Motorcycle land-speed record
The motorcycle land-speed record is the fastest speed achieved by a motorcycle on land. It is standardized as the speed over a course of fixed length and these are special or modified motorcycles, distinct from the fastest production motorcycles.27 mph using a V8 housed in a spindly tube chassis with direct shaft drive to the rear wheel. An attempted return run was foiled when his drive shaft came loose at speed, Curtiss V8 motorcycle is currently in the Transportation collection of the Smithsonian Institution. The 1907 record made Curtiss the fastest person on earth in any vehicle on land or air, the first officially sanctioned Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme record was set in 1920, when Gene Walker rode an Indian on Daytona Beach at 104.12 mph. In the 1930s, a battle between the BMWs, ridden by Ernst Henne, alternated records with various JAP-powered English motorcycles. BMW set a record before World War II, in 1937. The last Harley-Davidson record of 322.15 mph stood for 16 years, since then, the BUB team, using a custom-built V4 engine, has alternated with the twin Suzuki engined Ack Attack team.
Since late 2010, the Ack Attack team has held the land speed record at 376.36 mph. The fastest record certified by the FIM is that set in 1964 by the jet-propelled tricycle and it set three absolute land speed records, the last at 526.277 miles per hour. While such records are validated by the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile. Breedlove never intended Spirit of America to be classified as a motorcycle, despite its tricycle layout, Spirit of Americas FIM-ratified record prompted the FIA to create a new category thrust-powered vehicles to its world record listings. Further, most people think of the tricycle Spirit of America, now part of the permanent collection of Chicagos Museum of Science and Industry, as a car and not a motorcycle. List of fastest production motorcycles Bonneville Speed Trials BUB Motorcycle Speed Trials archive, predecessor to Bonneville Speed Trials The UK Land Speed Racing Association
Ford Motor Company
The Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16,1903, the company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and most luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. Ford owns Brazilian SUV manufacturer and Australian performance car manufacturer FPV, in the past, it has produced tractors and automotive components. Ford owns an 8% stake in Aston Martin of the United Kingdom, and it has a number of joint-ventures, one in China, one in Taiwan, one in Thailand, one in Turkey, and one in Russia. It is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and is controlled by the Ford family, Fords former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover, acquired in 1989 and 2000 respectively, were sold to Tata Motors in March 2008. Ford owned the Swedish automaker Volvo from 1999 to 2010, in 2011, Ford discontinued the Mercury brand, under which it had marketed entry-level luxury cars in the United States, Canada and the Middle East since 1938.
During the financial crisis at the beginning of the 21st century, it was close to bankruptcy, Ford is the second-largest U. S. -based automaker and the fifth-largest in the world based on 2015 vehicle production. At the end of 2010, Ford was the fifth largest automaker in Europe, Ford is the eighth-ranked overall American-based company in the 2010 Fortune 500 list, based on global revenues in 2009 of $118.3 billion. In 2008, Ford produced 5.532 million automobiles and employed about 213,000 employees at around 90 plants, the company went public in 1956 but the Ford family, through special Class B shares, still retain 40 percent voting rights. The Ford Motor Company was launched in a factory in 1903 with $28,000 in cash from twelve investors, most notably John. During its early years, the company produced just a few cars a day at its factory on Mack Avenue and its factory on Piquette Avenue in Detroit, Michigan. Groups of two or three men worked on car, assembling it from parts made mostly by supplier companies contracting for Ford.
