Billings is the largest city in the state of Montana, and is the principal city of the Billings Metropolitan Area with a population of 166,855. It has an area of over half a million people. Billings is located in the portion of the state and is the seat of Yellowstone County. The 2015 Census estimates put the Billings population at 110,263, the city is experiencing rapid growth and a strong economy, it has had and is continuing to have the largest growth of any city in Montana. Parts of the area are seeing hyper growth. From 2000 to 2010 Lockwood, an suburb of the city, saw growth of 57. 8%. Billings has avoided the economic downturn that affected most of the nation 2008–2012 as well as avoiding the housing bust, Billings was nicknamed the Magic City because of its rapid growth from its founding as a railroad town in March 1882. The city is named for Frederick H. Billings, a president of the Northern Pacific Railroad. Billings is the destination for much of the same area. With more hotel accommodations than any area within a region, the city hosts a variety of conventions, sporting events.
Area attractions include Pompeys Pillar, Pictograph Cave, Chief Plenty Coups State Park, Zoo Montana, the downtown core and much of the rest of Billings is in the Yellowstone Valley which is a canyon carved out by the Yellowstone River. Around 80 million years ago, the Billings area was on the shore of the Western Interior Seaway, the sea deposited sediment and sand around the shoreline. As the sea retreated it left behind a layer of sand. Over millions of years this sand was compressed into stone that is known as Eagle Sandstone, over the last million years the river has carved its way down through this stone to form the canyon walls that are known as the Billings Rimrocks or the Rims. About five miles south of downtown are the Pictograph Caves and these caves contain over 100 pictographs, the oldest of which is over 2,000 years old. Approximately 30,000 artifacts have been excavated from the site and these excavations have indicated that the area has been occupied since at least 2600 BCE until after 1800 CE.
The Crow Indians have called the Billings area home since about 1700, the present-day Crow Nation is just south of Billings. In July 1806, William Clark passed through the Billings area, on July 25 he arrived at what is now known as Pompeys Pillar and wrote in his journal
William Thomas Mulloy, Jr. was an American anthropologist. Mulloy was born May 3,1917 in Salt Lake City, the son of William Thomas Mulloy, Sr. a conductor on the Union Pacific Railroad. His older sister, Mary Grace Mulloy Strauch and encouraged his early interest in archaeology, Mulloy earned a BA in anthropology from the University of Utah, where he had distinguished himself both in the classroom and on the wrestling team. From 1938 to 1939, he worked for the Louisiana State Archaeological Survey as a field archaeologist, in the Louisiana bayou, he contracted malaria. From Louisiana, Mulloy went to Illinois where he began studies at the University of Chicago. In the summer of 1940, Mulloy supervised archaeological fieldwork at Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canyon, among the field crew, he met his future wife, Emily Ross, an archaeology major at the University of New Mexico. His graduate studies were interrupted when, shortly after the Attack on Pearl Harbor, at Camp Roberts, California, he served first in the Field Artillery Instrument and Survey School.
Recognizing his talent and intelligence, the Army sent him to Officer Candidate School in North Dakota, in 1943, Mulloy received his commission in the Counter Intelligence Corps. An outstanding linguist, Mulloy first learned Japanese and became a Japanese language instructor in order to prepare US military officers for the invasion and occupation of Japan, as a reserve officer, Mulloy advanced to the rank of major. After World War II ended, Mulloy returned to studies in Chicago with his wife and their infant daughter Kathy. As a graduate student, he worked in the mills, in the railroad yards. The University of Chicago granted him a PhD in 1953, even as a junior faculty member of the University of Wyoming, Mulloy distinguished himself as a teacher. During his three-decade academic career in Laramie, Mulloy perennially received the recognition of his students and his engaging classroom presence brought him such honors as the Omicron Delta Kappa Award for outstanding teaching. The Wyoming Archaeological Society established the William Mulloy Scholarship in his honor in 1960, in 1964, he was the recipient of the George Duke Humphrey Distinguished Faculty Award.
In 1976, the University of Wyoming awarded him its highest distinction, in 1968, Mulloy established the Wyoming Anthropological Museum and served as its curator until his death. His personal collection of modern Rapa Nui folk art now forms part of the University of Wyoming Art Museum, Mulloy undertook extensive research projects in North American Plains Indian and Southwestern Indian archaeology. He investigated sites in New Mexico and Montana and his monographs on the Hagen Site in Glendive and the McKean Site in Crook County, Wyoming are still widely consulted. He replaced H. Melville Sayre as the director of a WPA project at Pictograph Cave from October,1940, from 1951 through 1954, Mulloy supervised the investigation of an 8000-year-old bison kill site near Laramie
Historic districts in the United States
Buildings, structures and sites within a historic district are normally divided into two categories and non-contributing. Districts greatly vary in size, some have hundreds of structures, the U. S. federal government designates historic districts through the United States Department of Interior under the auspices of the National Park Service. Federally designated historic districts are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, state-level historic districts may follow similar criteria or may require adherence to certain historic rehabilitation standards. Local historic district designation offers, by far, the most legal protection for historic properties because most land use decisions are made at the local level, local districts are generally administered by the county or municipal government. The first U. S. historic district was established in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931, Charleston city government designated an Old and Historic District by local ordinance and created a board of architectural review to oversee it.
