Aerial photography is the taking of photographs from an aircraft or other flying object. Platforms for aerial photography include fixed-wing aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, balloons and dirigibles, pigeons, parachutes, stand-alone telescoping and vehicle-mounted poles. Mounted cameras may be triggered automatically. Aerial photography should not be confused with air-to-air photography, where one or more aircraft are used as chase planes that "chase" and photograph other aircraft in flight. Aerial photography was first practiced by the French photographer and balloonist Gaspard-Félix Tournachon, known as "Nadar", in 1858 over Paris, France. However, the photographs he produced no longer exist and therefore the earliest surviving aerial photograph is titled'Boston, as the Eagle and the Wild Goose See It.' Taken by James Wallace Black and Samuel Archer King on October 13, 1860, it depicts Boston from a height of 630m. Kite aerial photography was pioneered by British meteorologist E. D. Archibald in 1882.
He used an explosive charge on a timer to take photographs from the air. Frenchman Arthur Batut began using kites for photography in 1888, wrote a book on his methods in 1890. Samuel Franklin Cody developed his advanced'Man-lifter War Kite' and succeeded in interesting the British War Office with its capabilities; the first use of a motion picture camera mounted to a heavier-than-air aircraft took place on April 24, 1909, over Rome in the 3:28 silent film short, Wilbur Wright und seine Flugmaschine. The use of aerial photography matured during the war, as reconnaissance aircraft were equipped with cameras to record enemy movements and defences. At the start of the conflict, the usefulness of aerial photography was not appreciated, with reconnaissance being accomplished with map sketching from the air. Germany adopted the first aerial camera, a Görz, in 1913; the French began the war with several squadrons of Blériot observation aircraft equipped with cameras for reconnaissance. The French Army developed procedures for getting prints into the hands of field commanders in record time.
Frederick Charles Victor Laws started aerial photography experiments in 1912 with No.1 Squadron of the Royal Flying Corps, taking photographs from the British dirigible Beta. He discovered that vertical photos taken with 60% overlap could be used to create a stereoscopic effect when viewed in a stereoscope, thus creating a perception of depth that could aid in cartography and in intelligence derived from aerial images; the Royal Flying Corps recon pilots began to use cameras for recording their observations in 1914 and by the Battle of Neuve Chapelle in 1915, the entire system of German trenches was being photographed. In 1916 the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy made vertical camera axis aerial photos above Italy for map-making; the first purpose-built and practical aerial camera was invented by Captain John Moore-Brabazon in 1915 with the help of the Thornton-Pickard company enhancing the efficiency of aerial photography. The camera was inserted into the floor of the aircraft and could be triggered by the pilot at intervals.
Moore-Brabazon pioneered the incorporation of stereoscopic techniques into aerial photography, allowing the height of objects on the landscape to be discerned by comparing photographs taken at different angles. By the end of the war aerial cameras had increased in size and focal power and were used frequently as they proved their pivotal military worth. In January 1918, General Allenby used five Australian pilots from No. 1 Squadron AFC to photograph a 624 square miles area in Palestine as an aid to correcting and improving maps of the Turkish front. This was a pioneering use of aerial photography as an aid for cartography. Lieutenants Leonard Taplin, Allan Runciman Brown, H. L. Fraser, Edward Patrick Kenny, L. W. Rogers photographed a block of land stretching from the Turkish front lines 32 miles deep into their rear areas. Beginning 5 January, they flew with a fighter escort to ward off enemy fighters. Using Royal Aircraft Factory BE.12 and Martinsyde airplanes, they not only overcame enemy air attacks, but had to contend with 65 mph winds, antiaircraft fire, malfunctioning equipment to complete their task.
The first commercial aerial photography company in the UK was Aerofilms Ltd, founded by World War I veterans Francis Wills and Claude Graham White in 1919. The company soon expanded into a business with major contracts in Africa and Asia as well as in the UK. Operations began from the Stag Lane Aerodrome at Edgware, using the aircraft of the London Flying School. Subsequently, the Aircraft Manufacturing Company, hired an Airco DH.9 along with pilot entrepreneur Alan Cobham. From 1921, Aerofilms carried out vertical photography for mapping purposes. During the 1930s, the company pioneered the science of photogrammetry, with the Ordnance Survey amongst the company's clients. In 1920, the Australian Milton Kent started using a half-plate oblique aero camera purchased from Carl Zeiss AG in his aerial photographic business. Another successful pioneer of the commercial use of aerial photography was the American Sherman Fairchild who started his own aircraft firm Fairchild Aircraft to develop and build specialized aircraft for high altitude aerial survey missions.