Henry Ford was 39 years old when he founded the Ford Motor Company and it has been in continuous family control for over 100 years and is one of the largest family-controlled companies in the world. The first gasoline powered automobile had been created in 1885 by the German inventor Carl Benz, between 1903 and 1908, Ford produced the Models A, B, C, F, K, N, R, and S. Hundreds or a few thousand of most of these were sold per year, in 1908, Ford introduced the mass-produced Model T, which totalled millions sold over nearly 20 years. In 1927, Ford replaced the T with the Model A, Ford launched the first low-priced car with a V8 engine in 1932. In an attempt to compete with General Motors mid-priced Pontiac, Henry Ford purchased the Lincoln Motor Company in 1922, in order to compete with such brands as Cadillac and Packard for the luxury segment of the automobile market. The creation of a laboratory in Dearborn, Michigan in 1951, doing unfettered basic research
1952 Swiss Grand Prix
The 1952 Swiss Grand Prix was a Formula Two race held on 18 May 1952 at Bremgarten Circuit. It was the first round of the 1952 World Drivers Championship, pre-WWII Grand Prix great Rudolf Caracciola crashed heavily during a support sports car race. He survived with a leg, but this crash effectively ended his racing career. He was driving a Mercedes 300SL, his brakes locked up going into a corner, italian driver Piero Taruffi scored his only win in a World Championship race, driving for Ferrari. With the withdrawal of Alfa Romeo from the World Championship, Ferrari were left as the competitive team under the existing regulations. It was therefore decided to run the Championship to Formula Two regulations, the works Ferrari team brought three drivers to the Swiss Grand Prix, namely Farina and Simon. Also running Ferraris were Rudi Fischer and Peter Hirt of Ecurie Espadon, gordini had a three-car team for this race, consisting of Robert Manzon, B. Bira and the debutant Jean Behra, the HWM team, returning to the World Championship for the first time since the previous race at Bremgarten, fielded the all-British quartet of Abecassis, Collins and Moss.
Maserati had planned to enter defending World Drivers Champion Juan Manuel Fangio and fellow Argentinian José Froilán González, completing the field were the sole AFM entry of Hans Stuck and a number of privately run cars representing various constructors. Former Alfa Romeo driver Nino Farina took pole position, alongside Taruffi and Fischer started from the second row, in front of Collins and Toulo de Graffenried, who was driving an Enrico Platé-entered Maserati. Polesitter Farina led the race until his car broke down and his Ferrari teammate assumed the lead, which he held for the remainder of the race. Moss was impressively running in place in the early stages, behind Farina and Taruffi. The main battle was between Behra and Simon, for second place, when Behra had to stop, due to his exhaust pipe having fallen off, who had taken over Simons car, assumed second place. However, further problems meant that he again had to retire, on lap 51. The Swiss driver took his first Championship podium, being the driver not to be lapped by Taruffi.
Behra completed the podium, taking third on debut, while Ken Wharton and Alan Brown took the first points finishes for Frazer Nash and Cooper, ^1 — André Simon qualified and drove 21 laps of the race in the #32 Ferrari. Nino Farina, whose own vehicle had already retired, took over the car for a further 30 laps before again being forced to retire, ^2 — Juan Manuel Fangio and José Froilán González, whose cars were unavailable, withdrew from the event prior to practice. ^3 — Peter Hirt qualified and drove the race in the #44 Ferrari
Bari is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Bari and of the Apulia region, on the Adriatic Sea, in Italy. It is the second most important economic centre of mainland Southern Italy after Naples, the city itself has a population of about 326,799, as of 2015, over 116 square kilometres, while the urban area has 700,000 inhabitants. The metropolitan area has 1.3 million inhabitants, Bari is made up of four different urban sections. To the south is the Murat quarter, the heart of the city, which is laid out on a rectangular grid-plan with a promenade on the sea. Modern residential zones surrounding the centre of Bari were built during the 1960s and 1970s replacing the old suburbs that had developed along roads splaying outwards from gates in the city walls, in addition, the outer suburbs developed rapidly during the 1990s. The city has an airport named after Pope John Paul II, Karol Wojtyła Airport. The city was founded by the Peucetii. Its harbour, mentioned as early as 181 BC, was probably the one of the districts in ancient times, as it is at present.
