Laurus nobilis is an aromatic evergreen tree or large shrub with green, glabrous leaves, in the flowering plant family Lauraceae. It is used as bay leaf for seasoning in cooking, its common names include bay tree, bay laurel, sweet bay, true laurel, Grecian laurel, or laurel. Laurus nobilis figures prominently in classical Greco-Roman culture. Worldwide, many other kinds of plants in diverse families are called "bay" or "laurel" due to similarity of foliage or aroma to Laurus nobilis, the full name is used for the California bay laurel in the family Lauraceae; the Laurel is an evergreen small tree, variable in size and sometimes reaching 7 -- 18 m tall. The genus Laurus includes four accepted species, whose diagnostic key characters overlap; the Bay Laurel is dioecious, with male and female flowers on separate plants. Each flower is pale yellow-green, about 1 cm diameter, they are borne in pairs beside a leaf; the leaves are 6 -- 12 cm long and 2 -- 4 cm broad, with an entire margin. On some leaves the margin undulates.
The fruit is a shiny black berry-like drupe about 1 cm long that contains one seed. A recent study found considerable genetic diversity within L. nobilis, that L. azorica is not genetically or morphologically distinct. Laurus nobilis is a widespread relic of the laurel forests that covered much of the Mediterranean Basin when the climate of the region was more humid. With the drying of the Mediterranean during the Pliocene era, the laurel forests retreated, were replaced by the more drought-tolerant sclerophyll plant communities familiar today. Most of the last remaining laurel forests around the Mediterranean are believed to have disappeared ten thousand years ago, although some remnants still persist in the mountains of southern Turkey, northern Syria, southern Spain, north-central Portugal, northern Morocco, the Canary Islands and in Madeira; the plant is the source of several popular herbs and one spice used in a wide variety of recipes among Mediterranean cuisines. Most the aromatic leaves are added whole to Italian pasta sauces.
They are removed from dishes before serving, unless used as a simple garnish. Whole bay leaves have a long shelf life of about one year, under normal humidity. Whole bay leaves are used exclusively as flavor agents during the food preparation stage. Ground bay leaves, can be ingested safely and are used in soups and stocks, as well as being a common addition to a Bloody Mary. Dried laurel berries and pressed leaf oil can both be used as robust spices, the wood can be burnt for strong smoke flavoring. Laurus nobilis is cultivated as an ornamental plant in regions with Mediterranean or oceanic climates, as a house plant or greenhouse plant in colder regions, it is used in topiary to create single erect stems with box-shaped or twisted crowns. However it may take several years to reach the desired height. Together with a gold form, L. nobilis'Aurea' and a willow-leaved form L. nobilis f. angustifolia it has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. In herbal medicine, aqueous extracts of bay laurel have been used as an astringent and salve for open wounds.
It is used in massage therapy and aromatherapy. A traditional folk remedy for rashes caused by poison ivy, poison oak, stinging nettle is a poultice soaked in boiled bay leaves; the Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder listed a variety of conditions which laurel oil was supposed to treat: paralysis, sciatica, headaches, ear infections, rheumatism. Laurel oil is a main ingredient, the distinguishing characteristic of Aleppo soap. In Ancient Greece, the plant was called daphne, after the mythic mountain nymph of the same name. In the myth of Apollo and Daphne, the god Apollo fell in love with Daphne, a priestess of Gaia, when he tried to seduce her she pled for help to Gaia, who transported her to Crete. In Daphne's place Gaia left a laurel tree. Other versions of the myth, including that of the Roman poet Ovid, state that Daphne was transformed directly into a laurel tree. Bay laurel was used to fashion a symbol of highest status. A wreath of bay laurels was given as the prize at the Pythian Games because the games were in honor of Apollo, the laurel was one of his symbols.
According to the poet Lucian, the priestess of Apollo known as the Pythia reputedly chewed laurel leaves from a sacred tree growing inside the temple to induce the enthusiasmos from which she uttered the oracular prophecies which she was famous for. Some accounts starting in the fourth century BC describe her as shaking a laurel branch while delivering her prophecies; those who received promising omens from the Pythia were crowned with laurel wreaths as a symbol of Apollo's favor. The symbolism carried over to Roman culture, it was associated with immortality, with ritual purification and health. It is the source of the words baccalaureate and poet laureate, as well as the expressions "assume the laurel" and "resting on one's laurels". Pliny the Elder stated that the Laurel was not permitted for "profane" uses - lighting it on fire at altars "for the propitiation of divinities" was forbidden, because "...it is evident that the laurel protests against such usage by crackling as it does in the fire, thus, in a manner, giving expression
Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives, a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. The oil is produced by pressing whole olives, it is used in cooking, whether for frying or as a salad dressing. It is used in cosmetics and soaps, as a fuel for traditional oil lamps, has additional uses in some religions. There is limited evidence of its possible health benefits; the olive is one of three core food plants in Mediterranean cuisine. Olive trees have been grown around the Mediterranean since the 8th millennium BC. Spain is the largest producer of olive oil, followed by Greece. However, per capita national consumption is highest in Greece, followed by Spain and Morocco. Consumption in South Asia, North America and northern Europe is far less; the composition of olive oil varies with the cultivar, time of harvest and extraction process. It consists of oleic acid, with smaller amounts of other fatty acids including linoleic acid and palmitic acid. Extra virgin olive oil is required to have no more than 0.8% free acidity and is considered to have favorable flavor characteristics.