One Fairchild aerial survey aircraft in 1935 carried unit that combined two synchronized cameras, each camera having five six inch le
A map projection is a systematic transformation of the latitudes and longitudes of locations from the surface of a sphere or an ellipsoid into locations on a plane. Maps cannot be created without map projections. All map projections distort the surface in some fashion. Depending on the purpose of the map, some distortions are acceptable and others are not. There is no limit to the number of possible map projections. More the surfaces of planetary bodies can be mapped if they are too irregular to be modeled well with a sphere or ellipsoid. More projections are a subject of several pure mathematical fields, including differential geometry, projective geometry, manifolds. However, "map projection" refers to a cartographic projection. Maps can be more useful than globes in many situations: they are more compact and easier to store; these useful traits of maps motivate the development of map projections. However, Carl Friedrich Gauss's Theorema Egregium proved that a sphere's surface cannot be represented on a plane without distortion.
The same applies to other reference surfaces used as models for the Earth, such as oblate spheroids and geoids. Since any map projection is a representation of one of those surfaces on a plane, all map projections distort; every distinct map projection distorts in a distinct way. The study of map projections is the characterization of these distortions. Projection is not limited to perspective projections, such as those resulting from casting a shadow on a screen, or the rectilinear image produced by a pinhole camera on a flat film plate. Rather, any mathematical function transforming coordinates from the curved surface to the plane is a projection. Few projections in actual use are perspective. For simplicity, most of this article assumes. In reality, the Earth and other large celestial bodies are better modeled as oblate spheroids, whereas small objects such as asteroids have irregular shapes. Io is better modeled by triaxial prolated spheroid with small eccentricities. Haumea's shape is a Jacobi ellipsoid, with its major axis twice as long as its minor and with its middle axis one and half times as long as its minor.
These other surfaces can be mapped as well. Therefore, more a map projection is any method of "flattening" a continuous curved surface onto a plane. Many properties can be measured on the Earth's surface independent of its geography; some of these properties are: Area Shape Direction Bearing Distance ScaleMap projections can be constructed to preserve at least one of these properties, though only in a limited way for most. Each projection compromises, or approximates basic metric properties in different ways; the purpose of the map determines. Because many purposes exist for maps, a diversity of projections have been created to suit those purposes. Another consideration in the configuration of a projection is its compatibility with data sets to be used on the map. Data sets are geographic information. Different datums assign different coordinates to the same location, so in large scale maps, such as those from national mapping systems, it is important to match the datum to the projection; the slight differences in coordinate assignation between different datums is not a concern for world maps or other vast territories, where such differences get shrunk to imperceptibility.
The classical way of showing the distortion inherent in a projection is to use Tissot's indicatrix. For a given point, using the scale factor h along the meridian, the scale factor k along the parallel, the angle θ′ between them, Nicolas Tissot described how to construct an ellipse that characterizes the amount and orientation of the components of distortion. By spacing the ellipses along the meridians and parallels, the network of indicatrices shows how distortion varies across the map; the creation of a map projection involves two steps: Selection of a model for the shape of the Earth or planetary body. Because the Earth's actual shape is irregular, information is lost in this step. Transformation of geographic coordinates to Cartesian or polar plane coordinates. In large-scale maps, Cartesian coordinates have a simple relation to eastings and northings defined as a grid superimposed on the projection. In small-scale maps and northings are not meaningful, grids are not superimposed; some of the simplest map projections are literal projections, as obtained by placing a light source at some definite point relative to the globe and projecting its features onto a specified surface.