The first historical bishop of Bari was Gervasius who was noted at the Council of Sardica in 347, the bishops were dependent on the Patriarch of Constantinople until the 10th century. Until the arrival of the Normans, Bari continued to be governed by the Byzantines, throughout this period, and indeed throughout the Middle Ages, Bari served as one of the major slave depots of the Mediterranean, providing a central location for the trade in Slavic slaves. The city was conquered and the Emirate extinguished in 871, due to the efforts of Emperor Louis II, in 885, Bari became the residence of the local Byzantine catapan, or governor. In 1025, under the Archbishop Byzantius, Bari became attached to the see of Rome and was granted provincial status, in 1071, Bari was captured by Robert Guiscard, following a three-year siege. Maio of Bari, a Lombard merchants son, was the third of the admirals of Norman Sicily. The Basilica di San Nicola was founded in 1087 to receive the relics of this saint, the saint began his development from Saint Nicholas of Myra into Saint Nicholas of Bari and began to attract pilgrims, whose encouragement and care became central to the economy of Bari.
In 1095 Peter the Hermit preached the first crusade there, the Greeks were not brought over to the Latin way of thinking, and the Great Schism was inevitable. A civil war broke out in Bari in 1117 with the murder of the archbishop, control of Bari was seized by Grimoald Alferanites, a native Lombard, and he was elected lord in opposition to the Normans. By 1123, he had increased ties with Byzantium and Venice, Grimoald increased the cult of St Nicholas in his city. He did homage to Roger II of Sicily, but rebelled and was defeated in 1132, Bari was occupied by Manuel I Komnenos between 1155 and 1158
Alberto Ascari was an Italian racing driver and twice Formula One World Champion. He was a racer who completed in motorcycle racing before switching to cars. Back to back World titles in 1952 and 1953 sandwiched an appearance in the Indianapolis 500 in 1952, Ascari won the legendary Mille Miglia in 1954. When Alberto was a child, his father, who was a racing driver. Alberto once admitted that he warned his children not to become close to him because of the risk involved in his profession. So this proved when he was killed during a test session for Scuderia Ferrari at the Autodromo Nazionale Monza and he was preparing for the Supercortemaggiore 1000 kilometre race that he was to have run with his protégé Eugenio Castellotti on the weekend that followed the accident. The son of one of Italys great pre-war drivers, Alberto Ascari went on to one of Formula One racings most dominant. His unexplained fatal accident – at the age as his fathers, on the same day of the month. Born in Milan, Ascari was the son of Antonio Ascari, such was his passion to become a racing driver like his father, twice he ran away from school.
He raced motorcycles in his earlier years, at the age of just 19, Ascari was signed to ride for the Bianchi team. He married a girl the same year. When Italy entered World War II, the garage, now run by Alberto, was conscripted to service. It was during this period, he established a transport business. His partner in the enterprise was a racing driver, Luigi Villoresi. The pair did survive being capsized in Tripoli harbour along with a shipment of lorries, as their business supported the Italian war effort, it made them exempt from being called up during the war. Following the end of World War II Alberto Ascari began racing in Grands Prix with Maserati 4CLT and his teammate was Villoresi, who would become a mentor and friend to Ascari. The pair were successful on the circuits in the North of Italy, soon he was bestowed with the nickname Ciccio, meaning Tubby. Formula One regulations were introduced by the FIA in 1946, with the aim of replacing the pre-war Grand Prix structure
1956 Formula One season
The 1956 Formula One season featured the tenth season of FIAs Formula One motor racing. It featured the seventh World Championship of Drivers as well as numerous non-championship races, the championship series commenced on 22 January 1956 and ended on 2 September after eight races. Juan Manuel Fangio won his third title, the fourth of his career. Until the 2006 season this was the last season during which no British constructor won any championship race, Fangio joined Ferrari after Mercedes-Benz, with whom he had won the 1954 and 1955 titles, withdrew from the sport. Ferrari acquired the folded Lancia teams D50 cars and put together a team containing Fangio, Eugenio Castellotti, Luigi Musso. Fangio won the race after commandeering Mussos car after his own car had broken down. Collins and Fangios team-mate at Mercedes, Stirling Moss – now driving for Maserati provided the biggest challenge to his title defence, in an open season the British Connaughts, Vanwalls and BRMs showed some signs of promise.