The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin. The wild olive tree originated in ancient Greece, it is not clear when and where olive trees were first domesticated: in Asia Minor, in the Levant, or somewhere in the Mesopotamian part of the Fertile Crescent. Archaeological evidence shows that olives were turned into olive oil by 6000 BC and 4500 BC at a now-submerged prehistoric settlement south of Haifa; until 1500 BC, eastern coastal areas of the Mediterranean were most cultivated. Evidence suggests that olives were being grown in Crete as long ago as 2500 BC; the earliest surviving olive oil amphorae date to 3500 BC, though the production of olive oil is assumed to have started before 4000 BC. Olive trees were cultivated by the Late Minoan period in Crete, as early as the Early Minoan; the cultivation of olive trees in Crete became intense in the post-palatial period and played an important role in the island's economy, as it did across the Mediterranean. Recent genetic studies suggest that species used by modern cultivators descend from multiple wild populations, but a detailed history of domestication is not yet forthcoming.
Olive trees and oil production in the Eastern Mediterranean can be traced to archives of the ancient city-state Ebla, which were located on the outskirts of the Syrian city Aleppo. Here some dozen documents dated 2400 BC describe lands of the queen; these belonged to a library of clay tablets preserved by having been baked in the fire that destroyed the palace. A source is the frequent mentions of oil in the Tanakh. Dynastic Egyptians before 2000 BC imported olive oil from Crete and Canaan and oil was an important item of commerce and wealth. Remains of olive oil have been found in jugs over 4,000 years old in a tomb on the island of Naxos in the Aegean Sea. Sinuhe, the Egyptian exile who lived in northern Canaan about 1960 BC, wrote of abundant olive trees. Besides food, olive oil has been used for religious rituals, medicines, as a fuel in oil lamps, soap-making, skin care application; the Minoans used olive oil in religious ceremonies. The oil became a principal product of the Minoan civilization, where it is thought to have represented wealth.
Olive oil, a multi-purpose product of Mycenaean Greece at that time, was a chief export. Olive tree growing reached Iberia and Etruscan cities well before the 8th century BC through trade with the Phoenicians and Carthage was spread into Southern Gaul by the Celtic tribes during the 7th century BC; the first recorded oil extraction is known from the Hebrew Bible and took place during the Exodus from Egypt during the 13th century BC. During this time, the oil was derived through hand-squeezing the berries and stored in special containers under guard of the priests. A commercial mill for non-sacramental use of oil was in use in the tribal confederation and in 1000 BC, in the Levant, an area consisting of present-day Lebanon and Palestine. Over 100 olive presses have been found in Tel Miqne, one of the five main cities of the Biblical Philistines; these presses are estimated to have had output of between 1,000 and 3,000 tons of olive oil per season. Many ancient presses still exist in the Eastern Mediterranean region, some dating to the Roman period are still in use today.
Olive oil was common in ancient Greek and Roman cuisine. According to Herodotus, Plutarch, Pausanias and other sources, the city of Athens obtained its name because Athenians considered olive oil essential, preferring the offering of the goddess Athena over the offering of Poseidon; the Spartans and other Greeks used oil to rub themselves while exercising in the gymnasia. From its beginnings early in the 7th century BC, the cosmetic use of olive oil spread to all of the Hellenic city states, together with athletes training in the nude, lasted close to a thousand years despite its great expense. Olive oil was popular as a form of birth control. Olive trees were planted throughout the entire Mediterranean basin during evolution of the Roman Republic and Empire. According to the
Gard is a department in Southern France, located in the Occitanie region. It had a population of 742,006 as of 2016; the department is named after the Gardon River. The Gard area was settled by the Romans in classical times, it was crossed by the Via Domitia, constructed in 118 BC. Gard is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790, it was created from the ancient province of Languedoc. It was intended to include the canton of Ganges in the department which would have been geographically logical, but Ganges was transferred to the neighbouring department of Hérault at the outset. In return, Gard received from Hérault the fishing port of Aigues Mortes which gave the department its own outlet to the Gulf of Lion. During the middle of the nineteenth century the prefecture, traditionally a centre of commerce with a manufacturing sector focused on textiles, was an early beneficiary of railway development, becoming an important railway junction. Several luxurious hotels were built, the improved market access provided by the railways encouraged a rapid growth in wine growing: however, many of the department's viticulturalists were ruined by the arrival in 1872 of phylloxera.