This is not the case for most projections, which are defined only in terms of mathematical formulae that have no direct geometric interpretation. However, picturing the light source-globe model can be helpful in understanding the basic concept of a map projection A surface that can be unfolded or unrolled into a plane or sheet without stretching, tearing or shrinking is called a developable surface; the cylinder and the plane are all developable surfaces. The sphere and ellipsoid do not have developable surfaces, so any projection of them onto a plane will have to dis
Global Positioning System
The Global Positioning System Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force. It is a global navigation satellite system that provides geolocation and time information to a GPS receiver anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. Obstacles such as mountains and buildings block the weak GPS signals; the GPS does not require the user to transmit any data, it operates independently of any telephonic or internet reception, though these technologies can enhance the usefulness of the GPS positioning information. The GPS provides critical positioning capabilities to military and commercial users around the world; the United States government created the system, maintains it, makes it accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver. The GPS project was launched by the U. S. Department of Defense in 1973 for use by the United States military and became operational in 1995.
It was allowed for civilian use in the 1980s. Advances in technology and new demands on the existing system have now led to efforts to modernize the GPS and implement the next generation of GPS Block IIIA satellites and Next Generation Operational Control System. Announcements from Vice President Al Gore and the White House in 1998 initiated these changes. In 2000, the U. S. Congress authorized the modernization effort, GPS III. During the 1990s, GPS quality was degraded by the United States government in a program called "Selective Availability"; the GPS system is provided by the United States government, which can selectively deny access to the system, as happened to the Indian military in 1999 during the Kargil War, or degrade the service at any time. As a result, several countries have developed or are in the process of setting up other global or regional satellite navigation systems; the Russian Global Navigation Satellite System was developed contemporaneously with GPS, but suffered from incomplete coverage of the globe until the mid-2000s.
GLONASS can be added to GPS devices, making more satellites available and enabling positions to be fixed more and to within two meters. China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System is due to achieve global reach in 2020. There are the European Union Galileo positioning system, India's NAVIC. Japan's Quasi-Zenith Satellite System is a GPS satellite-based augmentation system to enhance GPS's accuracy; when selective availability was lifted in 2000, GPS had about a five-meter accuracy. The latest stage of accuracy enhancement uses the L5 band and is now deployed. GPS receivers released in 2018 that use the L5 band can have much higher accuracy, pinpointing to within 30 centimetres or 11.8 inches. The GPS project was launched in the United States in 1973 to overcome the limitations of previous navigation systems, integrating ideas from several predecessors, including classified engineering design studies from the 1960s; the U. S. Department of Defense developed the system, which used 24 satellites, it was developed for use by the United States military and became operational in 1995.
Civilian use was allowed from the 1980s. Roger L. Easton of the Naval Research Laboratory, Ivan A. Getting of The Aerospace Corporation, Bradford Parkinson of the Applied Physics Laboratory are credited with inventing it; the work of Gladys West is credited as instrumental in the development of computational techniques for detecting satellite positions with the precision needed for GPS. The design of GPS is based on similar ground-based radio-navigation systems, such as LORAN and the Decca Navigator, developed in the early 1940s. Friedwardt Winterberg proposed a test of general relativity – detecting time slowing in a strong gravitational field using accurate atomic clocks placed in orbit inside artificial satellites. Special and general relativity predict that the clocks on the GPS satellites would be seen by the Earth's observers to run 38 microseconds faster per day than the clocks on the Earth; the GPS calculated positions would drift into error, accumulating to 10 kilometers per day. This was corrected for in the design of GPS.
Winterberg, Friedwardt. “Relativistische Zeitdilatation eines künstlichen Satelliten ” When the Soviet Union launched the first artificial satellite in 1957, two American physicists, William Guier and George Weiffenbach, at Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory decided to monitor its radio transmissions. Within hours they realized that, because of the Doppler effect, they could pinpoint where the satellite was along its orbit; the Director of the APL gave them access to their UNIVAC to do the heavy calculations required. Early the next year, Frank McClure, the deputy director of the APL, asked Guier and Weiffenbach to investigate the inverse problem—pinpointing the user's location, given that of the satellite; this led them and APL to develop the TRANSIT system. In 1959, ARPA played a role in TRANSIT. TRANSIT was first tested in 1960, it used a constellation of five satellites and could provide a navigational fix once per hour. In 1967, the U. S. Navy developed the Timation satellite, which proved the feasibility of placing accurate clocks in space, a technology required for GPS.
