A superstructure is an upward extension of an existing structure above a baseline. This term is applied to various kinds of structures such as buildings, bridges. The word superstructure is a combination of the Latin prefix, super with the Latin stem word, in order to improve the response during earthquakes of buildings and bridges, the superstructure might be separated from its foundation by various civil engineering mechanisms or machinery. All together, these implement the system of protection called base isolation. As stated above, superstructure consists of the parts of the ship or a boat, including sailboats, fishing boats, passenger ships, and submarines and this does not usually include its masts or any armament turrets. Note that in times, turrets do not always carry naval artillery. The size of a watercrafts superstructure can have implications in the performance of ships and boats, since these structures can alter their structural rigidity, their displacements. These can be detrimental to any vessels performance if they are taken into consideration incorrectly, the height and the weight of superstructure on board a ship or a boat affects the amount of freeboard that such a vessel requires along its sides, down to her waterline.
In broad terms, the more and heavier superstructure that a ship possesses, on a bridge, the portion of the structure that is the span and directly receives the live load is referred to as the superstructure. In contrast, the abutment and other structures are called the substructure
In architecture, a long gallery is a long, narrow room, often with a high ceiling. In Britain, long galleries were popular in Elizabethan and Jacobean houses and they were often located on the upper floor of the great houses of the time, and they stretched across the entire frontage of the building. They served several purposes, they were used for entertaining guests, for taking exercise in the form of walking when the weather was inclement, and for displaying art collections. A long gallery has the appearance of a corridor, but it was designed as a room to be used in its own right. In the 16th century, the seemingly obvious concept of the corridor had not been introduced to British domestic architecture, long galleries were built in Victorian houses, such as Nottingham Castle
Cruciform means having the shape of a cross or Christian cross. Christian churches are described as having a cruciform architecture. In the Western churches, a cruciform architecture usually, though not exclusively and this layout comprises the following, An east end, containing an altar and often with an elaborate, decorated window, through which light will shine in the early part of the day. A west end, which contains a baptismal font, being a large decorated bowl, in which water can be firstly, blessed. North and south transepts, being arms of the cross and often containing rooms for gathering, small chapels, or in many cases other necessities such as an organ. The crossing, which in designs often was under a tower or dome, in churches that are not oriented with the altar at the geographical east end, it is usual to refer to the altar end as liturgical east and so forth. Another example of ancient cruciform architecture can be found in Herods temple, DNA can undergo transitions to form a cruciform shape, otherwise known as a Holliday junction.
This structure is important for the biological processes of DNA recombination. A cruciform joint is a joint in which 4 spaces are created by the welding of 3 plates of metal at right angles. A cruciform manuscript was a form of Anglo-Saxon / Insular manuscript written with the words in a block shaped like a cross. In music, a melody of four pitches where a line drawn between the outer pair bisects a straight line drawn between the inner pair, thus forming a cross. In its simplest form, the melody is a changing tone. Often representative of the Christian cross, such melodies are cruciform in their retrogrades or inversions, johann Sebastian Bach, whose last name may be represented in tones through a musical cryptogram known as the BACH motif that is a cruciform melody, employed the device extensively. The subject of the fugue in c-sharp minor from The Well-Tempered Clavier Book I is cruciform, the plain sword used by knights, distinctive due to the flat bar used as a guard. The overall shape of the sword when held point down is that of a cross and it is believed this shape was encouraged by the church to remind Knights of their religion.
It was however very popular due to the protection it offered to the hand, some airplanes use a cruciform tail design, wherein the horizontal stabilizer is positioned midway up the vertical stabilizer, forming a cruciform shape when viewed from the front or rear. Some examples are the F-9 Cougar, the F-10 Skyknight and the Sud Aviation Caravelle, cruciform web designs use a cross-shaped web page that expands to fill the width and height of the web browser window. There are a number of different approaches to implementing them, in addition to common cross-shaped products, such as key chains and magnets, certain designers have gone so far as to create cruciform devices and accessories
The Nine Worthies are nine historical and legendary personages who personify the ideals of chivalry as were established in the Middle Ages. All are commonly referred to as Princes in their own right, the study of the life of each would thus form a good education for the aspirant to chivalric status. In Italy they are i Nove Prodi, the Nine Worthies include three pagans, three Jews and three Christians. They were first described in the fourteenth century, by Jacques de Longuyon in his Voeux du Paon. Their selection, as Johan Huizinga pointed out, betrays a close connection with the genre of chivalry. Neatly divided into a triad of triads, these men were considered to be paragons of chivalry within their tradition, be it Pagan, Jewish. Longuyons choices soon became a theme in the literature and art of the Middle Ages. The medieval craving for symmetry engendered female equivalents, the neuf preuses, eustache Deschamps selected a group of rather bizarre heroines selected from fiction and history, among them Penthesilea, Semiramis.
