Robert M. La Follette
Robert Marion La Follette Sr. was an American lawyer and politician. He served as the Governor of Wisconsin. A Republican for most of his career, he ran for President of the United States as the nominee of his own Progressive Party in the 1924 presidential election. Historian John D. Buenker describes La Follette as "the most celebrated figure in Wisconsin history." Born and raised in Wisconsin, La Follette won election as the Dane County District Attorney in 1880. Four years he was elected to the United States House of Representatives, where he was friendly with party leaders like William McKinley. After losing his seat in the 1890 election, La Follette embraced progressivism and built up a coalition of disaffected Republicans, he sought election as governor in 1898 before winning the 1900 gubernatorial election. As governor of Wisconsin, La Follette compiled a progressive record, implementing primary elections and tax reform. La Follette won re-election in 1902 and 1904, but in 1905 the legislature elected him to the United States Senate.
He emerged as a national progressive leader in the Senate clashing with conservatives like Nelson Aldrich. He supported President William Howard Taft but broke with Taft after the latter failed to push a reduction in tariff rates, he challenged Taft for the Republican presidential nomination in the 1912 presidential election, but his candidacy was overshadowed by that of former President Theodore Roosevelt. La Follette's refusal to support Roosevelt alienated many progressives, though La Follette continued to serve in the Senate, he lost his stature as the leader of that chamber's progressive Republicans. La Follette supported some of President Woodrow Wilson's policies, but he broke with the president over foreign policy. During World War I, La Follette was one of the most outspoken opponents of the administration's domestic and international policies. With the Republican Party and the Democratic Party each nominating conservative candidates in the 1924 presidential election, left-wing groups coalesced behind La Follette's third-party candidacy.
With the support of the Socialist Party, farmer's groups, labor unions, others, La Follette appeared to be a serious threat to unseat Republican President Calvin Coolidge. La Follette stated that his chief goal was to break the "combined power of the private monopoly system over the political and economic life of the American people," and he called for government ownership of railroads and electric utilities, cheap credit for farmers, the outlawing of child labor, stronger laws to help labor unions, protections for civil liberties, his diverse coalition proved challenging to manage, the Republicans rallied to claim victory in the 1924 election. La Follette won 16.6% of the popular vote, one of the best third party performances in U. S. history. He died shortly after the presidential election, but his sons, Robert M. La Follette Jr. and Philip La Follette, succeeded him as progressive leaders in Wisconsin. Robert La Follette was born on a farm in Primrose, Wisconsin, on June 14, 1855, he was the youngest of five children born to Josiah La Follette and Mary Ferguson, who had settled in Wisconsin in 1850.
Josiah descended from French Huguenots. Josiah died less than a year after Robert was born, in 1862 Mary married John Saxton, a wealthy, seventy-year old merchant. La Follette's poor relationship with Saxton made for a difficult childhood. Though his mother was a Democrat, La Follette became, like most of his neighbors, a member of the Republican Party. La Follette began attending school at the age of four, though he worked on the family farm. After Saxton died in 1872, La Follette, his mother, his older sister moved to the nearby town of Madison. La Follette began attending the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1875 and graduated in 1879, he was a mediocre student, but established a student newspaper. He was influenced by the university's president, John Bascom, on issues of morality and social justice. During his time at the university, he became a vegetarian, declaring that his diet gave him more energy and a clear head. La Follette met Belle Case while attending the University of Wisconsin, they married on December 31, 1881, at her family home in Baraboo, Wisconsin.
She became a leader in the feminist movement, an advocate of women's suffrage and an important influence on the development of La Follette's ideas. La Follette was admitted to the state bar association in 1880; that same year, he won election as the district attorney for Dane County, beginning a long career in politics. He became a protege of George E. Bryant, a wealthy Republican Party businessman and landowner from Madison. In 1884, he won election to the United States House of Representatives, becoming the youngest member of the subsequent 49th Congress, his political views were broadly in line with those of other Northern Republicans at the time. He did, however stray from the wishes of party leaders, as he voted for the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 and the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, he denounced racial discrimination in the Southern United States and favored the Lodge Bill, which would have provided federal protections against the mass disenfranchisement of African Americans in the South.