Going into the race of the season, Fangio had an eight-point lead over Collins. The only way he could lose the title would be to no points with Collins winning and setting fastest lap. Fangio retired, and with Musso unwilling to share his car with Fangio, Collins, in a remarkable act of sportsmanship, instead chose to hand his car over to Fangio to allow the Argentine to finish second in the race and win his third title in a row. The following races counted towards the 1956 World Championship of Drivers, the following teams and drivers competed in the 1956 FIA World Championship. The above list does not include competitors in the 1956 Indianapolis 500, Championship points were awarded at each race on an 8–6–4–3–2 basis to the first five finishers, with an additional point awarded to the driver setting the fastest lap of the race. Points for shared drives were divided equally between the drivers, regardless of who had driven more laps, Only the best five round results were counted. Italics indicate fastest lap Bold indicates pole position † Position shared between more drivers of the same car Only the best 5 results counted towards the Championship, numbers without parentheses are Championship points, numbers in parentheses are total points scored.
The following non-championship races for Formula One cars were held in 1956,1956 World Championship race results
Lancia is an Italian automobile manufacturer founded in 1906 by Vincenzo Lancia as Lancia & C. It became part of the Fiat Group in 1969, the current company, the company has a strong rally heritage and is noted for using letters of the Greek alphabet for its model names. Lancia vehicles are no longer sold outside of Italy, and comprise only the Ypsilon supermini range, fabbrica Automobili was founded on 29 November 1906 in Turin by Fiat racing drivers, Vincenzo Lancia and his friend, Claudio Fogolin. The first car manufactured by Lancia was the Tipo 51 or 12 HP and it had a small four-cylinder engine with a power output of 28 hp. In 1910 Lancia components were exported to the United States where they were assembled, in 1915, Lancia manufactured its first truck, the Jota that continued as a dedicated series. In 1937, Vincenzo died of an attack and both his wife, Adele Miglietti Lancia, and his son, Gianni Lancia, took over control of the company. They persuaded Vittorio Jano to join as an engineer, Jano had already made a name for himself by designing various Alfa Romeo models, including some of its most successful race cars ever such as the 6C, P2 and P3.
Lancia is renowned in the world for introducing cars with numerous innovations. These include the Theta of 1913, which was the first European production car to feature a complete system as standard equipment. 1948 saw the first 5 speed gearbox to be fitted to a production car, Lancia premiered the first full-production V6 engine, in the 1950 Aurelia, after earlier industry-leading experiments with V8 and V12 engine configurations. It was the first manufacturer to produce a V4 engine, other innovations involved the use of independent suspension in production cars and rear transaxles, which were first fitted to the Aurelia and Flaminia range. This drive for innovation, constant quest for excellence, fixation of quality, complex construction processes, with little commonality between the various models, the cost of production continued to increase extensively, while demand did not eventually affecting Lancias viability. Gianni Lancia, an engineer was president of Lancia from 1947 to 1955. In 1956 the Pesenti family took control of Lancia with Carlo Pesenti in charge.
Fiat launched a bid in October 1969 which was accepted by Lancia as the company was losing significant sums of money. During the 1970s and 1980s, Lancia had great success in rallying, winning many World Rally Championships, during the 1980s, the company cooperated with Saab Automobile, with the Lancia Delta being sold as the Saab 600 in Sweden. The 1985 Lancia Thema shared a platform with the Saab 9000, Fiat Croma, during the 1990s, all models were closely related to other Fiat models. Starting from 1 February 2007, Fiats automotive operations were reorganised, Fiat Auto became Fiat Group Automobiles S. p. A
Alfonso de Portago
Alfonso Antonio Vicente Eduardo Angel Blas Francisco de Borja Cabeza de Vaca y Leighton, Marquis of Portago, best known as Alfonso de Portago was a racing driver from Spain. Born in London, he was educated at Biarritz, in France and he became articulate in four languages. Portago was heir to one of the most respected titles in Spain, among his ancestors were an explorer, a Governor of Madrid, and a war hero. His Spanish father was Antonio Cabeza de Vaca and he died during half time at a polo match at a young age. His mother was named Olga Leighton and was Irish and she had a daughter named Sol. Olgas first husband, Francis John Mackey, was more than 40 years older than she was and he shot himself while terminally ill and left Olga an enormous fortune made as founder of Household Financial. Portago was 1.83 m tall and weighed 77 kg, de Portago won a $500 bet at the age of 17 when he flew his plane beneath London Bridge. He participated twice in the Grand National Steeplechase at Aintree as a gentleman jockey, de Portago began racing sports cars in 1953 after his meeting with the Ferrari importer in the USA, Luigi Chinetti, who asked him to be his co-driver in the Carrera Panamericana.
