Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Supreme Court of Canada
The Supreme Court of Canada is the highest court of Canada, the final court of appeals in the Canadian justice system. The court grants permission to between 40 and 75 litigants each year to appeal decisions rendered by provincial and federal appellate courts, its decisions are the ultimate expression and application of Canadian law and binding upon all lower courts of Canada, except to the extent that they are overridden or otherwise made ineffective by an Act of Parliament or the Act of a provincial legislative assembly pursuant to section 33 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The creation of the Supreme Court of Canada was provided for by the British North America Act, 1867, renamed in 1982 the Constitution Act, 1867; the first bills for the creation of a federal supreme court, introduced in the Parliament of Canada in 1869 and in 1870, were withdrawn. It was not until 8 April 1875 that a bill was passed providing for the creation of a Supreme Court of Canada. However, prior to 1949, the Supreme Court did not constitute the court of last resort: litigants could appeal to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London.
As well, some cases could bypass the court and go directly to the Judicial Committee from the provincial courts of appeal. The Supreme Court formally became the court of last resort for criminal appeals in 1933 and for all other appeals in 1949; the last decisions of the Judicial Committee on cases from Canada were made in the mid-1950s, as a result of their being heard in a court of first instance prior to 1949. The increase in the importance of the Court was mirrored by the numbers of its members; the Court was established first with six judges, these were augmented by an additional member in 1927. In 1949, the bench reached its current composition of nine justices. Prior to 1949, most of the appointees to the Court owed their position to political patronage; each judge had strong ties to the party in power at the time of their appointment. In 1973, the appointment of a constitutional law professor Bora Laskin as chief justice represented a major turning point for the Court. In this period, appointees either came from academic backgrounds or were well-respected practitioners with several years experience in appellate courts.
Laskin's federalist and liberal views were shared by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, who recommended Laskin's appointment to the Court. The Constitution Act, 1982 expanded the role of the Court in Canadian society by the addition of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which broadened the scope of judicial review; the evolution from the Dickson court through to the Lamer court witnessed a continuing vigour in the protection of civil liberties. Lamer's criminal law background proved an influence on the number of criminal cases heard by the Court during his time as chief justice. Nonetheless, the Lamer court was more conservative with Charter rights, with only about a 1% success rate for Charter claimants. Lamer was succeeded as chief justice by Beverly McLachlin in January 2000, she is the first woman to hold that position. McLachlin's appointment resulted in a more centrist and unified Court. Dissenting and concurring opinions were fewer than during the Lamer Courts. With the 2005 appointments of Justices Louise Charron and Rosalie Abella, the court became the world's most gender-balanced national high court, four of its nine members being female.
Justice Marie Deschamps' retirement on 7 August 2012 caused the number to fall to three, however the appointment of Suzanne Côté on 1 December 2014 restored the number to four. After serving on the Court for 28 years, 259 days, McLachlin retired in December 2017, her successor as chief justice is Richard Wagner. The structure of the Canadian court system is pyramidal, a broad base being formed by the various provincial and territorial courts whose judges are appointed by the provincial or territorial governments. At the next level are the provinces' and territories' superior courts, where judges are appointed by the federal government. Judgments from the superior courts may be appealed to a still higher level, the provincial or territorial courts of appeal. Several federal courts exist: the Tax Court of Canada, the Federal Court, the Federal Court of Appeal, the Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada. Unlike the provincial superior courts, which exercise inherent or general jurisdiction, the federal courts' jurisdiction is limited by statute.
In all, there are over 1,000 federally appointed judges at various levels across Canada. The Supreme Court of Canada rests at the apex of the judicial pyramid; this institution hears appeals from the provincial courts of last resort the provincial or territorial courts of appeal, the Federal Court of Appeal, although in some matters appeals come straight from the trial courts, as in the case of publication bans and other orders that are otherwise not appealable. In most cases, permission to appeal must first be obtained from the court. Motions for leave to appeal to the Court are heard by a panel of three judges of the Court and a simple majority is determinative. By convention, this panel never explains why it grants or refuses leave in any particular case, but the Court hears cases of national importance or where the case allows the Court to settle an important issue of law. Leave is granted, meaning that for most litigants, provincial courts of appeal are courts of last resort, but leave to appeal is not required for some cases criminal cases and appeals from provincial references.