Literature and suites of tapestry featured the full complement of eighteen, a tenth worthy was added by Deschamps, in the figure of Bertrand du Guesclin, the Breton knight to whom France owed recovery from the battles of Crécy and Poitiers. Francis I of France still occasionally paraded himself at court dressed in the mode to identify himself as one of the Neuf Preux. As a group, the nine worthies represents all facets of the chivalrous warrior. All, with the exception of Hector, are conquering heroes and those not royal came from knightly families, it was thought. All lived in the era and attributed arms were invented for them. All brought glory and honor to their nations and were noted for their prowess in arms. As individuals, each displayed some outstanding quality of chivalry which made them exemplars of knighthood, in William Shakespeares play Loves Labours Lost the comic characters attempt to stage such a masque, but it descends into chaos. The list of Worthies actually named in the play include two not on the original list and Pompey the Great, Judas Maccabaeus, and Hector appear on stage before the show collapses into complete disorder.
I Nove Prodi, a fresco by the Maestro del Castello della Manta, the series includes depictions of their female counterparts. Montacute House has sculptures of the nine worthies spaced along the upper eastern façade on the exterior of the long gallery piers and these figures are dressed in Roman armour
Medieval architecture is architecture common in the Middle Ages. The Latin cross plan, common in ecclesiastical architecture, takes the Roman basilica as its primary model with subsequent developments. It consists of a nave and the stands at the east end. Also, cathedrals influenced or commissioned by Justinian employed the Byzantine style of domes, surviving examples of medieval secular architecture mainly served for defense. Castles and fortified walls provide the most notable remaining non-religious examples of medieval architecture, windows gained a cross-shape for more than decorative purposes, they provided a perfect fit for a crossbowman to safely shoot at invaders from inside. Crenellated walls provided shelters for archers on the roofs to hide behind when not shooting invaders, while much of the surviving medieval architecture is either religious or military, examples of civic and even domestic architecture can be found throughout Europe. Examples include manor houses, town halls and bridges, while these terms are problematic, they nonetheless serve adequately as entries into the era.
Romanesque, prevalent in medieval Europe during the 11th and 12th centuries, was the first pan-European style since Roman Imperial Architecture and examples are found in every part of the continent. The term was not contemporary with the art it describes, but rather, is an invention of modern scholarship based on its similarity to Roman Architecture in forms, romanesque is characterized by a use of round or slightly pointed arches, barrel vaults, and cruciform piers supporting vaults. Windows contain stained glass, showing stories from the Bible and from lives of saints, such advances in design allowed cathedrals to rise taller than ever, and it became something of an inter-regional contest to build a church as high as possible
A niche in classical architecture is an exedra or an apse that has been reduced in size, retaining the half-dome heading usual for an apse. The word derives from the Latin nidus or nest, via the French niche, in Gothic architecture, a niche may be set within a tabernacle framing, like a richly-decorated miniature house, such as might serve for a reliquary. The backings for the altars in churches can be embedded with niches for statues, one of the earliest buildings which uses external niches containing statues is the Church of Orsanmichele in Florence, built between 1380-1404. The Uffizi Palace in Florence modified the concept by setting the niche within the wall so it did not protrude, the Uffizi has two dozen or so such niches containing statues of great historical figures. In England the Uffizi style niches were adopted at Montacute House, in Fra Filippo Lippis Madonna the trompe-loeil niche frames her as with the canopy of estate that was positioned over a personage of importance in the late Middle Ages and Early Modern Europe.