Gard is part of the region of Occitanie and is surrounded by the departments of Hérault, Lozère, Bouches-du-Rhône, Vaucluse and Ardèche. The highest point in the department is the Mont Aigoual. Serious flooding has occurred in the department in recent years. In the contested first round of the 2012 presidential election, Gard was the only department to vote for the National Front candidate Marine Le Pen by a slim plurality, with 25.51% of the vote. The incumbent President Nicolas Sarkozy of the Union for a Popular Movement party received 24.86% of the vote, while Socialist candidate François Hollande received 24.11% of the vote share. The President of the Departmental Council has been Denis Bouad of the Socialist Party since 2015. In the 2017 legislative election, Gard elected the following representatives to the National Assembly: The inhabitants of Gard are called "Gardois". In 2012, the population of Gard was 694,323 with 8 towns having more than 10,000 inhabitants: Gard contains a part of the Cévennes National Park.
There are important Roman architectural remains in Nîmes, as well as the famous Roman aqueduct, the Pont du Gard. Gard is home to the source of Perrier, a carbonated mineral water sold both in France and internationally on a large scale; the spring and facility are located just south-east of the commune of Vergèze. Arrondissements of the Gard department Cantons of the Gard department Communes of the Gard department "Gard". Encyclopædia Britannica. 11. 1911. Prefecture website General Council website Welcome to the Gard Welcome to the Gard The Regordane Way or St Gilles Trail Map of the department Guide Gard
The domestic goat or goat is a subspecies of C. aegagrus domesticated from the wild goat of Southwest Asia and Eastern Europe. The goat is a member of the animal family Bovidae and the goat—antelope subfamily Caprinae, meaning it is related to the sheep. There are over 300 distinct breeds of goat. Goats are one of the oldest domesticated species of animal, have been used for milk, meat and skins across much of the world. Milk from goats is turned into goat cheese. Female goats are referred to as does or nannies, intact males are called bucks or billies and juvenile goats of both sexes are called kids. Castrated males are called wethers. While the words hircine and caprine both refer to anything having a goat-like quality, hircine is used most to emphasize the distinct smell of domestic goats. In 2011, there were more than 924 million goats living in the world, according to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization; the Modern English word goat comes from Old English gāt "she-goat, goat in general", which in turn derives from Proto-Germanic *gaitaz from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰaidos meaning "young goat", itself from a root meaning "jump".
To refer to the male, Old English used bucca until ousted by hegote, hegoote in the late 12th century. Nanny goat originated in the 18th billy goat in the 19th. Goats are among the earliest animals domesticated by humans; the most recent genetic analysis confirms the archaeological evidence that the wild Bezoar ibex of the Zagros Mountains is the original ancestor of all domestic goats today. Neolithic farmers began to herd wild goats for easy access to milk and meat, as well as to their dung, used as fuel, their bones and sinew for clothing and tools; the earliest remnants of domesticated goats dating 10,000 years before present are found in Ganj Dareh in Iran. Goat remains have been found at archaeological sites in Jericho, Choga Mami, Çayönü, dating the domestication of goats in Western Asia at between 8000 and 9000 years ago. Studies of DNA evidence suggests 10,000 years BP as the domestication date. Goat hide has been used for water and wine bottles in both traveling and transporting wine for sale.
It has been used to produce parchment. Each recognized breed of goat has specific weight ranges, which vary from over 140 kg for bucks of larger breeds such as the Boer, to 20 to 27 kg for smaller goat does. Within each breed, different strains or bloodlines may have different recognized sizes. At the bottom of the size range are miniature breeds such as the African Pygmy, which stand 41 to 58 cm at the shoulder as adults. Most goats have two horns, of various shapes and sizes depending on the breed. There have been incidents of polycerate goats, although this is a genetic rarity thought to be inherited. Unlike cattle, goats have not been bred to be reliably polled, as the genes determining sex and those determining horns are linked. Breeding together two genetically polled goats results in a high number of intersex individuals among the offspring, which are sterile, their horns are made of living bone surrounded by keratin and other proteins, are used for defense and territoriality. Goats are ruminants.