In the 1970s, the ground-based OMEGA navigation system, based on phase comparison of signal transmission from pairs of stations
Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, jewelry, cars, movie theatres, ocean liners, everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners, it took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition internationale des arts décoratifs et industriels modernes held in Paris in 1925. It combined modern styles with rich materials. During its heyday, Art Deco represented luxury, glamour and faith in social and technological progress. Art Deco was a pastiche of many different styles, sometimes contradictory, united by a desire to be modern. From its outset, Art Deco was influenced by the bold geometric forms of Cubism, it featured rare and expensive materials, such as ebony and ivory, exquisite craftsmanship. The Chrysler Building and other skyscrapers of New York built during the 1920s and 1930s are monuments of the Art Deco style. In the 1930s, during the Great Depression, the Art Deco style became more subdued.
New materials arrived, including chrome plating, stainless steel, plastic. A sleeker form of the style, called Streamline Moderne, appeared in the 1930s. Art Deco is one of the first international styles, but its dominance ended with the beginning of World War II and the rise of the functional and unadorned styles of modern architecture and the International Style of architecture that followed. Art Deco took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925, though the diverse styles that characterize Art Deco had appeared in Paris and Brussels before World War I; the term arts décoratifs was first used in France in 1858. In 1868, Le Figaro newspaper used the term objets d'art décoratifs with respect to objects for stage scenery created for the Théâtre de l'Opéra. In 1875, furniture designers, textile and glass designers, other craftsmen were given the status of artists by the French government. In response to this, the École royale gratuite de dessin founded in 1766 under King Louis XVI to train artists and artisans in crafts relating to the fine arts, was renamed the National School of Decorative Arts.
It took its present name of ENSAD in 1927. During the 1925 Exposition the architect Le Corbusier wrote a series of articles about the exhibition for his magazine L'Esprit Nouveau under the title, "1925 EXPO. ARTS. DÉCO." which were combined into a book, "L'art décoratif d'aujourd'hui". The book was a spirited attack on the excesses of the lavish objects at the Exposition; the actual phrase "Art déco" did not appear in print until 1966, when it featured in the title of the first modern exhibit on the subject, called Les Années 25: Art déco, Stijl, Esprit nouveau, which covered the variety of major styles in the 1920s and 1930s. The term Art déco was used in a 1966 newspaper article by Hillary Gelson in the Times, describing the different styles at the exhibit. Art Deco gained currency as a broadly applied stylistic label in 1968 when historian Bevis Hillier published the first major academic book on the style: Art Deco of the 20s and 30s. Hillier noted that the term was being used by art dealers and cites The Times and an essay named "Les Arts Déco" in Elle magazine as examples of prior usage.
In 1971, Hillier organized an exhibition at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, which he details in his book about it, The World of Art Deco. The emergence of Art Deco was connected with the rise in status of decorative artists, who until late in the 19th century had been considered as artisans; the term "arts décoratifs" had been invented in 1875, giving the designers of furniture and other decoration official status. The Société des artistes décorateurs, or SAD, was founded in 1901, decorative artists were given the same rights of authorship as painters and sculptors. A similar movement developed in Italy; the first international exhibition devoted to the decorative arts, the Esposizione international d'Arte decorative moderna, was held in Turin in 1902. Several new magazines devoted to decorative arts were founded in Paris, including Arts et décoration and L'Art décoratif moderne. Decorative arts sections were introduced into the annual salons of the Sociéte des artistes français, in the Salon d'automne.
French nationalism played a part in the resurgence of decorative arts. In 1911, the SAD proposed the holding of a major new international exposition of decorative arts in 1912. No copies of old styles were to be permitted; the exhibit was postponed until 1914 because of the war, postponed until 1925, when it gave its name to the whole family of styles known as Déco. Parisian department stores and fashion designers played an important
In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief using contour lines, but using a variety of methods. Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both man-made features. A topographic survey is published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map. A contour line is a line connecting places of equal elevation. Natural Resources Canada provides this description of topographic maps:These maps depict in detail ground relief, forest cover, administrative areas, populated areas, transportation routes and facilities, other man-made features. Other authors define topographic maps by contrasting them with another type of map. However, in the vernacular and day to day world, the representation of relief is popularly held to define the genre, such that small-scale maps showing relief are called "topographic"; the study or discipline of topography is a much broader field of study, which takes into account all natural and man-made features of terrain.