At the same time, the Madonna is represented as an iconic sculpture who has come alive with miraculous immediacy, expanding from its primary sense as an architectural recess, a niche can be applied to a rocky hollow, crevice, or foothold. The sense of a niche as a clearly defined narrow space led to its use describing the position of an organisms species. Alcove Grotto Mihrab Wave cut platform Sir John Summerson,1948. in Heavenly Mansions
National Diet Library
The National Diet Library is the only national library in Japan. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan in researching matters of public policy, the library is similar in purpose and scope to the United States Library of Congress. The National Diet Library consists of two facilities in Tokyo and Kyoto, and several other branch libraries throughout Japan. The Diets power in prewar Japan was limited, and its need for information was correspondingly small, the original Diet libraries never developed either the collections or the services which might have made them vital adjuncts of genuinely responsible legislative activity. Until Japans defeat, the executive had controlled all political documents, depriving the people and the Diet of access to vital information. The U. S. occupation forces under General Douglas MacArthur deemed reform of the Diet library system to be an important part of the democratization of Japan after its defeat in World War II.
In 1946, each house of the Diet formed its own National Diet Library Standing Committee, hani Gorō, a Marxist historian who had been imprisoned during the war for thought crimes and had been elected to the House of Councillors after the war, spearheaded the reform efforts. Hani envisioned the new body as both a citadel of popular sovereignty, and the means of realizing a peaceful revolution, the National Diet Library opened in June 1948 in the present-day State Guest-House with an initial collection of 100,000 volumes. The first Librarian of the Diet Library was the politician Tokujirō Kanamori, the philosopher Masakazu Nakai served as the first Vice Librarian. In 1949, the NDL merged with the National Library and became the national library in Japan. At this time the collection gained a million volumes previously housed in the former National Library in Ueno. In 1961, the NDL opened at its present location in Nagatachō, in 1986, the NDLs Annex was completed to accommodate a combined total of 12 million books and periodicals.
The Kansai-kan, which opened in October 2002 in the Kansai Science City, has a collection of 6 million items, in May 2002, the NDL opened a new branch, the International Library of Childrens Literature, in the former building of the Imperial Library in Ueno. This branch contains some 400,000 items of literature from around the world. Though the NDLs original mandate was to be a library for the National Diet. In the fiscal year ending March 2004, for example, the library reported more than 250,000 reference inquiries, in contrast, as Japans national library, the NDL collects copies of all publications published in Japan. The NDL has an extensive collection of some 30 million pages of documents relating to the Occupation of Japan after World War II. This collection include the documents prepared by General Headquarters and the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, the Far Eastern Commission, the NDL maintains a collection of some 530,000 books and booklets and 2 million microform titles relating to the sciences
In engineering, abutment refers to the substructure at the ends of a bridge span or dam whereon the structures superstructure rests or contacts. Multi-span bridges require piers to support ends of spans unsupported by abutments, Dam abutments are generally either side of a valley or gorge but may be artificial in order to support arch dams such as Kurobe Dam in Japan. The term may refer to the structure supporting one side of an arch. Also the impost or abacus of a column in classical architecture may serve as an abutment to an arch, the word derives from the verb abut, meaning to touch by means of a mutual border. An abutment may be used for the following, To transfer loads from a superstructure to its foundation elements, to resist and/or transfer self weight, lateral loads and wind loads. To support one end of an approach. Every time I drive down the road I wanna’ jerk the wheel into a Goddamn bridge abutment, in the film The Big Lebowski The Dudes car was stolen and located by the police.
The officer who found it told The Dude It was discovered last night in Van Nuys lodged against an abutment, to which The Dude responded Oh man, lodged where. Ohio Department of Transportation Fixed Bridge Abutments
Pont du Gard
The Pont du Gard is an ancient Roman aqueduct that crosses the Gardon River near the town of Vers-Pont-du-Gard in southern France. The Pont du Gard is the highest of all elevated Roman aqueducts and it was added to UNESCOs list of World Heritage Sites in 1985 because of its historical importance. The aqueduct bridge is part of the Nîmes aqueduct, a 50-kilometre system built in the first century AD to carry water from a spring at Uzès to the Roman colony of Nemausus. Because of the terrain between the two points, the mostly underground aqueduct followed a long, winding route that called for a bridge across the gorge of the Gardon River. The bridge has three tiers of arches, stands 48.8 m high, and descends a mere 2, the aqueduct formerly carried an estimated 200,000 m3 of water a day to the fountains and homes of the citizens of Nîmes. After the Roman Empire collapsed and the fell into disuse. It attracted increasing attention starting in the 18th century, and became an important tourist destination, today it is one of Frances most popular tourist attractions, and has attracted the attention of a succession of literary and artistic visitors.
