The Gobelins Manufactory is a historic tapestry factory in Paris, France. It is located at 42 avenue des Gobelins, near Les Gobelins métro station in the 13th arrondissement of Paris, it is best known as a royal factory supplying the court of the French monarchs since Louis XIV, it is now run by the Administration générale du Mobilier national et des Manufactures nationales de tapis et tapisseries of the French Ministry of Culture. The factory is open for guided tours several afternoons per week by appointment, as well as for casual visits every day except Mondays and some specific holidays; the Galerie des Gobelins is dedicated to temporary exhibitions of tapestries from the French manufactures and furnitures from the Mobilier National, built in the gardens by Auguste Perret in 1937. The Gobelins were a family of dyers who, in the middle of the 15th century, established themselves in the Faubourg Saint-Marcel, Paris, on the banks of the Bièvre. In 1602, Henry IV of France rented factory space from the Gobelins for his Flemish tapestry makers, Marc de Comans and François de la Planche, on the current location of the Gobelins Manufactory adjoining the Bièvre river.
In 1629, their sons Charles de Comans and Raphaël de la Planche took over their fathers' tapestry workshops, in 1633, Charles was the head of the Gobelins manufactory. Their partnership ended around 1650, the workshops were split into two. Tapestries from this early, Flemish period are sometimes called pre-gobelins. In 1662, the works in the Faubourg Saint Marcel, with the adjoining grounds, were purchased by Jean-Baptiste Colbert on behalf of Louis XIV and made into a general upholstery factory, in which designs both in tapestry and in all kinds of furniture were executed under the superintendence of the royal painter, Charles Le Brun, who served as director and chief designer from 1663-1690. On account of Louis XIV's financial problems, the establishment was closed in 1694, but reopened in 1697 for the manufacture of tapestry, chiefly for royal use, it rivalled the Beauvais tapestry works until the French Revolution, when work at the factory was suspended. The factory was revived during the Bourbon Restoration and, in 1826, the manufacture of carpets was added to that of tapestry.
In 1871, the building was burned down during the Paris Commune. The factory is still in operation today as a state-run institution. Today, the manufactory consists of a set of four irregular buildings dating to the seventeenth century, plus the building on the avenue des Gobelins built by Jean-Camille Formigé in 1912 after the 1871 fire, they contain Le Brun's residence and workshops that served as foundries for most of the bronze statues in the park of Versailles, as well as looms on which tapestries are woven following seventeenth century techniques. The Gobelins still produces some limited amount of tapestries for the decoration of French governmental institutions, with contemporary subjects. A branch of the manufactory was established in London in the early 18th-century in the area, now Fulham High Street. Around 1753 it appears to have been taken over by the priest and adventurer, