United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
Lamotte Township, Crawford County, Illinois
Lamotte Township is one of ten townships in Crawford County, Illinois, USA. As of the 2010 census, its population was 2,046 and it contained 995 housing units, its name changed from Palestine Township sometime before 1921. According to the 2010 census, the township has a total area of 51.41 square miles, of which 50.81 square miles is land and 0.59 square miles is water. The Wabash River defines its eastern border. Palestine Gordon Richwoods Trimble The township contains these seven cemeteries: Barbee, East Union, Higgins, Kitchell and Oak Grove. Illinois Route 33 Robinson Municipal Airport Leaverton Park Hutsonville Community Unit School District 1 Palestine Community Unit School District 3 Robinson Community Unit School District 2 Oblong Community Unit School District 4 Illinois' 15th congressional district State House District 109 State Senate District 55 "Lamotte Township, Crawford County, Illinois". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2010-01-10.
United States Census Bureau 2007 TIGER/Line Shapefiles United States National Atlas City-Data.com Illinois State Archives
A civil township is a used unit of local government in the United States, subordinate to a county. The term town is used in New England, New York, Wisconsin to refer to the equivalent of the civil township in these states. Specific responsibilities and the degree of autonomy vary based on each state. Civil townships are distinct from survey townships, but in states that have both, the boundaries coincide and may geographically subdivide a county; the U. S. Census Bureau classifies civil townships as minor civil divisions. There are 20 states with civil townships. Township functions are overseen by a governing board and a clerk or trustee. Township officers include justice of the peace, road commissioner, assessor and surveyor. In the 20th century, many townships added a township administrator or supervisor to the officers as an executive for the board. In some cases, townships run local libraries, senior citizen services, youth services, disabled citizen services, emergency assistance, cemetery services.
In some states, a township and a municipality, coterminous with that township may wholly or consolidate their operations. Depending on the state, the township government has varying degrees of authority. In the Upper Midwestern states near the Great Lakes, civil townships, are but not always, overlaid on survey townships; the degree to which these townships are functioning governmental entities varies from state to state and in some cases within a state. For example, townships in the northern part of Illinois are active in providing public services — such as road maintenance, after-school care, senior services — whereas townships in southern Illinois delegate these services to the county. Most townships in Illinois provide services such as snow removal, senior transportation, emergency services to households residing in unincorporated parts of the county; the townships in Illinois each have a township board, whose board members were called township trustees, a single township supervisor. In contrast, civil townships in Indiana are operated in a consistent manner statewide and tend to be well organized, with each served by a single township trustee and a three-member board.
Civil townships in these states are not incorporated, nearby cities may annex land in adjoining townships with relative ease. In Michigan, general law townships are corporate entities, some can become reformulated as charter townships, a status intended to protect against annexation from nearby municipalities and which grants the township some home rule powers similar to cities. In Wisconsin, civil townships are known as "towns" rather than townships, but they function the same as in neighboring states. In Minnesota, state statute refers to such entities as towns yet requires them to have a name in the form "Name Township". In both documents and conversation, "town" and "township" are used interchangeably. Minnesota townships can be either Non-Urban or Urban, but this is not reflected in the township's name. In Ohio, a city or village is overlaid onto a township unless it withdraws by establishing a paper township. Where the paper township does not extend to the city limits, property owners pay taxes for both the township and municipality, though these overlaps are sometimes overlooked by mistake.
Ten other states allow townships and municipalities to overlap. In Kansas, some civil townships provide services such as road maintenance and fire protection services not provided by the county. In New England, the states are subdivided into towns, which are functioning municipal corporations that provide most local services. While counties exist in New England, for the most part they serve as dividing lines for state judicial systems. With the exception of a few remote areas of New Hampshire and Maine, every square foot of New England lies within the borders of an incorporated town. New England has cities, most of which are towns whose residents have voted to replace the town meeting form of government with a city form. In portions of New Hampshire and Maine, county subdivisions that are not incorporated are referred to as townships, or by other terms such as "gore", "grant", "location", "plantation", or "purchase". In New York, counties are further subdivided into towns and cities, the principal forms of local government.
Towns fulfill a function similar to those of townships in other states. As is the case in most of New England, every square foot of New York's territory is incorporated. New York towns contain one or more incorporated villages, village residents pay both town and village taxes. Towns include a number of unincorporated hamlets. A Pennsylvania township is a unit of local government, responsible for services such as police departments, local road and street maintenance, it acts the same as a borough. Townships were established based on convenient geographical boundaries and vary in size from six to fifty-two square miles. A New Jersey township is similar, in that it is a form of municipal government equal in status to a village, borough, or city, provides similar services to a Pennsylvania township. In the South, outside cities and towns there is no local government other than the county. North Carolina is no exception to that rule, but it does have townships as minor geographical subdivisions of counties, including
A ghost town is an abandoned village, town, or city one that contains substantial visible remains. A town becomes a ghost town because the economic activity that supported it has failed, or due to natural or human-caused disasters such as floods, prolonged droughts, government actions, uncontrolled lawlessness, pollution, or nuclear disasters; the term can sometimes refer to cities and neighbourhoods that are still populated, but less so than in past years. Some ghost towns those that preserve period-specific architecture, have become tourist attractions; some examples are Bannack, Centralia and South Pass City in the United States, Barkerville in Canada, Craco in Italy, Elizabeth Bay and Kolmanskop in Namibia, Pripyat in Ukraine, Danushkodi in India. The town of Plymouth on the Caribbean island of Montserrat is a ghost town, the de jure capital of Montserrat, it was rendered uninhabitable by volcanic ash from an eruption. The definition of a ghost town varies between individuals, between cultures.
Some writers discount settlements that were abandoned as a result of a natural or human-made disaster or other causes using the term only to describe settlements that were deserted because they were no longer economically viable. Some believe. Whether or not the settlement must be deserted, or may contain a small population, is a matter for debate. Though, the term is used in a looser sense, encompassing any and all of these definitions; the American author Lambert Florin's preferred definition of a ghost town was "a shadowy semblance of a former self". Factors leading to abandonment of towns include depleted natural resources, economic activity shifting elsewhere and roads bypassing or no longer accessing the town, human intervention, massacres and the shifting of politics or fall of empires. A town can be abandoned when it is part of an exclusion zone due to natural or man-made causes. Ghost towns may result when the single activity or resource that created a boomtown is depleted or the resource economy undergoes a "bust".
Boomtowns can decrease in size as fast as they grew. Sometimes, all or nearly the entire population can desert the town; the dismantling of a boomtown can occur on a planned basis. Mining companies nowadays will create a temporary community to service a mine site, building all the accommodation and services required, remove them once the resource has been extracted. Modular buildings can be used to facilitate the process. A gold rush would bring intensive but short-lived economic activity to a remote village, only to leave a ghost town once the resource was depleted. In some cases, multiple factors may remove the economic basis for a community. S. Route 66 suffered both mine closures when the resources were depleted and loss of highway traffic as US 66 was diverted away from places like Oatman, Arizona onto a more direct path. Mine and pulp mill closures have led to many ghost towns in British Columbia, Canada including several recent ones: Ocean Falls which closed in 1973 after the pulp mill was decommissioned, Kitsault B.
C. whose molybdenum mine shut after only 18 months in 1982 and Cassiar whose asbestos mine operated from 1952 to 1992. In other cases, the reason for abandonment can arise from a town's intended economic function shifting to another, nearby place; this happened to Collingwood, Queensland in Outback Australia when nearby Winton outperformed Collingwood as a regional centre for the livestock-raising industry. The railway reached Winton in 1899, linking it with the rest of Queensland, Collingwood was a ghost town by the following year; the Middle East has many ghost towns that were created when the shifting of politics or the fall of empires caused capital cities to be or economically unviable, such as Ctesiphon. The rise of condominium investment caused for real estate bubbles leads to a ghost town, as real estate prices rise and affordable housing becomes less available; such examples include China and Canada, where housing is used as an investment rather than for habitation. Railroads and roads bypassing or no longer reaching a town can create a ghost town.
This was the case in many of the ghost towns along Ontario's historic Opeongo Line, along U. S. Route 66 after motorists bypassed the latter on the faster moving highways I-44 and I-40; some ghost towns were founded along railways where steam trains would stop at periodic intervals to take on water. Amboy, California was part of one such series of villages along the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad across the Mojave Desert. River re-routing is one example being the towns along the Aral Sea. Ghost towns may be created when land is expropriated by a government, residents are required to relocate. One example is the village of Tyneham in Dorset, acquired during World War II to build an artillery range. A similar situation occurred in the U. S. when NASA acquired land to construct the John C. Stennis Space Center, a rocket testing facility in Hancock County, Mississippi; this required NASA to acquire a large (approximately 34-square-mile (88
Robinson is a city in Crawford County, United States. The population was 7,713 at the 2010 census, up from 6,822 in 2000, it is the county seat of Crawford County. Robinson is located in the center of Crawford County at 39°0′22″N 87°44′20″W. Illinois Route 33 passes through the center of the city as Main Street, leading east 7 miles to Palestine near the Indiana border and west 24 miles to Newton. According to the 2010 census, Robinson has a total area of 4.803 square miles, of which 4.74 square miles is land and 0.063 square miles is water. At the 2000 census, there were 6,822 people, 2,927 households and 1,835 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,881.9 per square mile. There were 3,376 housing units at an average density of 931.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.98% White, 1.16% African American, 0.41% Native American, 0.63% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.66% from other races, 1.14% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.73% of the population.
