arose from a distinct hybridization event. Bergamot orange, grown in Italy for its peel, producing a primary essence for perfumes used to flavor Earl Grey tea, it is a hybrid of bitter orange x lemon. Trifoliate orange, sometimes included in the genus, it serves as a rootstock for sweet orange trees and other Citrus cultivars.
An enormous number of cultivars have, like a mix of pomelo and mandarin ancestry. Some cultivars are mandarin-pomelo hybrids, bred from the same parents as the sweet orange. Other cultivars are sweet orange x mandarin hybrids. Mandarin traits include being smaller and oblate, easier to peel, less acidic. Pomelo traits include a thick white albedo, more attached to the segments. Orange trees are grafted; the bottom of the tree, including the roots and trunk, is called rootstock, while the fruit-bearing top has two different names: budwood and scion. The word orange derives from the Sanskrit word for "orange tree", which in turn derives from a Dravidian root word; the Sanskrit word reached European languages through Persian نارنگ and its Arabic derivative نارنج. The word entered Late Middle English in the fourteenth century via Old French orenge; the French word, in turn, comes from Old Provençal auranja, based on Arabic nāranj. In several languages, the initial n present in earlier forms of the word dropped off because it may have been mistaken as part of an indefinite article ending in an n sound—in French, for example, une norenge may have been heard as une orenge.
This linguistic change is called juncture loss. The color was named after the fruit, the first recorded use of orange as a color name in English was in 1512; as Portuguese merchants were the first to introduce the sweet orange to some regions of Europe, in several modern Indo-European languages the fruit has been named after them. Some examples are Albanian portokall, Bulgarian портокал, Greek πορτοκάλι, Macedonian portokal, Persian پرتقال, Turkish portakal and Romanian portocală. Related names can be found in other languages, such as Arabic البرتقال, Georgian ფორთოხალი and Amharic birtukan. In
Food Lover's Companion
The New Food Lover’s Companion—currently in its Fifth Edition—is a seminal work in the culinary field. The book defines over 7,000 culinary terms in its 800+ pages, along with numerous conversion tables; each edition is a significant expansion on the previous edition in number of entries and the coverage of the various appendices. The main section of the work is an A-to-Z list of defined culinary terminology, followed by a series of appendices; the Second Edition is a searchable source text at Epicurious, the Third Edition is a searchable source text at Answers.com. Sharon Tyler Herbst—the primary author—wrote 16 food and beverage related books before her death on January 26, 2007, her husband Ron—who writes about wine and cheese—finished editing the Fourth Edition after her death and is credited as the coauthor. Bon Appetit hailed the book as “one of the best reference books we’ve seen, a must for every cook’s library”, the New York Times described it “As thick and as satisfying as a well-stuffed sandwich”.
Famous chef Emeril Lagasse called it his favorite book, it is required reading at the New England Culinary Institute. After the 2007 edition was published, Ron Herbst and the staff of Barron's Educational Series drastically reorganized the book, breaking out much of the material into specialized glossaries on subjects like chocolate, liqueurs and spices; this edition was published in hardcover as The Deluxe Food Lover's Companion and included a marker ribbon bound into the spine. The 2013 fifth edition received a similar treatment in April 2015. In the deluxe editions, some of these have been folded into the glossary sections. Ingredient Equivalents – Weight to volume conversions Substituting Ingredients Pan Substitution Chart High-Altitude Baking Adjustments Boiling Point of Water at Various Altitudes General Temperature Equivalents Hand Test for Grilling Temperatures Oven Temperatures Fahrenheit/Celsius Conversion Formulas Microwave Oven Conversion Chart Recommended Safe Cooking Temperatures Candymaking Cold-Water Tests Frying Temperatures Smoke Points of Popular Oils Fatty Acid Profiles of Popular Oils U.
S. Measurement Equivalents Wine and Spirit Bottle Sizes Approximate Metric Equivalents Metric Conversion Formulas Food Guide Pyramid What's a Serving? Food Label Terms A Guide to Food Labels Pasta Glossary British and American Food and Cooking Terms Seasoning Suggestions Meat Charts Food Additives Directory Larousse Gastronomique Le Répertoire de la Cuisine Food Lover’s Companion, 3rd Ed. at Answers.com
In cooking, a sauce is a liquid, cream, or semi-solid food, served on or used in preparing other foods. Most sauces are not consumed by themselves. Sauce is a French word taken from the Latin salsa, meaning salted; the oldest recorded European sauce is garum, the fish sauce used by the Ancient Greeks. Sauces need a liquid component. Sauces are an essential element in cuisines all over the world. Sauces may be used for savory dishes, they may be prepared and served cold, like mayonnaise, prepared cold but served lukewarm like pesto and served warm like bechamel or cooked and served cold like apple sauce. They may be freshly prepared by the cook in restaurants, but today many sauces are sold premade and packaged like Worcestershire sauce, HP Sauce, soy sauce or ketchup. Sauces for salad are called salad dressing. Sauces made by deglazing a pan are called pan sauces. A chef who specializes in making sauces is called a saucier. Sauces used in traditional Japanese cuisine are based on shōyu, miso or dashi.