At 35 years old, La Follette lost his seat in the 1890 Democratic landslide. Several factors contributed to his loss, including a compulsory-education bill passed by the Republican-controlled state legislature in 1889; because the law required major subjects in schools to be taught in En
Wisconsin is a U. S. state located in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, Lake Superior to the north. Wisconsin is the 20th most populous; the state capital is Madison, its largest city is Milwaukee, located on the western shore of Lake Michigan. The state is divided into 72 counties. Wisconsin's geography is diverse, having been impacted by glaciers during the Ice Age with the exception of the Driftless Area; the Northern Highland and Western Upland along with a part of the Central Plain occupies the western part of the state, with lowlands stretching to the shore of Lake Michigan. Wisconsin is second to Michigan in the length of its Great Lakes coastline. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European settlers entered the state, many of whom emigrated from Germany and Scandinavia. Like neighboring Minnesota, the state remains a center of German American and Scandinavian American culture.
Wisconsin is known as "America's Dairyland" because it is one of the nation's leading dairy producers famous for its cheese. Manufacturing, information technology, cranberries and tourism are major contributors to the state's economy; the word Wisconsin originates from the name given to the Wisconsin River by one of the Algonquian-speaking Native American groups living in the region at the time of European contact. French explorer Jacques Marquette was the first European to reach the Wisconsin River, arriving in 1673 and calling the river Meskousing in his journal. Subsequent French writers changed the spelling from Meskousing to Ouisconsin, over time this became the name for both the Wisconsin River and the surrounding lands. English speakers anglicized the spelling from Ouisconsin to Wisconsin when they began to arrive in large numbers during the early 19th century; the legislature of Wisconsin Territory made the current spelling official in 1845. The Algonquin word for Wisconsin and its original meaning have both grown obscure.
Interpretations vary. One leading theory holds that the name originated from the Miami word Meskonsing, meaning "it lies red", a reference to the setting of the Wisconsin River as it flows through the reddish sandstone of the Wisconsin Dells. Other theories include claims that the name originated from one of a variety of Ojibwa words meaning "red stone place", "where the waters gather", or "great rock". Wisconsin has been home to a wide variety of cultures over the past 14,000 years; the first people arrived around 10,000 BCE during the Wisconsin Glaciation. These early inhabitants, called Paleo-Indians, hunted now-extinct ice age animals such as the Boaz mastodon, a prehistoric mastodon skeleton unearthed along with spear points in southwest Wisconsin. After the ice age ended around 8000 BCE, people in the subsequent Archaic period lived by hunting and gathering food from wild plants. Agricultural societies emerged over the Woodland period between 1000 BCE to 1000 CE. Toward the end of this period, Wisconsin was the heartland of the "Effigy Mound culture", which built thousands of animal-shaped mounds across the landscape.
Between 1000 and 1500 CE, the Mississippian and Oneota cultures built substantial settlements including the fortified village at Aztalan in southeast Wisconsin. The Oneota may be the ancestors of the modern Ioway and Ho-Chunk tribes who shared the Wisconsin region with the Menominee at the time of European contact. Other Native American groups living in Wisconsin when Europeans first settled included the Ojibwa, Fox and Pottawatomie, who migrated to Wisconsin from the east between 1500 and 1700; the first European to visit what became Wisconsin was the French explorer Jean Nicolet. He canoed west from Georgian Bay through the Great Lakes in 1634, it is traditionally assumed that he came ashore near Green Bay at Red Banks. Pierre Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers visited Green Bay again in 1654–1666 and Chequamegon Bay in 1659–1660, where they traded for fur with local Native Americans. In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet became the first to record a journey on the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway all the way to the Mississippi River near Prairie du Chien.
Frenchmen like Nicholas Perrot continued to ply the fur trade across Wisconsin through the 17th and 18th centuries, but the French made no permanent settlements in Wisconsin before Great Britain won control of the region following the French and Indian War in 1763. So, French traders continued to work in the region after the war, some, beginning with Charles de Langlade in 1764, settled in Wisconsin permanently, rather than returning to British-controlled Canada; the British took over Wisconsin during the French and Indian War, taking control of Green Bay in 1761 and gaining control of all of Wisconsin in 1763. Like the French, the British were interested in little but the fur trade. One notable event in the fur trading industry in Wisconsin occurred in 1791, when two free African Americans set up a fur trading post among the Menominee at present day Marinette; the first permanent settlers French Canadians, some Anglo-New Englanders and a few African American freedmen, arrived in Wisconsin while it was under British control.