The location of Nemausus was somewhat inconvenient when it came to providing a water supply, the only real alternative was to look to the north and in particular to the area around Ucetia, where there are natural springs. The Nîmes aqueduct was built to water from the springs of the Fontaine dEure near Uzès to the castellum divisorum in Nemausus. From there, it was distributed to fountains and private homes around the city, the straight-line distance between the two is only about 20 km but the aqueduct takes a winding route measuring around 50 km. This was necessary to circumvent the southernmost foothills of the Massif Central and they are difficult to cross, as they are covered in dense vegetation and garrigue and indented by deep valleys. It was impractical for the Romans to attempt to tunnel through the hills, a roughly V-shaped course around the eastern end of the Garrigues de Nîmes was therefore the only practical way of transporting the water from the spring to the city. The aqueducts average gradient is only 1 in 3,000 and it varies widely along its course, but is as little as 1 in 20,000 in some sections.
The Pont du Gard itself descends 2.5 cm in 456 m, the average gradient between the start and end of the aqueduct is far shallower than was usual for Roman aqueducts – only about a tenth of the average gradient of some of the aqueducts in Rome. This height limit governed the profile and gradients of the entire aqueduct, the gradient profile before the Pont du Gard is relatively steep, descending at 0.67 metres per kilometre, but thereafter it descends by only 6 metres over the remaining 25 kilometres. It is estimated that the aqueduct supplied the city with around 200,000 cubic metres of water a day that took nearly 27 hours to flow from the source to the city. The water arrived in the castellum divisorum at Nîmes – an open, shallow and it would have been surrounded by a balustrade within some sort of enclosure, probably under some kind of small but elaborate pavilion. When it was excavated, traces of a roof, Corinthian columns
A deep foundation is a type of foundation which transfers building loads to the earth farther down from the surface than a shallow foundation does, to a subsurface layer or a range of depths. A pile is a structural element of a deep foundation. There are different terms used to different types of deep foundations including the pile, the pier, drilled shafts. Piles are generally driven into the ground in situ, other foundations are typically put in place using excavation. The naming conventions may vary between engineering disciplines and firms, Deep foundations can be made out of timber, reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete. Prefabricated piles are driven into the ground using a pile driver, driven piles are either wood, reinforced concrete, or steel. Wooden piles are made from the trunks of tall trees, concrete piles are available in square and round cross-sections. They are reinforced with rebar and are often prestressed, steel piles are either pipe piles or some sort of beam section.
Foundations relying on driven piles often have groups of piles connected by a cap to distribute loads which are larger than one pile can bear. A monopile foundation utilizes a single, generally large-diameter, foundation structural element to all the loads of a large above-surface structure. A transition piece is attached to the now deeply driven pile, an additional layer of even larger stone, up to 0.5 m diameter, is applied to the surface of the seabed for longer-term erosion protection. Rotary boring techniques allow larger diameter piles than any other piling method, Construction methods depend on the geology of the site, in particular, whether boring is to be undertaken in dry ground conditions or through water-saturated strata - i. e. wet boring. Casing is often used when the sides of the borehole are likely to slough off before concrete is poured, for end-bearing piles, drilling continues until the borehole has extended a sufficient depth into a sufficiently strong layer. Depending on site geology, this can be a layer, or hardpan, or other dense.