In Nassau, during the winter of 1956, Portago trailed the car ahead of him by centimeters while travelling at 240 km/h. Portago used his skill to avert careening into a crowd after the driver ahead of him touched his brakes and both cars went into a 180 m skid. Among sports car enthusiasts, de Portago was known as a man, because of the many burned-out brakes, transmissions. He often needed several cars to finish a race and he participated in 5 World Championship Formula One Grands Prix, debuting on 1 July 1956. His best result was a place at the 1956 British Grand Prix. In 1953 he raced with Luigi Chinetti in the Carrera Panamericana, during the 1955 British Grand Prix at Silverstone, Portago was thrown from his Ferrari while racing at 140 km/h after losing control on a patch of oil. He was hospitalized with a broken leg and he was a bobsleigh runner, recruiting several cousins in order to form Spains first bobsleigh team for the 1956 Winter Olympic Games in Cortina dAmpezzo. He had had two or three practice runs in Switzerland before buying a pair of sleds.
With de Portago steering, the two-man bob finished fourth to the surprise of the traditional teams and he was introduced to bobsledding by an American from Beloit, Edmund Nelson, whom he teamed up with in order to win the Tour de France automobile race. Portago won a medal in the two-man event at the 1957 FIBT World Championships in St. Moritz
Sir Stirling Moss, OBE is a British former Formula One racing driver. In a seven-year span between 1955 and 1961 Moss finished as championship runner-up four times and third the other three, Moss was born in London, son of Alfred Moss, a dentist of Bray and Aileen. He was brought up at Long White Cloud house on the bank of the River Thames. His father was a racing driver who had placed 16th at the 1924 Indianapolis 500. Stirling was a horse rider as was his younger sister, Pat Moss. Moss raced from 1948 to 1962, winning 212 of the 529 races he entered, like many drivers of the era, he competed in several formulae, often on the same day. He preferred to race British cars, Better to lose honourably in a British car than win in a foreign one, at Vanwall, he was instrumental in breaking the German/Italian stranglehold on F1 racing. He remained the English driver with the most Formula One victories until 1991 when Nigel Mansell overtook him after competing in more races. Moss was one of the Cooper Car Companys first customers, using winnings from competing in horse-riding events to pay the deposit on a Cooper 500 racing car in 1948.
He persuaded his father, who opposed his racing and wanted him to be a dentist, to let him buy it. His first major race victory came on the eve of his 21st birthday at the wheel of a borrowed Jaguar XK120 in the 1950 RAC Tourist Trophy on the Dundrod circuit in Northern Ireland. He went on to win the six more times, in 1951,1955,1958 and 1959. Also a competent rally driver, he is one of three people to have won a Coupe dOr for three consecutive penalty-free runs on the Alpine Rally. He finished second in the 1952 Monte Carlo Rally driving a Sunbeam-Talbot 90 with Desmond Scannell, in 1954, he became the first non-American to win the 12 Hours of Sebring, sharing the Cunningham teams 1. 5-liter O. S. C. A. In 1953 Mercedes-Benz racing boss Alfred Neubauer had spoken to Mosss manager, Ken Gregory, having seen him do well in a relatively uncompetitive car, and wanting to see how he would perform in a better one, Neubauer suggested Moss buy a Maserati for the 1954 season. In the Italian Grand Prix at Monza he passed both drivers who were regarded as the best in Formula One at the time—Juan Manuel Fangio in a Mercedes, Ascari retired with engine problems, and Moss led until lap 68 when his engine failed.