Charles Michel de Langlade is recognized as the first settler, establishing a trading post at Green Bay in 1745, moving there permanently in 1764. Settlement began at Prairie du Chien around 1781; the French residents at the trading post in what is now Green Bay, referred to the t
Phi Kappa Psi
Phi Kappa Psi known as Phi Psi, is an American collegiate social fraternity, founded by William Henry Letterman and Charles Page Thomas Moore in the southwest corner of the second floor of Widow Letterman's home on the campus of Jefferson College in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania on February 19, 1852. There are over 100 chapters and colonies at accredited four year colleges and universities throughout the United States. More than 179,000 men have been initiated into Phi Kappa Psi since its founding. Phi Kappa Psi and Phi Gamma Delta, both founded at the same college, form the Jefferson Duo. In the winter of 1850, a typhoid fever epidemic hit Jefferson College in Pennsylvania. Many students left school. Among those who remained were William Henry Letterman and Charles Page Thomas Moore, they chose to care for their classmates who were stricken with the contagious disease, a strong bond was formed. In the following school year and Moore decided to found a fraternity based on "the great joy of serving others" that they experienced during the epidemic.
On February 19, 1852, Phi Kappa Psi was founded. The Executive Council of Phi Kappa Psi is composed of the President, Vice President, Treasurer, 6 Archons. Since its founding, Phi Kappa Psi has been controlled by undergraduates; this unique system of governance is achieved by a governing body, the Executive Council, made up of a majority of elected undergraduates. These undergraduates, known as Archons, represent the six Districts of Phi Kappa Psi, which divide the nation into equal parts based on the number of chapters represented. Archons are elected during meetings of each District during Woodrow Wilson Leadership Schools, held during odd-numbered years. Four alumni serve on the Executive Council and are elected at Grand Arch Councils, held during even-numbered years. Phi Kappa Psi's first form of government centered on a Grand Chapter. One chapter at a time was designated the Grand Chapter, it was responsible for governing the national fraternity; this lasted until 1886. In 1992, Phi Kappa Psi began to award one exceptional chapter with the Grand Chapter Award.
Its name is derived from the fraternity's first form of government. This award was granted biennially at Grand Arch Councils. 2001 marked the first time that this award was granted in an odd-numbered year, it has been an annual award since. William Henry Letterman was born in Pennsylvania, he was twenty years old when Phi Kappa Psi was founded by him and his colleague Charles Page Thomas Moore. William graduated from Jefferson College and went on to receive his M. D. from Jefferson Medical College in 1856, where he was president of his graduating class. His father died early in William's life, he is the younger brother of Jonathan Letterman, known as the Father of Battlefield Medicine, whose system enabled thousands of wounded men to be recovered and treated during the American Civil War. He died on May 23, 1881, was buried in the cemetery at Duffau, Texas. Charles Page Thomas Moore was a co-founder of the Phi Kappa Psi Fraternity in 1852 at Jefferson College in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, he was born in Virginia in a portion of the state along the Ohio River now located in West Virginia.
Moore was a justice of the West Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals, died in West Virginia. Officers may vary from each chapter with some chapters not using certain positions and others creating new positions; the duties of each officer may vary from each chapter as well. The top 9 officers are common to all chapters. GP – The GP is the President of the chapter, he presides over chapter meetings as well as other chapter activities. The GP attends both the university's Greek Leaders Retreat as well as National's President Leadership Academy, both which occur yearly, he is responsible for the security of the charter and ritualistic materials. VGP – The VGP is the Vice President of the chapter, he works with the GP in running chapter meetings as well as other chapter activities. The VGP presides over the chapter's executive committee and works with other committees within the chapter; the VGP is in charge of the local fraternity's Grievance Board, in charge of assigning just punishment for misconduct that may happen amongst chapter brothers.
The VGP must be prepared to take over the GP's duties. AG – The AG is the most direct connection the chapter house has to national headquarters; the AG is in charge of writing the Chapter's semi-annual report for the National Fraternity, in charge of public relations for the local chapter. This means he is responsible for generating favorable publicity for Phi Kappa Psi in campus and community media. P – The P is in charge of distributing and collecting live-in contracts to the Brothers and Pledges, he makes sure everyone pays their dues on time. BG – The BG is in charge of the book keeping at all chapter meetings, he records the minutes of the chapter meeting and makes them available for the brothers to see afterwards. SG – The SG collects and documents various activities that the chapter is involved in throughout the academic year, he is in charge of scheduling pictures for the composite as well as ordering it. Hod. – The Hod is the messenger of the chapter. He is held responsible for informing all brothers of activiti
A jurist is someone who researches and studies jurisprudence. Such a person can work as an legal writer or law lecturer. In the United Kingdom, New Zealand, South Africa, in many other Commonwealth countries, the word jurist sometimes refers to a barrister, whereas in the United States of America and Canada it refers to a judge, thus a jurist, someone who studies and comments on law, stands in contrast with a lawyer, someone who applies law on behalf of clients and thinks about it in practical terms. There is a fundamental difference between that of a jurist. Many legal scholars and authors have explained that a person may be both a lawyer and a jurist, but a jurist is not a lawyer, nor a lawyer a jurist. Both must possess an acquaintance with the term "law"; the work of the jurist is the study and arrangement of the law—work which can be done wholly in the seclusion of the library. The work of the lawyer is the satisfaction of the wishes of particular human beings for legal assistance—work which requires dealing to some extent therefore with people in the office, in the court room, or in the market-place.
