U.S. Route 84
U. S. Route 84 is an east–west U. S. Highway, it started as a short Georgia–Alabama route in the original 1926 scheme, but by 1941 it had been extended all the way to Colorado. The highway's eastern terminus is a short distance east of Midway, Georgia, at an interchange with Interstate 95; the road continues toward the nearby Atlantic Ocean as a county road. Its western terminus is in Pagosa Springs, Colorado, at an intersection with U. S. 160. The section from Brunswick, Georgia to Roscoe, Texas has been designated by five state legislatures as part of the El Camino East/West Corridor; the designation was in recognition of its history as a migration route from the Atlantic coast to the present Mexico–United States border, one of the routes that Spanish settlers called El Camino Real. The designation is intended to promote the route for both tourism and NAFTA-facilitated trade with Mexico. States are asking for federal funds to widen the US 84 El Camino East/West Corridor; the western terminus of US 84, Pagosa Springs, was made famous by C. W. McCall in the 1975 song and album Wolf Creek Pass.
US 84 ends 1 mile east of downtown Pagosa Springs at a T-intersection with US 160. South of Pagosa Springs, the 28 miles of the Colorado section of US 84 pass through a portion of San Juan National Forest; the highway climbs Confar Hill, a drainage divide between the Rio Blanco and Navajo River, before descending into the village of Chromo and passing into New Mexico. US 84 enters Rio Arriba County, New Mexico 28 miles south of its terminus at US 160. About 6 miles south of the Colorado–New Mexico state line, US 64 comes from the west and travels concurrently with US 84 for the next 28 miles. Only 3 miles east of this intersection, the concurrency crosses the Continental Divide at Sargent Pass, elevation 7,718 feet above sea level or more than 3,100 feet lower than Wolf Creek Pass, the next Continental Divide highway pass to the north. Therefore, only 37 miles of US 84 are located west of the Continental Divide. About 12 miles east of the intersection, US 64/US 84 enters the town of Chama. At a T-intersection, New Mexico State Road 17 enters from the north and terminates at said intersection, while US 64 and US 84 enter from the south and west.
After heading south from Chama, US 64 and US 84 combine for about 14 miles to Tierra Amarilla, where US 64 departs from US 84 and heads southeast, while US 84 continues south. About 57 miles down the road, US 84 is joined by US 285 south of the small community of Chili. About 5 miles further, US 84/US 285 enters the city of Española from the north as North Paseo de Onate Street. At the south end of the town, US 84/US 285 becomes an expressway. About 9 miles further, US 84/US 285 becomes a limited-access freeway. 15 miles further south, the two return to surface street status, travel past downtown Santa Fe via St. Francis Drive. On the south side of Santa Fe at Interstate 25's exit 282A, US 84/US 285 merges with northbound I-25/US 85. All four highways head east and to the south to avoid the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Just before turning north, US 285 continues south. After winding north and south, the freeway begins heading north, US 84 exits about 55 miles at exit 339 near Romeroville and travels in an east/southeast direction, while I-25/US 85 continue north to Colorado.
Following a path southeast and south for 42 miles, US 84 merges with I-40 at I-40's exit 256. After 17 miles I-40/US 84 enters Santa Rosa. About 21 miles from its confluence with I-40, US 84 diverges at exit 277; the highway travels south/southeast for 42 miles until merging with US 60 in downtown Fort Sumner. From the intersection with US 60, US 60/US 84 travels east, passing through Taiban and Melrose before intersecting US 70 after 61 miles in Clovis. From the intersection with US 70, US 64/US 70/US 84 travels east 8.7 miles entering Texico. Here, about 280 feet before the Texas–New Mexico state line, US 60 splits from US 70/US 84 with US 70/US 84 continuing east into Farwell, Texas. Despite being an east-west route, US-84 is signed as north-south between Ft. Sumner and the Colorado border. US 70/US 84 crosses into Texas at Farwell. After passing through Farwell, US 70/US 84 veers to the southeast, continuing as a concurrency until Muleshoe. From Muleshoe, US 70 leaves the route, while US 84 continues on a southeasterly direction across the level plains of the Llano Estacado.