A final source of cases is the referral power of the federa
Notre Dame des Neiges Cemetery
Founded in 1854, Cimetière Notre-Dame-des-Neiges is a 343-acre cemetery located in the borough of Côte-des-Neiges-Notre-Dame-de-Grâce, Quebec, Canada. The entrance and the grounds run along a part of Côte-des-Neiges road and up the slopes of Mount Royal. Notre-Dame-des-Neiges Cemetery is the largest cemetery in Canada and the third-largest in North America. Created on property purchased from Dr. Pierre Beaubien, the new cemetery was a response to growing demand at a time when the old Saint-Antoine Cemetery had become too small to serve Montreal’s increasing population. Founded in 1854 as a garden cemetery in the French style, it was designed by landscape architect Henri-Maurice Perreault, who studied rural cemeteries in Boston and New York. On May 29, 1855, thirty-five-year-old Jane Gilroy McCready, wife of Thomas McCready a Montreal municipal councillor, was the first person to be buried in the new cemetery. Notre-Dame-des-Neiges is the largest cemetery in Canada with more than 55 kilometres of lanes and one million people interred.
The Notre-Dame-des-Neiges Cemetery site has 71 family vaults. The cemetery served Roman Catholics and rural French Canadians. Italian, Japanese, Orthodox Greek, Polish and Huron are represented, indicated in many instances by ethnic motifs on gravestones; the cemetery is adjacent to the Mount Royal Cemetery, a predominantly English-speaking and Protestant adjacent burial ground, the Shaar Hashomayim Cemetery, a Ashkenazi Jewish burial ground and Temple Emanu-El Cemetery a Reform Judaism burial ground. These four abutting cemeteries on the slopes of Mount Royal contain a total of 1.5 million burials. "La Pietà Mausoleum" contains a life-sized marble reproduction of Michelangelo's Pietà sculpture. Notre-Dame-des-Neiges Cemetery was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1998 and plaqued in 2004. No burials or cremations took place between May 16, 2007, September 11, 2007, because of a labour strike; the interments of more than 300 bodies were affected. In addition, its uncut, unkempt grass became a symbol of the labour dispute.
Due to its vast size, locating a specific grave can be difficult. As a result, the cemetery now offers a computerized mapping service that allows visitors to and locate graves, it can be accessed via the Internet. The only opening in the fence between the Notre Dame des Neiges and Mount Royal cemeteries is where two adjoining military sections are. Shortly after World War I, to emphasize the comradeship and uniformity of sacrifice of Protestant and Catholic soldiers, the Imperial War Graves Commission insisted on an open passage between the two plots and the Cross of Sacrifice was erected. There are 445 identified Commonwealth service war grave burials commemorated here, 252 from World War I and 215 from World War II; those whose graves could not be individually marked are named on bronze plaques attached to the Cross of Sacrifice. The Quebec Memorial on the National Field of Honour at Pointe-Claire lists 24 servicemen buried here, whose graves could no longer be marked or maintained, as alternative commemorations.