Topographic maps are based on topographical surveys. Performed at large scales, these surveys are called topographical in the old sense of topography, showing a variety of elevations and landforms; this is in contrast to older cadastral surveys, which show property and governmental boundaries. The first multi-sheet topographic map series of an entire country, the Carte géométrique de la France, was completed in 1789; the Great Trigonometric Survey of India, started by the East India Company in 1802 taken over by the British Raj after 1857 was notable as a successful effort on a larger scale and for determining heights of Himalayan peaks from viewpoints over one hundred miles distant. Topographic surveys were prepared by the military to assist in planning for battle and for defensive emplacements; as such, elevation information was of vital importance. As they evolved, topographic map series became a national resource in modern nations in planning infrastructure and resource exploitation. In the United States, the national map-making function, shared by both the Army Corps of Engineers and the Department of the Interior migrated to the newly created United States Geological Survey in 1879, where it has remained since.1913 saw the beginning of the International Map of the World initiative, which set out to map all of Earth's significant land areas at a scale of 1:1 million, on about one thousand sheets, each covering four degrees latitude by six or more degrees longitude.
Excluding borders, each sheet was up to 66 cm wide. Although the project foundered, it left an indexing system that remains in use. By the 1980s, centralized printing of standardized topographic maps began to be superseded by databases of coordinates that could be used on computers by moderately skilled end users to view or print maps with arbitrary contents and scale. For example, the Federal government of the United States' TIGER initiative compiled interlinked databases of federal and local political borders and census enumeration areas, of roadways and water features with support for locating street addresses within street segments. TIGER was used in the 1990 and subsequent decennial censuses. Digital elevation models were compiled from topographic maps and stereographic interpretation of aerial photographs and from satellite photography and radar data. Since all these were government projects funded with taxes and not classified for national security reasons, the datasets were in the public domain and usable without fees or licensing.
TIGER and DEM datasets facilitated Geographic information systems and made the Global Positioning System much more useful by providing context around locations given by the technology as coordinates. Initial applications were professionalized forms such as innovative surveying instruments and agency-level GIS systems tended by experts. By the mid-1990s user-friendly resources such as online mapping in two and three dimensions, integration of GPS with mobile phones and automotive navigation systems appeared; as of 2011, the future of standardized, centrally printed topographical maps is left somewhat in doubt. Topographic maps have multiple uses in the present day: any type of geographic planning or large-scale architecture; the various features shown on the map are represented by conventional symbols. For example, colors can be used to indicate a classification of roads; these signs are explained in the margin of the map, or on a separately published characteristic sheet. Topographic maps are commonly called contour maps or topo maps.
In the United States, where the primary national series is organized by a strict 7.5-minute grid, they are called topo quads or quadrangles. Topographic maps conventionally show land contours, by means of contour lines. Contour lines are curves. In other words, every point on the marked line of 100 m elevation is 100 m above mean sea level; these maps show
Here be dragons
"Here be dragons" means dangerous or unexplored territories, in imitation of a medieval practice of putting illustrations of dragons, sea monsters and other mythological creatures on uncharted areas of maps where potential dangers were thought to exist. Although several early maps, such as the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, have illustrations of mythological creatures for decoration, the phrase itself is an anachronism. There are just two known historical uses of this phrase in the Latin form "HC SVNT DRACONES". One is on the Hunt -- Lenox Globe; this might be related to the Komodo dragons on the Indonesian islands, tales of which were quite common throughout East Asia. The other appearance of the term is on a globe engraved on two conjoined halves of ostrich eggs, dated to 1504. Earlier maps contain a variety of references to mythical and real creatures, but the Lenox Globe and the egg globe are the only known surviving maps to bear this phrase. Furthermore, the two maps may be linked: an investigation of the egg globe performed by collector Stefaan Missinne concluded that the Hunt–Lenox Globe is in fact a cast of it.