The term jurist has another sense, wider, synonymous with legal professional, i.e. anyone professionally involved with law and justice. In some other European languages, a word resembling jurist is used in this major sense; this is a sequential classification of some notable jurists. History of the legal profession History of the American legal profession Law professor Legal profession List of jurists Paralegal Media related to Jurists at Wikimedia Commons
Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States. Established pursuant to Article III of the U. S. Constitution in 1789, it has original jurisdiction over a narrow range of cases, including suits between two or more states and those involving ambassadors, it has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all federal court and state court cases that involve a point of federal constitutional or statutory law. The Court has the power of judicial review, the ability to invalidate a statute for violating a provision of the Constitution or an executive act for being unlawful. However, it may act only within the context of a case in an area of law over which it has jurisdiction; the court may decide cases having political overtones, but it has ruled that it does not have power to decide nonjusticiable political questions. Each year it agrees to hear about one hundred to one hundred fifty of the more than seven thousand cases that it is asked to review.
According to federal statute, the court consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices, all of whom are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Once appointed, justices have lifetime tenure unless they resign, retire, or are removed from office; each justice has a single vote in deciding. When the chief justice is in the majority, he decides. In modern discourse, justices are categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. While a far greater number of cases in recent history have been decided unanimously, decisions in cases of the highest profile have come down to just one single vote, exemplifying the justices' alignment according to these categories; the Court meets in the Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C, its law enforcement arm is the Supreme Court of the United States Police. It was while debating the division of powers between the legislative and executive departments that delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention established the parameters for the national judiciary.
Creating a "third branch" of government was a novel idea. Early on, some delegates argued that national laws could be enforced by state courts, while others, including James Madison, advocated for a national judicial authority consisting of various tribunals chosen by the national legislature, it was proposed that the judiciary should have a role in checking the executive power to veto or revise laws. In the end, the Framers compromised by sketching only a general outline of the judiciary, vesting federal judicial power in "one supreme Court, in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish", they delineated neither the exact powers and prerogatives of the Supreme Court nor the organization of the Template:Judicial branch as a whole. The 1st United States Congress provided the detailed organization of a federal judiciary through the Judiciary Act of 1789; the Supreme Court, the country's highest judicial tribunal, was to sit in the nation's Capital and would be composed of a chief justice and five associate justices.
The act divided the country into judicial districts, which were in turn organized into circuits. Justices were required to "ride circuit" and hold circuit court twice a year in their assigned judicial district. After signing the act into law, President George Washington nominated the following people to serve on the court: John Jay for chief justice and John Rutledge, William Cushing, Robert H. Harrison, James Wilson, John Blair Jr. as associate justices. All six were confirmed by the Senate on September 26, 1789. Harrison, declined to serve. In his place, Washington nominated James Iredell; the Supreme Court held its inaugural session from February 2 through February 10, 1790, at the Royal Exchange in New York City the U. S. capital. A second session was held there in August 1790; the earliest sessions of the court were devoted to organizational proceedings, as the first cases did not reach it until 1791. When the national capital moved to Philadelphia in 1790, the Supreme Court did so as well.