Ponzu, citrus-flavored soy sauce, yakitori no tare, sweetened rich soy sauce, are examples of shōyu-based sauces. Miso-based sauces include gomamiso, miso with ground sesame, amamiso, sweetened miso. In modern Japanese cuisine, the word "sauce" refers to Worcestershire sauce, introduced in the 19th century and modified to suit Japanese tastes. Tonkatsu and yakisoba sauces are based on this sauce. Japanese sauce or wasabi sauce is used on sushi and sashimi or mixed with soy sauce to make wasabi-joyu; some sauces in Chinese cuisine are soy sauce, hoisin sauce, sweet bean sauce, chili sauces, oyster sauce, sweet and sour sauce. Korean cuisine uses sauces such as doenjang, samjang and soy sauce. Southeast Asian cuisines, such as Thai and Vietnamese cuisine use fish sauce, made from fermented fish. Indian cuisines use sauces such as tomato-based sauces with varying spice combinations, tamarind sauce, coconut milk-/paste-based sauces, chutneys. There are substantial regional variations in Indian cuisine, but many sauces use a seasoned mix of onion and garlic paste as the base of various gravies and sauces.
Various cooking oils, ghee and/or cream are regular ingredients in Indian sauces. Filipino cuisine uses "toyomansi" as well as different varieties of suka, patis and banana ketchup, among others. Indonesian cuisine uses typical sauces such as kecap manis, bumbu kacang and tauco, while popular hot and spicy sauces are sambal, dabu-dabu and rica-rica. In traditional British cuisine, gravy is a sauce used on roast dinner; the sole survivor of the medieval bread-thickened sauces, bread sauce is one of the oldest sauces in British cooking. Apple sauce, mint sauce and horseradish sauce are used on meat. Redcurrant jelly, mint jelly, white sauce may be used. Salad cream is sometimes used on salads. Ketchup and brown sauce are used on fast-food type dishes. Strong English mustard is used on various foods, as is Worcestershire sauce. Custard is a popular dessert sauce. Other popular sauces include mushroom sauce, marie rose sauce, whisky sauce, Albert sauce and cheddar sauce. In contemporary British cuisine, owing to the wide diversity of British society today, there are many sauces that are of British origin but based upon the cuisine of other countries former colonies such as India.
Sauces in French cuisine date back to the Middle Ages. There were many hundreds of sauces in the culinary repertoire. In cuisine classique, sauces were a major defining characteristic of French cuisine. In the early 19th century, the chef Marie-Antoine Carême created an extensive list of sauces, many of which were original recipes, it is unknown how many sauces Carême is responsible for. The cream sauce, in its most popular form around the world, was concurrently created by another chef, Dennis Leblanc, working in the same kitchen as Carême. Carême considered the four grandes sauces to be espagnole, velouté, béchamel, from which a large variety of petites sauces could be composed. In the early 20th century, the chef Auguste Escoffier refined Carême's list of basic sauces in the four editions of his classic Le Guide Culinaire and its abridged English translation A Guide to Modern Cookery, he dropped allemande as he considered it a variation of velouté, added hollandaise and sauce tomate, defining the five fundamental "mother sauces" still used today: Sauce béchamel, milk-based sauce, thickened with a white roux Sauce espagnole, a fortified brown veal stock sauce, thickened with a brown roux Sauce velouté, light stock-based sauce, thickened with a roux or a liaison, a mixture of egg yolks and cream Sauce hollandaise, an emulsion of egg yolk and lemon Sauce tomate, tomato-basedA sauce, derived from one of the mother sauces by augmenting with additional ingredients is sometimes called a "daughter sauce" or "secondary sauce".