Along this stretch, US 84 travels parallel to the BNSF Railway, crosses a sandy section called the Muleshoe Dunes, passes Littlefield, the birthplace of country singer Waylon Jennings. US 84 continues in a southeasterly direction through cotton fields and small towns such as Anton and Shallowater entering Lubbock, the largest city in the South Plains and the birthplace of Buddy Holly. Signed as Avenue Q, US 84 passes through the heart of downtown Lubbock before making a sharp easterly turn on the southeast side of the city, where it is known as the Slaton Highway. After bypassing the town of Slaton, US 84 makes another gentle turn to the east, following a southeasterly heading through Post and Roscoe, where it merges with I-20. From this point, US 84 follows I-20, until Abilene, where it leaves the interstate, making a hard southerly turn and forming the western side of a three-quarter loop around the city. From the south side of Abilene, US 84 continues as a concurrency with US 83 (signed as US 84 West/East
St. Marys River (Florida–Georgia)
The St. Marys River is a 126-mile-long river in the southeastern United States. From near its source in the Okefenokee Swamp, to its mouth at the Atlantic Ocean, it forms a portion of the border between the U. S. states of Florida. The river serves as the southernmost point in the state of Georgia; the St. Marys River rises as a tiny stream, River Styx, flowing from the western edge of Trail Ridge, the geological relic of a barrier island/dune system, into the southeastern Okefenokee Swamp. Arching to the northwest, it loses its channel within the swamp turns back to the southwest and reforms a stream, at which point it becomes the St. Marys River. Joined by another stream, Moccasin Creek, the river emerges from Okefenokee Swamp at Baxter, Florida/Moniac, Georgia, it flows south east north east-southeast emptying its waters into the Atlantic, near St. Marys and Fernandina Beach, Florida. On 6 July 1805 Lieutenant Robert Pigot of HMS Cambrian arrived off the harbour in the French privateer schooner Matilda, which the British had captured three days earlier.
On 7 July Pigot took Matilda twelve miles up the St Marys River to attack three vessels reported to be there. Along the way militia and riflemen fired on Matilda; the British reached the three vessels, which were lashed in a line cross the river. They consisted of a Spanish privateer schooner and her two British prizes, the ship Golden Grove and the brig Ceres, which the Spanish privateer had captured some two months earlier; the Spaniards had armed Golden Grove with eight 6-pounder guns and six swivels, given her a crew of 50 men. The brig too was armed with small arms; the Spanish schooner carried a crew of 70 men. Pigot engaged the vessels for an hour, after Matilda had grounded, took his crew in her boats and captured Golden Grove; the British captured the other two vessels. Lastly, Pigot fired with a field gun, dispersing them; the British had two men killed, 14 wounded, including Pigot, who had received two bullet wounds to head and one to a leg. A crowd of Americans on the Georgia side of the river watched the entire battle.
See Battle of Fort Peter Martin, Charles. Where the River Ends. New York, Broadway Books, 2008. ISBN 9780767926980. An artist and his dying wife fulfill her wish of one last canoe ride from the headwaters of the St. Marys to the sea. List of rivers of Florida List of rivers of Georgia South Atlantic-Gulf Water Resource Region State of Florida: Guide to the St. Marys River St. Marys River Watershed - Florida DEP
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Bristol is an unincorporated community in Pierce County, United States. Bristol is located at the intersection of the concurrent Georgia State Route 15 and Georgia State Route 121, which runs north-south through Bristol, Georgia State Route 32, which runs east-west. Bristol is 10 miles north of Blackshear. Bristol is known as Lightsey. A variant name was "Lightsey"; the Georgia General Assembly incorporated Bristol as a town in 1914. According to tradition, the present name is in England. Bristol's charter was dissolved in 1995
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, the state's capital and most populous city, has been named a global city.
Atlanta's metropolitan area contains about 55% of the population of the entire state. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, to the west by Alabama; the state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level. Of the states east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures; the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II.
The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king; the Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861.
The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that U. S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the Mississippi; this forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service one of every five who served.
In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union. With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state established a white primary, they constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population, African American dropped thereafter to 28% due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States, Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South; the overwhelming number of victims were male. Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community, Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as a national leader in the civil rights movement.
King joining with others to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South. By the 1960s, the proportion of
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820