New Orleans followed in 1937, establishing the Vieux Carré Commission, other localities picked up on the concept, with the city of Philadelphia enacting its historic preservation ordinance in 1955. The Supreme Court case validated the protection of resources as an entirely permissible governmental goal. In 1966 the federal government created the National Register of Historic Places, conference of Mayors had stated Americans suffered from rootlessness. By the 1980s there were thousands of federally designated historic districts, Historic districts are generally two types of properties and non-contributing. In general, contributing properties are integral parts of the historic context, in addition to the two types of classification within historic districts, properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places are classified into five broad categories. They are, structure, site and object, all but the eponymous district category are applied to historic districts listed on the National Register.
A listing on the National Register of Historic Places is governmental acknowledgment of a historic district, the Register is an honorary status with some federal financial incentives. The National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U. S. federal law, a district may comprise individual elements separated geographically but linked by association or history. Districts established under U. S. federal guidelines generally begin the process of designation through a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, the National Register is the official recognition by the U. S. government of cultural resources worthy of preservation. While designation through the National Register does offer a district or property some protections, if the federal government is not involved, the listing on the National Register provides the site, property or district no protections. If, company A was under federal contract the Smith House would be protected, a federal designation is little more than recognition by the government that the resource is worthy of preservation.
Usually, the National Register does not list religious structures, moved structures, reconstructed structures, however, if a property falls into one of those categories and are integral parts of districts that do meet the criteria an exception allowing their listing will be made. Historic district listings, like all National Register nominations, can be rejected on the basis of owner disapproval, in the case of historic districts, a majority of owners must object in order to nullify a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places
A cave is a hollow place in the ground, specifically a natural underground space large enough for a human to enter. Caves form naturally by the weathering of rock and often extend deep underground, the word cave can refer to much smaller openings such as sea caves, rock shelters, and grottos. A cavern is a type of cave, naturally formed in soluble rock with the ability to grow speleothems. Speleology is the science of exploration and study of all aspects of caves, visiting or exploring caves for recreation may be called caving, potholing, or spelunking. The formation and development of caves is known as speleogenesis, which can occur over the course of millions of years, caves are formed by various geologic processes and can be variable sizes. These may involve a combination of processes, erosion from water, tectonic forces, pressure. Isotopic dating techniques can be applied to cave sediments, in order to determine the timescale when geologic events may have occurred to help form and it is estimated that the maximum depth of a cave cannot be more than 3,000 metres due to the pressure of overlying rocks.
For karst caves the maximum depth is determined on the basis of the limit of karst forming processes. Most caves are formed in limestone by dissolution, solutional caves or karst caves are the most frequently occurring caves and such caves form in rock that is soluble. Most occur in limestone, but they can form in other rocks including chalk, marble, salt. Rock is dissolved by acid in groundwater that seeps through bedding planes, joints. Over geological epochs cracks expand to become caves and cave systems, the largest and most abundant solutional caves are located in limestone. Limestone dissolves under the action of rainwater and groundwater charged with H2CO3, the dissolution process produces a distinctive landform known as karst, characterized by sinkholes and underground drainage. Limestone caves are often adorned with calcium carbonate formations produced through slow precipitation and these include flowstones, stalagmites, soda straws and columns. These secondary mineral deposits in caves are called speleothems, the portions of a solutional cave that are below the water table or the local level of the groundwater will be flooded.
Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico and nearby Carlsbad Cavern are now believed to be examples of type of solutional cave. They were formed by H2S gas rising from below, where reservoirs of oil give off sulfurous fumes and this gas mixes with ground water and forms H2SO4. The acid dissolves the limestone from below, rather than from above, caves formed at the same time as the surrounding rock are called primary caves
National Park Service
It was created on August 25,1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. As of 2014, the NPS employs 21,651 employees who oversee 417 units, the National Park Service celebrated its centennial in 2016. National parks and national monuments in the United States were originally individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior, the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior and they wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service, Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS.
On March 3,1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933, the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasnt until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt agreed and issued two Executive orders to make it happen. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service, the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery, Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States national parks, Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States.
In 1872, there was no government to manage it. Yosemite National Park began as a park, the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the state of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership, at first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, the National Park System includes all properties managed by the National Park Service