Fangio took the victory, and Moss pushed his Maserati to the finish line, already impressed when Moss had tested a Mercedes-Benz W196 at Hockenheim, promptly signed him for 1955. Mosss first Formula One victory was in the 1955 British Grand Prix at Aintree, leading a 1–2–3–4 finish for Mercedes, it was the first time he beat Fangio, his teammate and arch rival, who was his friend and mentor
1950 Formula One season
The 1950 Formula One season was the fourth season of the FIAs Formula One motor racing. It featured the inaugural FIA World Championship of Drivers which commenced on 13 May and ended on 3 September, as well as a number of non-championship races. The championship consisted of six Grand Prix races, each held in Europe and open to Formula One cars, plus the Indianapolis 500, Giuseppe Farina won the championship from Juan Manuel Fangio and Luigi Fagioli. All of the Formula One regulated races in the championship were run in Europe, the Indianapolis 500 was run to American AAA regulations, not to FIA Formula One regulations and none of the regular drivers who competed in Europe competed in the 500, and vice versa. Alfa Romeo drivers consequently dominated the championship with Italian Giuseppe Nino Farina edging out Argentine teammate Juan Manuel Fangio by virtue of his place in Belgium. Championship points were awarded to the top five finishers in each race on an 8,6,4,3,2 basis,1 point was awarded for the fastest lap of each race.
Points for shared drives were divided equally between the drivers, regardless of how many laps each driver completed during the race, Only the best four results from the seven races could be retained by each driver for World Championship classification. The Alfa Romeo team dominated the British Grand Prix at the fast Silverstone circuit in England, with King George VI in attendance, Giuseppe Farina won the race from pole position, setting the fastest lap. The podium was completed by his teammates Luigi Fagioli and Reg Parnell, while the remaining Alfa driver, the final points scorers were the works Talbot-Lagos of Yves Giraud-Cabantous and Louis Rosier, both two laps behind the leaders. Scuderia Ferrari made their World Championship debut around the streets of Monaco, polesitter Fangio took a comfortable victory, setting the races fastest lap, a whole lap ahead of Ascari, with the third-placed Louis Chiron a further lap back in the works Maserati. Villoresi, although delayed by the accident, had made his way through the field to second place, Fangios win brought him level with Farina in the points standings.
The race was stopped after 138 of the scheduled 200 laps due to rain, Alfa Romeos dominance continued when the World Championship returned to Europe for the Swiss Grand Prix at the tree-lined Bremgarten circuit just outside Bern. Fangio and Fagioli locked out the front row of the grid for Alfa, while the Ferraris of Villoresi, Fangio was the initial leader, starting from pole position, but he was passed by Farina on lap seven. Ascari and Villoresi were both able to compete with the third Alfa of Fagioli in the stages, although both had retired by the ten-lap mark. Farina took the win and the fastest lap, finishing just ahead of Fagioli, while Rosier, in place as a result of Fangios retirement. Farinas second win of the season put him six points clear of the consistent Fagioli, the Alfas were once again untouchable at the start of the race, but when they stopped for fuel, Sommer emerged as an unlikely race leader. His lead, was short-lived and he was forced to retire when his engine blew up, Fangio ultimately took the victory, ahead of Fagioli, who again finished second.
Rosier again made the podium in his Talbot-Lago and he had been able to pass the polesitter Farina when the Italian picked up transmission problems towards the end of the race
Mexico City, or City of Mexico, is the capital and most populous city of Mexico. As an alpha global city, Mexico City is one of the most important financial centers in the Americas and it is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus at the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 metres. The city consists of sixteen municipalities, the 2009 estimated population for the city proper was approximately 8.84 million people, with a land area of 1,485 square kilometres. The Greater Mexico City has a domestic product of US$411 billion in 2011. The city was responsible for generating 15. 8% of Mexicos Gross Domestic Product, as a stand-alone country, in 2013, Mexico City would be the fifth-largest economy in Latin America—five times as large as Costa Ricas and about the same size as Perus. Mexico’s capital is both the oldest capital city in the Americas and one of two founded by Amerindians, the other being Quito. In 1524, the municipality of Mexico City was established, known as México Tenochtitlán, Mexico City served as the political and financial center of a major part of the Spanish colonial empire.