Every mausoleum in Notre-Dame-des-Neiges Cemetery contains multiple crypts identified, as well as columbaria with glass or marble niches for one or more urns. The first mausoleum, Notre Dame, dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary, was built in 1978; the others were added in the years that followed: John-Paul II, Saint-Francis, Marguerite-Bourgeoys, The Pietà, Saints Peter and Paul, Sainte Clare of Assisi, the two-storey Saint Marguerite d’Youville and most Esther-Blondin. Opened in November 2007, the Esther Blondin Mausoleum, named after the founder of the Sisters of Saint Anne, houses 6,000 burial crypts and niches; the cemetery is the final resting place for a number of former mayors of the city of Montreal plus other prominent persons including: René Angélil, husband of Canadian singer Céline Dion Raoul Barré, cartoonist Jean-Louis Beaudry, politician Maurice Beaupré, actor Rolland Bédard, actor Charlotte Boisjoli, actress Henri Bourassa, publisher Robert Bourassa, Premier of Quebec Pierre Bourgault, intellectual François-Philippe Brais, politician Dino Bravo, WWF wrestler Donald Brittain, film director Ken Carter, Canadian Stuntman Thérèse Forget Casgrain, feminist and stateswoman Lorne Chabot, NHL ice-hockey goalie Joseph-Adolphe Chapleau, publisher, politician Ernest Cormier, architect Alexandre-Maurice Delisle, statesman Jacques Alfred Dextraze General Jacques Alfred Dextraze CC, CMM, CBE, DSO & Bar, KStJ, CD Chief of Defence Staff Canada 1972-1977 Gonzalve Doutre, scholar, president of the Institut Canadien Jean Drapeau, Mayor of Montreal Lewis Thomas Drummond, politician Ludger Duvernay, founder of Quebec's Société St-Jean-Baptiste Marcel Faribault and legislative adviser Claire Fauteux, painter Gérald Fauteux, Chief Justice of Canada Amédée-Emmanuel Forget, Lieutenant-Governor of the Northwest Territories and Saskatchewan Louis-Joseph Forget and president of the Montreal Stock Exchange.
Sir Rodolphe Forget, statesman, president of the Montreal Stock Exchange. Clarence Gagnon (1881-194
Oswald Smith Crocket
Oswald Smith Crocket was a Canadian lawyer and Puisne Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada. Born in Chatham, New Brunswick, the son of William Crocket and Marion Caldwell, he received a Bachelor of Arts in 1886 from the University of New Brunswick, he was called to the Bar in 1892 and practised law. In 1904, he was elected to the House of Commons of Canada in the riding of York, New Brunswick as a Conservative, he was re-elected in 1908 and 1911. In 1913, he was appointed the Court of King's Bench Division of the Supreme Court of New Brunswick. In 1932, he was appointed to the Supreme Court of Canada and served until he retired in 1943, he died in 1945, at home. Supreme Court of Canada biography Oswald Smith Crocket – Parliament of Canada biography
McGill University is a public research university in Montreal, Canada. It was established in 1821 by royal charter, granted by King George IV; the university bears the name of James McGill, a Montreal merchant from Scotland whose bequest in 1813 formed the university's precursor, McGill College. McGill's main campus is at Mount Royal in downtown Montreal, with the second campus situated in Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue on the Montreal Island, 30 kilometres west of the main campus; the university is one of two universities outside the United States who are members of the Association of American Universities and it is the only Canadian member of the Global University Leaders Forum within the World Economic Forum. McGill offers degrees and diplomas in over 300 fields of study, with the highest average admission requirements of any Canadian university. Most students are enrolled in the five largest faculties, namely Arts, Medicine and Management. McGill counts among its alumni 12 Nobel laureates and 145 Rhodes Scholars, both the most of any university in Canada, as well as five astronauts, the incumbent prime minister and two former prime ministers of Canada, the incumbent Governor General of Canada, 14 justices of the Canadian Supreme Court, at least eight foreign leaders, 28 foreign ambassadors, over eight dozen members of the Canadian Parliament, United States Congress, British Parliament, other national legislatures, several billionaires, nine Academy Award winners, 11 Grammy Award winners, four Pulitzer Prize winners, two Presidential Medal of Freedom recipients, at least 16 Emmy Award winners, 28 Olympic medalists, all of varying nationalities.
McGill alumni were instrumental in inventing or organizing football and ice hockey. McGill University or its alumni founded several major universities and colleges, including the Universities of British Columbia and Alberta, the Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Dawson College; the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning was created in 1801 under an Act of the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada, An Act for the establishment of Free Schools and the Advancement of Learning in this Province. In 1816 the RIAL was authorized to operate two new Royal Grammar Schools, in Quebec City and in Montreal; this was a turning point for public education in Lower Canada as the schools were created by legislation, the District Public Schools Act of 1807, which showed the government's willingness to support the costs of education and the salary of a schoolmaster. This was an important first step in the creation of nondenominational schools; when James McGill died in 1813 his bequest was administered by the RIAL.