After meeting at Independence Hall, the Court established its chambers at City Hall. Under Chief Justices Jay and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases; as the Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the court's full membership to make decisions, starting with a quorum of four justices in 1789; the court lacked a home of its own and had little prestige, a situation not helped by the era's highest-profile case, Chisholm v. Georgia, reversed within two years by the adoption of the Eleventh Amendment; the court's power and prestige grew during the Marshall Court. Under Marshall, the court established the power of judicial review over acts of Congress, including specifying itself as the supreme expositor of the Constitution and making several important constitutional rulings that gave shape and substance to the balance of power between the federal government and states; the Marshall Court ended the practice of each justice issuin
Great Famine (Ireland)
The Great Famine, or the Great Hunger, was a period in Ireland between 1845 and 1849 of mass starvation and emigration. With the most affected areas in the west and south of Ireland, where the Irish language was spoken, the period was contemporaneously known in Irish as An Drochshaol, loosely translated as the "hard times"; the worst year of the period, that of "Black 47", is known in Irish as Bliain an Drochshaoil. During the famine, about one million people died and a million more emigrated from Ireland, causing the island's population to fall by between 20% and 25%; the proximate cause of the famine was a natural event, a potato blight, which infected potato crops throughout Europe during the 1840s, precipitating some 100,000 deaths in total in the worst affected areas and among similar tenant farmers of Europe. The food crisis influenced much of the unrest in the more widespread European Revolutions of 1848; the event is sometimes referred to as the Irish Potato Famine outside Ireland. The impact of the blight was exacerbated by political belief in laissez-faire economics.
The famine was a watershed in the history of Ireland, which from 1801 to 1922 was ruled directly by Westminster as part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Together with the Napoleonic Wars, the Great Famine in Ireland produced the greatest loss of life in 19th-century Europe; the famine and its effects permanently changed the island's demographic and cultural landscape, producing an estimated two million refugees and spurring a century-long population decline. For both the native Irish and those in the resulting diaspora, the famine entered folk memory; the strained relations between many Irish and the British Crown soured further both during and after the famine, heightening ethnic and sectarian tensions, boosting Irish nationalism and republicanism in Ireland and among Irish emigrants in the United States and elsewhere. The potato blight returned to Europe in 1879, but by that point the labourers of Ireland had, in the Legacy of the Great Irish Famine, begun the "Land War", described as one of the largest agrarian movements to take place in 19th-century Europe.
The movement, organized by the Land League, continued the political campaign for the Three Fs, issued in 1850 by the Tenant Right League and developed during the Great Famine. When the potato blight returned in 1879, the League boycotted "notorious landlords" and its members physically blocked evictions of farmers; as a result, the consequent reduction in homelessness and house demolition resulted in a drastic reduction in the number of deaths. Since the Acts of Union in January 1801, Ireland had been part of the United Kingdom. Executive power lay in the hands of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and Chief Secretary for Ireland, who were appointed by the British government. Ireland sent 105 members of parliament to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, Irish representative peers elected 28 of their own number to sit for life in the House of Lords. Between 1832 and 1859, 70 % of Irish representatives were the sons of landowners. In the 40 years that followed the union, successive British governments grappled with the problems of governing a country which had, as Benjamin Disraeli put it in 1844, "a starving population, an absentee aristocracy, an alien established Protestant church, in addition the weakest executive in the world."
One historian calculated that, between 1801 and 1845, there had been 114 commissions and 61 special committees enquiring into the state of Ireland, that "without exception their findings prophesied disaster. Lectures printed in 1847 by John Hughes, Bishop of New York, are a contemporary exploration into the antecedent causes the political climate, in which the Irish famine occurred. During the Famine, Ireland produced enough food and wool to feed and clothe double its nine million people; when Ireland had suffered a famine in 1782–83, its ports were closed to keep Irish-grown food in Ireland to feed the Irish. Local food prices promptly dropped. Merchants lobbied against the export ban, but Grattan's Parliament, exercising the short-lived powers within the Constitution of 1782, overrode their protests. There was no such export ban in the 1840s; some historians have argued, because exports were not stopped, the famine was artificial and a consequence of the British government's failure to retain foodstuffs in the country.
In the 17th and 18th centuries, Irish Catholics were discriminated against. They constituted the vast majority of the population, but they had been prohibited by the penal laws from purchasing or leasing land, holding political office, living in or within 5 miles of a corporate town, obtaining education, entering a profession, doing many other things necessary for a person to succeed and prosper in society. By 1793, such laws had been reformed and the Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829 allowed Irish Catholics to again sit in parliament. During the 18th century, the "middleman system" for managing landed. Rent collection was left in middlemen; this assured the landlord of a regular income, relieved them of direct responsibility, while leaving tenants open to exploitation by the middlemen. Catholics, the bulk of whom lived in conditions of poverty and insecurity despite Catholic emancipation in 1829, made up 80% of the population. At the top of the "social pyramid" was the "ascendancy class", the English and Anglo-Irish f
Progressive Party (United States, 1912)
The Progressive Party was a third party in the United States formed in 1912 by former President Theodore Roosevelt after he lost the presidential nomination of the Republican Party to his former protégé, incumbent President William Howard Taft. The new party was known for taking advanced positions on progressive reforms and attracting some leading reformers. After the party's defeat in the 1912 presidential election, it went into rapid decline, disappearing by 1918; the Progressive Party was popularly nicknamed the "Bull Moose Party" since Roosevelt said that he felt "strong as a bull moose" both before and after an assassination attempt on the campaign trail. As a member of the Republican Party, Roosevelt had served as President from 1901 to 1909, becoming progressive in the years of his presidency. In the 1908 presidential election, Roosevelt helped ensure that he would be succeeded by Secretary of War Taft. Although Taft entered office determined to advance Roosevelt's Square Deal domestic agenda, he stumbled badly during the Payne–Aldrich Tariff Act debate and the Pinchot–Ballinger controversy.