"'Here be dragons,' a interesting sentence," said Thomas Sander, editor of the Portolan, the journal of the Washington Map Society. "In early maps, you would see images of sea monsters. Dragons appear on a few other historical maps: The T-O Psalter world map has dragons, as symbols of sin, in a lower "frame" below the world, balancing Jesus and angels on the top, but the dragons do not appear on the map proper; the Borgia map, in the Vatican Library, over a dragon-like figure in Asia, "Hic etiam homines magna cornua habentes longitudine quatuor pedum, et sunt etiam serpentes tante magnitudinis, ut unum bovem comedant integrum.". The Fra Mauro Map has an imaginary island in the Atlantic Ocean. In an inscription near Herat, Fra Mauro says that in the mountains nearby "there are a number of dragons, in whose forehead is a stone that cures many infirmities", describes the locals' way of hunting those dragons to get the stones; this is thought to be based on Albertus Magnus's treatise De mineralibus.
In an inscription elsewhere on the map, the cartographer expresses his skepticism regarding "serpents and basilisks" mentioned by "some historiographers". A 19th-century Japanese map, the Jishin-no-ben, in the shape of ouroboros, depicts a dragon associated with causing earthquakes. Ptolemy's atlas in Geographia warns of elephants and cannibals. Tabula Peutingeriana has "in his locis elephanti nascuntur", "in his locis scorpiones nascuntur" and "hic cenocephali nascuntur". Cotton MS. Tiberius B. V. fol. 58v, British Library Manuscript Collection, has "hic abundant leones", along with a picture of a lion, near the east coast of Asia. Est enim fertilis. Sed ulterior bestiis et serpentibus plena" The Ebstorf map has a dragon in the extreme south-eastern part of Africa, together with an asp and a basilisk. Giovanni Leardo's map has, in southernmost Africa, "Dixerto dexabitado p. chaldo e p. serpent". Martin Waldseemüller's Carta marina navigatoria has "an elephant-like creature in northernmost Norway, accompanied by a legend explaining that this'morsus' with two long and quadrangular teeth congregated there", i.e. a walrus, which would have seemed monstrous at the time.
Waldseemüller's Carta marina navigatoria, revised by Laurentius Fries, has the morsus moved to the Davis Strait. Bishop Olaus Magnus's Carta Marina map of Scandinavia has many monsters in the northern sea, as well as a winged, predatory land animal resembling a dragon in northern Lapland. On the maps surrounding imperialism, up until the Berlin Conference of 1885 and the discoveries made by Livingstone, elephants were drawn in as is shown by this excerpt from "On Poetry: a Rhapsody" by Jonathan Swift: "So geographers, in Afric maps, With savage pictures fill their gaps, And o'er uninhabitable downs, Place elephants for want of towns." Mappa mundi Terra incognita Terra pericolosa Erin C. Blake. "Where Be "Here be Dragons"?". MapHist Discussion Group. Retrieved February 10, 2006. Michael Livingston. "Modern Medieval Map Myths: The Flat World, Ancient Sea-Kings, Dragons". Strange Horizons. Archived from the original on February 9, 2006. Retrieved February 10, 2006. ^ "Lenox Globe". Cartographic Images.
1998. Retrieved February 10, 2006. ^ Michael J. Gaffey. "Surface Lithologic Heterogeneity of Asteroid 4 Vesta", Icarus 127, 130–157. Doi:10.1006/icar.1997.5680 ^ Dennis McCarthy. Here be Dragons – How the study of animal and plant distributions revolutionized our views of life and Earth. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-954246-5. Myths & Legends On Old Maps Cecil Adams on the Subject (see bottom o
Canonsburg is a borough in Washington County, Pennsylvania, 18 miles southwest of Pittsburgh. Canonsburg was laid out by Colonel John Canon in 1789 and incorporated in 1802; the population was 8,992 at the 2010 census. The town is in a rich coal district, most of the town's work force once worked in local steel mills or coal mines. Interstate 79 and U. S. Route 19 pass through the town, as does Ohio Central Railroad. A trolley used to operate from Washington, Pennsylvania to Pittsburgh through the borough until 1953; the town is home to Sarris Candies and All-Clad Metalcrafters, makers of cookware and other bonded metals. It is adjacent to the Southpointe office park located in Cecil Township, which has a number of large corporate tenants. Yenko Chevrolet, one of largest and most notorious custom muscle car shops of the late 1960s and early 1970s, was located in Canonsburg. Canonsburg is home to the Pittsburgh Cougars junior hockey league team; the second-largest Fourth of July parade in the state of Pennsylvania, second only to Philadelphia, is held in Canonsburg.