Of the original two Royal Grammar Schools, in 1846 one closed and the other merged with the High School of Montreal. By the mid-19th century the RIAL had lost control of the other eighty-two grammar schools it had administered. However, in 1853 it took over the High School of Montreal from the school's board of directors and continued to operate it until 1870. Thereafter, its sole remaining purpose was to administer the McGill bequest on behalf of the private college; the RIAL continues to exist today. Since the revised Royal Charter of 1852, The Trustees of the RIAL comprise the Board of Governors of McGill University. James McGill, born in Glasgow, Scotland on 6 October 1744, was a successful merchant in Quebec, having matriculated into the University of Glasgow in 1756. Soon afterwards, McGill left for North America to explore the business opportunities there. Between 1811 and 1813, he drew up a will leaving his "Burnside estate", a 19-hectare tract of rural land and 10,000 pounds to the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning.
On McGill's death in December 1813, the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning, established in 1801 by an Act of the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada, added the establishing of a University pursuant to the conditions of McGill's will to its original function of administering elementary education in Lower Canada. As a condition of the bequest, the land and funds had to be used for the establishment of a "University or College, for the purposes of Education and the Advancement of Learning in the said Province." The will specified a private, constituent college bearing his name would have to be established within 10 years of his death. On March 31, 1821, after protracted legal battles with the Desrivières family, McGill College received a royal charter from King George IV; the Charter provided the College should be deemed and taken as a University, with the power of conferring degrees. Although McGill College received its Royal Charter in 1821, it was inactive until 1829 when the Montreal Medical Institution, founded in 1823, became the college's first academic unit and Canada's first medical school.
The Faculty of Medicine granted its first degree, a Doctorate of Medicine and Surgery, in 1833. The Faculty of Medicine remained the school's only functioning faculty until 1843, when the Faculty of Arts commenced teaching in the newly constructed Arts Building and East Wing; the university historically has strong links with the Canadian Grenadier Guards, a military regiment in which James McGill served as Lieutenant-Colonel. This title is m
Francis Alexander Anglin
Francis Alexander Anglin PC was the seventh Chief Justice of Canada from 1924 until 1933. Born in Saint John, New Brunswick, one of nine children of Timothy Anglin, federal politician and Speaker of the House of Commons of Canada, elder brother to the renowned stage actress, Margaret Anglin, he was educated at St. Mary's College, received a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Ottawa in 1887. Anglin studied law at the Law Society of Upper Canada and was called to the bar in 1888, establishing a practice in Toronto. In 1896 he became Clerk of the Surrogate Court of Ontario, King's Counsel in 1902, he was appointed to the Exchequer Division of the High Court of Justice of Ontario in 1904 and, thanks to a nomination from the Laurier government, to the Supreme Court of Canada on February 23, 1909, becoming Chief Justice in 1924 thanks to a nomination by the first Mackenzie King government, serving until his retirement, two days before his death, in 1933. He was author of Trustees' Limitations and Other Relief and penned the "Ontario" entry for the Catholic Encyclopedia.
Supreme Court of Canada biography
John Idington was a Canadian justice of the Supreme Court of Canada. Born in Puslinch, Upper Canada, the son of Peter Idington and Catherine Stewart, he received his LL. B degree from the University of Toronto and was called to the Ontario Bar, both in 1864, he practised law in Canada West for forty years. He was created a provincial QC in 1876 and a dominion QC in 1885. In 1904, he was appointed to the High Court of Justice of Ontario and he was appointed by Wilfrid Laurier to the Supreme Court on February 10, 1905. In 1924, following the death of Sir Louis Henry Davies, Idington was passed over for the position of Chief Justice of Canada though he was the senior Pusine Justice on the Court, his notable decisions include his dissent in Quong Wing v. R. in which he disagreed with the effects of racist legislation, on the basis that the use of the term "Chinaman" could not have been meant to refer to naturalized Canadians of Chinese origin. He retired on March 31, 1927, at age 86, after legislation was passed requiring a mandatory retirement age of 75.
Works by or about John Idington at Internet Archive Supreme Court of Canada biography "John Idington". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. University of Toronto Press. 1979–2016