Both the diameter of the pile and the depth of the pile are highly specific to the conditions, loading conditions. Pile depths may vary substantially across a project if the layer is not level. Drilled piles can be tested using a variety of methods to verify the pile integrity during installation, under-reamed piles have mechanically formed enlarged bases that are as much as 6 m in diameter. The form is that of a cone and can only be formed in stable soils
A circle is a simple closed shape in Euclidean geometry. The distance between any of the points and the centre is called the radius, a circle is a simple closed curve which divides the plane into two regions, an interior and an exterior. Annulus, the object, the region bounded by two concentric circles. Arc, any connected part of the circle, the point equidistant from the points on the circle. Chord, a segment whose endpoints lie on the circle. Circumference, the length of one circuit along the circle, or the distance around the circle and it is a special case of a chord, namely the longest chord, and it is twice the radius. Disc, the region of the bounded by a circle. Lens, the intersection of two discs, passant, a coplanar straight line that does not touch the circle. Radius, a line segment joining the centre of the circle to any point on the circle itself, or the length of such a segment, sector, a region bounded by two radii and an arc lying between the radii. Segment, a region, not containing the centre, bounded by a chord, secant, an extended chord, a coplanar straight line cutting the circle at two points.
Semicircle, an arc that extends from one of a diameters endpoints to the other, in non-technical common usage it may mean the diameter and its interior, a two dimensional region, that is technically called a half-disc. A half-disc is a case of a segment, namely the largest one. Tangent, a straight line that touches the circle at a single point. The word circle derives from the Greek κίρκος/κύκλος, itself a metathesis of the Homeric Greek κρίκος, the origins of the words circus and circuit are closely related. The circle has been known since before the beginning of recorded history, natural circles would have been observed, such as the Moon, and a short plant stalk blowing in the wind on sand, which forms a circle shape in the sand. The circle is the basis for the wheel, with related inventions such as gears, in mathematics, the study of the circle has helped inspire the development of geometry and calculus. Some highlights in the history of the circle are,1700 BCE – The Rhind papyrus gives a method to find the area of a circular field.
The result corresponds to 256/81 as a value of π.300 BCE – Book 3 of Euclids Elements deals with the properties of circles
Donato Bramante, born as Donato di Pascuccio dAntonio and known as Bramante Lazzari, was an Italian architect. He introduced Renaissance architecture to Milan and the High Renaissance style to Rome and his Tempietto marked the beginning of the High Renaissance in Rome when Pope Julius II appointed him to build a sanctuary over the spot where Peter was allegedly crucified. Bramante was born under the name Donato dAugnolo, Donato di Pascuccio dAntonio, here, in 1467, Luciano Laurana was adding to the Palazzo Ducale an arcaded courtyard and other Renaissance features to Federico da Montefeltros ducal palace. Around 1474, Bramante moved to Milan, a city with a deep Gothic architectural tradition, and built several churches in the new Antique style. The Duke, Ludovico Sforza, made him virtually his court architect, beginning in 1476, space was limited, and Bramante made a theatrical apse in bas-relief, combining the painterly arts of perspective with Roman details. There is a sacristy, surmounted by a dome.
In Milan, Bramante built the tribune of Santa Maria delle Grazie, other works include the Cloisters of SantAmbrogio, Milan. However, in 1499, with his Sforza patron driven from Milan by an invading French army, Bramante made his way to Rome, in Rome, he was soon recognized by Cardinal Della Rovere, shortly to become Pope Julius II. Despite its small scale, the construction has all the proportions and symmetry of Classical structures, surrounded by slender Doric columns. According to an engraving by Sebastiano Serlio, Bramante planned to set it within a colonnaded courtyard. In November 1503, Julius engaged Bramante for the construction of the grandest European architectural commission of the 16th century, the cornerstone of the first of the great piers of the crossing was laid with ceremony on 17 April 1506. Very few drawings by Bramante survive, though some by his assistants do, Bramantes plan envisaged four great chapels filling the corner spaces between the equal transepts, each one capped with a smaller dome surrounding the great dome over the crossing.
So Bramantes original plan was much more Romano-Byzantine in its forms than the basilica that was actually built. Bramante worked on other commissions. Among his earliest works in Rome, before the Basilicas construction was under way, is the cloister of Santa Maria della Pace near Piazza Navona, Santa Maria presso San Satiro, Milan, ca. Palazzo Caprini, started around 1510 Leon Battista Alberti Giorgio Vasari Davies, Bramante, The Dictionary of Art, Vol. IV, New York, Grove, pp. 642–653, ISBN9781884446009. Bramante, Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed. Vol. IV, New York, Charles Scribners Sons,1878, Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed. Vol. IV, Cambridge University Press,1911, p.418. Donato Bramante Source Information, Pictures & Documentaries about Donato