They have a four-chambered stomach consisting of the rumen, the reticulum, the omasum, the abomasum. As with other mammal ruminants, they are even-toed ungulates; the females have an udder consisting in contrast to cattle, which have four teats. An exception to this is the Boer goat. Goats have slit-shaped pupils; because goats' irises are pale, their contrasting pupils are much more noticeable than in animals such as cattle, most horses and many sheep, whose horizontal pupils blend into a dark iris and sclera. Both male and female goats have beards, many types of goat may have wattles, one dangling from each side of the neck. Goats expressing the tan pattern have coats pigmented with phaeomelanin; the allele which codes for this pattern is located at the agouti locus of the goat genome. It is dominant to all other alleles at this locus. There are multiple modifier genes which control how much tan pigment is expressed, so a tan-patterned goat can have a coat ranging from pure white to deep red. Goats reach puberty depending on breed and nutritional status.
Many breeders prefer to postpone breeding. However, this separation is possible in extensively managed, open-range herds. In temperate climates and among the Swiss breeds, the breeding season commences as the day length shortens, ends in early spring or before. In equatorial regions, goats are able to breed at any time of the year. Successful breeding in these regions depends more on available forage than on day length. Does of any breed or region come into estrus every 21 days for two to 48 hours. A doe in heat flags her tail stays near the buck if one is present, becomes more vocal, may show a decrease in appetite and milk production for the duration of the heat. Bucks of Swiss and northern breeds come into rut in the fall. Bucks of equatorial breeds may show seasonal reduced fertility
Dieulefit is a commune in the Drôme department in southeastern France. Communes of the Drôme department INSEE
Chabichou is a traditional soft, natural-rind French goat cheese with a firm and creamy texture. Chabichou is aged for 10 to 20 days; the legend of Chabichou goes back to 732, at the time of the defeat of the Arabs in the area, in the 8th century, after the Battle of Poitiers. Many of them left the area but some settled there with their families and, in particular, their goat herds; the countryside was appropriate for grazing the "poor man's cow". The cheese was named cheblis, which would become "chabichou" thereafter. However, the domestication of the goat in this area is supposed to date back to Roman colonization, extends up to the present. Chabichou du Poitou, made in the north of Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, acquired its AOC status in 1990 with the assistance of the efforts of Ségolène Royal, it is known for its characteristic label. Its production rose to 555 tons in 2003. Since 1782, Chabichou du Poitou has been mentioned in the French "Guide du voyageur à Poitiers et aux environs"; when regional wine production slowed in the late 1800s due to the European phylloxera crisis, production of Chabichou increased.
The AOC production zone is limited to an area south of Haut-Poitou: the south of Vienne, the Deux-Sèvres and the north of the Charente. See the official website of Chabichou du Poitou: http://www.chabichou-du-poitou.eu Chabichou of Poitou is made of fresh and whole goat's milk. It is but pressurized: less than 100 microliters per liter of milk, they let the milk coagulate during a 24-hour period between 20 and 22 °C. This curd is moulded manually with a ladle or mixer into perforated and truncated moulds and left to drain for another 18 to 24 hours while turning it over it two or three times, maintaining it at 22 °C. Afterwards, they are salted with dry salt or sometimes in a brine bath, it is laid out in drying rooms, i.e. it is drained while being placed in moulds for 24 to 48 hours. Afterwards it is left to mature within 80 % to 90 % humidity, it remains there for at least 10 days, but for two or three weeks. Some are preserved for months for a more vigorous flavor. Chabichou is white and smooth, flexible to the palate, with a fine caprine odor.
Immature Chabichou of Poitou can be enjoyed with a white wine such as Sauvignon blanc one from the same region. But more mature Chabichou is better with a red wine from the region, an aperitif or a Pineau des Charentes. List of goat milk cheeses Description at Cheese.com
Barjac is a commune in the Gard department in southern France. The valley of the river Cèze lies to the south, the river Ardèche is 10 km to the north. Barjac is a Renaissance town; the old city centre retains ancient narrow streets and houses of that time. The chateau of the Counts of the Roure, with its stone courtyard, once called the "Citadel", has been rebuilt several times from the twelfth century; this imposing edifice now features a library in the former stables, a cinema in the old kitchens. The chateau is the venue for the festival "Chansons de Paroles" held annually in late July; the contemporary German artist Anselm Kiefer has had his studio, called the Ribaute, in Barjac since 1993 in a former industrial wasteland of 35 hectares. Côtes du Vivarais AOC Communes of the Gard department Le Gard provençal Location of Barjac on a map of France with its neighbouring villages