The political fallout of these events divided the Republican Party and alienated Roosevelt from his former friend. Progressive Republican leader Robert La Follette had announced a challenge to Taft for the 1912 Republican nomination, but many of his supporters shifted to Roosevelt after the former President decided to seek a third presidential term, permissible under the Constitution prior to the ratification of the Twenty-second Amendment. At the 1912 Republican National Convention, Taft narrowly defeated Roosevelt for the party's presidential nomination. After the convention, Frank Munsey, George Walbridge Perkins and other progressive Republicans established the Progressive Party and nominated a ticket of Roosevelt and Hiram Johnson of California at the 1912 Progressive National Convention; the new party attracted several Republican officeholders, although nearly all of them remained loyal to the Republican Party—in California and the Progressives took control of the Republican Party. The party's platform built on Roosevelt's Square Deal domestic program and called for several progressive reforms.
The platform asserted that "to dissolve the unholy alliance between corrupt business and corrupt politics is the first task of the statesmanship of the day". Proposals on the platform included restrictions on campaign finance contributions, a reduction of the tariff and the establishment of a social insurance system, an eight-hour workday and women's suffrage; the party was split on the regulation of large corporations, with some party members disappointed that the platform did not contain a stronger call for "trust-busting". Party members had different outlooks on foreign policy, with pacifists like Jane Addams opposing Roosevelt's call for a naval build-up. In the 1912 election, Roosevelt won 27.4% of the popular vote compared to Taft's 23.2%, making Roosevelt the only third party presidential nominee to finish with a higher share of the popular vote than a major party's presidential nominee. Both Taft and Roosevelt finished behind Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson, who won 41.8% of the popular vote and the vast majority of the electoral vote.
The Progressives elected several Congressional and state legislative candidates, but the election was marked by Democratic gains. The 1916 Progressive National Convention was held in conjunction with the 1916 Republican National Convention in hopes of reunifying the parties with Roosevelt as the presidential nominee of both parties; the Progressive Party collapsed after Roosevelt refused the Progressive nomination and insisted his supporters vote for Charles Evans Hughes, the moderately progressive Republican nominee. Most Progressives joined the Republican Party, but some converted to the Democratic Party and Progressives like Harold L. Ickes would play a role in President Franklin D. Roosevelt's administration. In 1924, La Follette set up another Progressive Party for his presidential run. A third Progressive Party was set up in 1948 for the presidential campaign of former Vice President Henry A. Wallace. Roosevelt left office in 1909, he had selected Taft, his Secretary of War, to succeed him as presidential candidate and Taft won the 1908 presidential election.
Roosevelt became disappointed by Taft's conservative policies. Taft upset Roosevelt when he used the Sherman Anti-Trust Act to sue U. S. Steel for an action that President Roosevelt had explicitly approved, they became hostile and Roosevelt decided to seek the presidency. Roosevelt entered the campaign late as Taft was being challenged by progressive leader Senator Robert La Follette of Wisconsin. Most of La Follette's supporters switched to Roosevelt. Nine of the states where progressive elements were strongest had set up preference primaries, which Roosevelt won, but Taft had worked far harder than Roosevelt to control the Republican Party's organizational operations and the mechanism for choosing its presidential nominee, the 1912 Republican National Convention. For example, he bought up the votes of delegates from the southern states, copying the technique Roosevelt himself used in 1904; the Republican National Convention rejected Roosevelt's protests. Roosevelt and his supporters walked out and the convention re-nominated Taft.
The next day, Roosevelt supporters met to form a new political party of their own. California governor Hiram Johnson became a new convention was scheduled for August. Most of the funding came from wealthy sponsors, magazine publisher Frank A. Munsey provided $135,000. S. Steel and chairman of the International Harvester Company, gave $130,000 and became its exec