Most sauces used in classical cuisine are daughter sauces. For example, béchamel can be made into Mornay by the addition of grated cheese, espag
Hot sauce known as chili sauce or pepper sauce, is any condiment, seasoning, or salsa made from chili peppers and other ingredients. A popular addition to different types of food, hot sauce allows individuals to enhance the flavor of their meals. Many commercial varieties of mass-produced chili sauce exist; some commercially produced chili sauces are canned, with red tomato, processed into a pulp used as the primary ingredient. The H. J. Heinz Company is one major producer of chili sauces. In the United States, commercially produced chili sauces are assigned various grades per their quality; these grades include U. S. Grade A, U. S. Grade C and Substandard. Criteria in food grading for chili sauces in the U. S. includes coloration, character, absence of defects and flavor. Humans have used other hot spices for thousands of years. Inhabitants of Mexico, Central America and South America had chili peppers more than 6,000 years ago. Within decades of contact with Spain and Portugal in the 16th century, the American plant was carried across Europe and into Africa and Asia, altered through selective breeding.
One of the first commercially available bottled hot sauces in America appeared in 1807 in Massachusetts. Few of the early brands from the 1800s survive to this day, however. Tabasco sauce is the earliest recognizable brand in the United States hot sauce industry, appearing in 1868; as of 2010, it was the number 13 best-selling seasoning in the United States preceded by Frank's RedHot Sauce in 12th place, the sauce first used to create buffalo wings. Many recipes for hot sauces exist. Many hot sauces are made by using chili peppers as the base and can be as simple as adding salt and vinegar. Other sauces use some type of fruits or vegetables as the base and add the chili peppers to make them hot. Manufacturers use many different processes from aging in containers to pureeing and cooking the ingredients to achieve a desired flavor; because of their ratings on the Scoville scale, Ghost pepper and Habanero peppers are used to make the hotter sauces but additional ingredients are used to add extra heat, such as pure capsaicin extract and mustard oil.
Other common ingredients include vinegar and spices. Vinegar is used as a natural preservative, but flavored vinegars can be used to alter the flavour. Belizean hot sauces are extremely hot and use habaneros and onions as primary ingredients. Marie Sharp's is a popular brand of hot sauce produced in Dangriga. Traditional Panamanian hot sauce is made with "Aji Chombo", Scotch Bonnet peppers. Picante Chombo D'Elidas is a popular brand in Panama, with three major sauces; the yellow sauce, made with habanero and mustard, is the most distinctive. They produce red and green varieties which are heavier on vinegar content and without mustard. Although the majority of Panamanian cuisine lacks in spice, D'Elidas is seen as an authentic Panamanian hot sauce serviced with Rice with Chicken or soups. Peru and Bolivian medium hot, frutal locoto sauces are popular; the most popular sauce is the Diaguitas brand, made of pure red or yellow Chilean peppers mixed only with water and salt. Other hot sauces are made from puta madre, cacho de cabra, rocoto and cristal peppers, mixed with various ingredients.
Mild hot sauces include some "creamy style", or a pebre-style sauce, from many local producers, varying in hotness and quality. Mexicans prefer to eat chili peppers chopped, but when making hot sauces they are focused more on flavor than on intense heat. Chipotles are a popular ingredient of Mexican hot sauce and although the sauces are hot, the individual flavors of the peppers are more pronounced. Vinegar is used sparingly or not at all in Mexican sauces, but some particular styles are high in vinegar content similar to the American Louisiana-style sauces; some hot sauces may include using the seeds from the popular achiote plant for coloring or a slight flavor additive. The process of adobos has been used in the past as a preservative but now it is used to enhance the flavor of the peppers and they rely more on the use of vinegar. Mexican-style sauces are produced in Mexico but they are produced internationally; the Spanish term for sauce is salsa, in English-speaking countries refers to the tomato-based, hot sauces typical of Mexican cuisine those used as dips.
There are many types of salsa which vary throughout Latin America. These are some of the notable companies producing Mexican style hot sauce. Búfalo A popular Mexican sauce Cholula Hot Sauce Known for its iconic round wooden cap Valentina A traditional Mexican sauce The varieties of peppers that are used are cayenne, chipotle and jalapeño; some hot sauces, notably Tabasco sauce, are aged in wooden casks similar to the preparation of wine and fermented vinegar. Other ingredients, including fruits and vegetables such as raspberries, mangoes and chayote squash are sometimes used to add flavor, mellow the heat of the chilis, thicken the sauce's consistency. Artisan hot sauces are manufactured by private labels in the United States, their products are produced in smaller quantities in a variety of flavors. Many sauces have a theme to catch consumers attention. A mild chili sauce is produced by Heinz and other manufacturers, is found in cookbooks in the U. S; this style chili sauce is based on tomatoes, green and/or red bell peppers, spices.
This sauce is more akin to tomato ketchup and cocktail sauce than predominantly chili pepper-based sauces. Srir