After independence from Spain was achieved, the district was created in 1824. Ever since, the left-wing Party of the Democratic Revolution has controlled both of them, in recent years, the local government has passed a wave of liberal policies, such as abortion on request, a limited form of euthanasia, no-fault divorce, and same-sex marriage. On January 29,2016, it ceased to be called the Federal District and is now in transition to become the countrys 32nd federal entity, giving it a level of autonomy comparable to that of a state. Because of a clause in the Mexican Constitution, however, as the seat of the powers of the federation, it can never become a state, the city of Mexico-Tenochtitlan was founded by the Mexica people in 1325. According to legend, the Mexicas principal god, Huitzilopochtli indicated the site where they were to build their home by presenting an eagle perched on a cactus with a snake in its beak. Between 1325 and 1521, Tenochtitlan grew in size and strength, eventually dominating the other city-states around Lake Texcoco, when the Spaniards arrived, the Aztec Empire had reached much of Mesoamerica, touching both the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean.
After landing in Veracruz, Spanish explorer Hernán Cortés advanced upon Tenochtitlan with the aid of many of the native peoples. Cortés put Moctezuma under house arrest, hoping to rule through him, the Aztecs thought the Spaniards were permanently gone, and they elected a new king, Cuitláhuac, but he soon died, the next king was Cuauhtémoc. Cortés began a siege of Tenochtitlan in May 1521, for three months, the city suffered from the lack of food and water as well as the spread of smallpox brought by the Europeans. Cortés and his allies landed their forces in the south of the island, the Spaniards practically razed Tenochtitlan during the final siege of the conquest. Cortés first settled in Coyoacán, but decided to rebuild the Aztec site to erase all traces of the old order and he did not establish a territory under his own personal rule, but remained loyal to the Spanish crown
Durango, officially Victoria de Durango and known as Ciudad de Durango, is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Durango. It stands at an altitude of 1,880 metres above sea level, the city was founded on July 8,1563 by Spanish Basque explorer Francisco de Ibarra. During the Spanish colonial era the city was the capital of the Nueva Vizcaya province of New Spain, as of 2010, the city had a total population of 518,709, up from 463,830 as of 2005. It serves as seat of Durango Municipality which had a population of 582,267 in 2010. The municipality has a large land area of 10,041 square kilometres and includes such outlying communities as El Nayar. The city of Durango was built on a valley in which a primitive Spanish village named Nombre de Dios was founded. According to the 1921 Mexican census, the city had a population of 67,456 out of which 21,300 were European immigrants, the city of Durango is located in the northwestern part of the country, and Midwestern part of the Mexican plateau.
It is between 22 °40 and 26 °50 north latitude and between the meridian 102 °2555 and 107 °0850 west latitude relative to Greenwich, the municipality is 10.041 square kilometers. Its longest measured lengths are 520 kilometers and 480 kilometers from east to west, the city of Durango has a semi-arid climate, classified as BSk in the Köppen climate classification system. The climate is temperate in the western portion, with the annual temperature being 15 °C. In the eastern region, the annual temperature is 19 °C. Winters are mild, with a daytime high of 21 °C in January. As a result of the altitude and aridity during the winter months. Occasionally, temperatures can go above 30 °C while cold fronts from the north can push temperatures below −5 °C. During the winter months, the climate is dominated by the ridge, resulting in dry conditions and many days are clear and sunny. Precipitation is rare, with March being the driest month, summers are warm to hot with June being the hottest month, with an average high of 30 °C and a low of 14 °C.
Generally, this occurs around in mid-June. Afternoon storms are common in the summer and they can be accompanied with hail or thunderstorms and August have warm temperatures, averaging 28 °C though slightly cooler due to the presence of the rain