There were 2,927 households of which 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.1% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.3% were non-families. 32.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.87. 24.3% of the population were under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 25.9% from 25 to 44, 20.8% from 45 to 64, 20.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.0 males. The median household income was $30,153 and the median family income was $38,974. Males had a median income of $31,890 versus $21,338 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,637. About 8.2% of families and 11.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.4% of those under age 18 and 8.9% of those age 65 or over.
Major employers in the town include a refinery owned by Marathon Petroleum Company and a chocolate factory for the Heath bar, first made in 1914, now distributed by The Hershey Company. Lisa Brown, Washington State politician Robert Brubaker, actor Caswell J. Crebs, Justice of the Illinois Supreme Court Joseph B. Crowley, U. S. congressman Calli Cox, adult film actress Perry Graves, 1914 first-team All-American football player for the University of Illinois and Big Ten official L. S. Heath, founder of Heath toffee James Jones, author Meyers Leonard, basketball center for the Portland Trail Blazers Skip Martin and arranger Robert S. Wiseman, war technology researcher and innovator of night vision Frankie Masters, band leader Robinson Daily News The following schools are operated by Community Unit School District #2: Robinson High School - grades 9-12 Nuttall Middle School - grades 6-8 Lincoln Grade School - grades 3-5 Washington Elementary School - grades PreK-2 The fictional town of Parkman, Indiana - scene of James Jones' novel "Some Came Running" - is modeled on Robinson, Jones' hometown.
City of Robinson official website Robinson Chamber of Commerce Robinson Daily News Robinson, Illinois at Curlie
Crawford County, Illinois
Crawford County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. As of the 2010 census, the population was 19,817, its county seat is Robinson. Crawford County was formed in Illinois Territory on December 1816 out of Edwards County. At the time of its formation, it encompassed about one third of the State, but it was reduced to its present borders by 1831 as it spawned new counties, it was named in honor of William H. Crawford, from Georgia, serving as Secretary of War and Secretary of the Treasury at the time. Crawford County was home to several battles between the settlers and Indians, the location of the only woman hanged in Illinois. In 1818, the town of Palestine was designated as the county seat. After elections in 1843, a new site was chosen. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 446 square miles, of which 444 square miles is land and 2.2 square miles is water. Some of the county's eastern border is defined by the Wabash River. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Robinson have ranged from a low of 21 °F in January to a high of 89 °F in July, although a record low of −23 °F was recorded in December 1989 and a record high of 114 °F was recorded in July 1954.
Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.45 inches in January to 4.67 inches in May. Clark County - north Sullivan County, Indiana - east Knox County, Indiana - southeast Lawrence County - south Richland County - southwest Jasper County - west Illinois Route 1 Illinois Route 33 As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 19,817 people, 7,763 households, 5,154 families residing in the county; the population density was 44.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 8,661 housing units at an average density of 19.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 92.8% white, 4.7% black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.8% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 25.0% were German, 14.4% were American, 12.4% were Irish, 9.9% were English. Of the 7,763 households, 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.6% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.6% were non-families, 29.1% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.88. The median age was 41.7 years. The median income for a household in the county was $41,434 and the median income for a family was $51,218. Males had a median income of $40,050 versus $30,870 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,545. About 11.1% of families and 16.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.0% of those under age 18 and 8.2% of those age 65 or over. Robinson Flat Rock Hutsonville Oblong Palestine Stoy Annapolis West York Crawford County is divided into ten townships: Although Crawford County was solidly Democratic before the Populist-backed candidacy of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, it has since become Republican; the last Democrat to gain a majority in the county was Lyndon Johnson in his 1964 landslide, although Bill Clinton won a plurality in 1992. Like all the rural Upland South, Crawford County has shown dramatic swings against the Democratic Party in recent elections, with Hillary Clinton’s 22.8 percent in 2016 the worst performance by a Democrat.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Crawford County, Illinois Perrin, William Henry, ed.. History of Crawford and Clark Counties, Illinois Chicago, Illinois. O. L. Baskin & Co.. Specific GeneralUnited States Census Bureau 2007 TIGER/Line Shapefiles United States Board on Geographic Names United States National Atlas Crawford County, Illinois History and Genealogy
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However