In the weeks leading up to the parade, the town gains media attention for its residents setting up folding chairs along the town's main street to stake claim to prime viewing areas. Additionally, Canonsburg is home to an annual Oktoberfest. In the television series Supernatural, the town is featured in Season 4, Episode 5, set in the borough during the Oktoberfest celebration; the exact date of the first settlement near the current site of Canonsburg is unclear. Colonel John Canon, a common miller who served as justice of the Virginia courts at Fort Dunmore, purchased some land from the state of Virginia around Chartiers Creek, sometime before May 1780; the state had claimed what is now southwestern Pennsylvania in a dispute that would not be settled until in the decade. In 1781 Pennsylvania carved Washington County out of Westmoreland County, the county seat was established at Washington; the notes of the first session of the Washington County Court during that year indicate a call for a road from Canon's mill to Pittsburgh.
The road to Pittsburgh, called Pitt Street, remains in part today as an archaic and indirect route to the city. The first surviving plat of the town is from April 15, 1788. Lots were sold around Canon's property, the emerging town took the name of Canonsburg shortly thereafter. Many of the participants in the Whiskey Rebellion of July 1794 were residents of present-day Washington County, which includes Canonsburg; some of the insurrectionists are believed to have gathered in the town's Black Horse Tavern. However, records do not indicate whether any Canonsburg residents participated in any of the violent acts which occurred during the rebellion; the town was the site of the first institution of higher learning west of the Allegheny Mountains, Jefferson College. Founded in 1802, it was the eleventh such institution in the United States; the Phi Gamma Delta and Phi Kappa Psi fraternities were both founded at Jefferson College. Phi Gamma Delta, of whom President Calvin Coolidge was a member, was founded in 1848.
Phi Kappa Psi, of whom President Woodrow Wilson and over 100 U. S. Congressmen claim membership, was founded in 1852; the school would go on to become Jefferson College in nearby Washington. For generations, Jefferson College financially supported Canonsburg by accounting for much of its income. However, in 1868, the college was moved to nearby Washington, leaving behind empty college rooming and boarding houses, known as the "forts". Canonsburg's largest financial draw having left, it would take the introduction of the railroad system to return the city to its former glory; the railroad system, on its way from Mansfield to Washington, was operational, as scheduled, on May 18, 1871. The first scheduled train departed from the Washington depot carrying "borough authorities, the committee of arrangement and reception, as well as Rankin’s Cornet Band and a number of…prominent citizens, invited to join the excursion." They traveled to Mansfield. The special had 12 coaches pulled by two locomotives and was filled with a large number of dignitaries, most the mayors of Pittsburgh and Allegheny.
The special made it down the newly laid tracks, passing stations full of spectators to cheer on the train. Canonsburg had a large crowd of supporters, many people climbed aboard the train to ride along to Washington. There, led by Pittsburgh's Great Western Band, the crowd marched to Town Hall for a round of speeches; the Washington Reporter editor pronounced the day "a grand success." In 1911, South Canonsburg was annexed. In 1903 the Washington and Canonsburg Railway Company linked the two towns with a trolley line; the company was bought by the Philadelphia Company in 1906 becoming part of the Pittsburgh Railway Company, linking through to Pittsburgh as part of their interurban service in 1909. The line closed on August 29, 1953, with the last three trolley cars travelling south through Canonsburg to the Pennsylvania Trolley Museum in 1954 shortly before the track was removed; the Canonsburg Armory, Hawthorne School and Roberts House are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The Standard Chemical Company operated a radium refining mill from 1911 to 1922 on a 19-acre plot of land.
From 1930 to 1942 the company purified uranium ore. Marie Curie was invited to the United States in 1921 and was given an honorary degree by the University of Pittsburgh, one gram of radium. From 1942 to 1957, Vitro Manufacturing Company refined uranium and other rare metals from various ores and onsite residues, government-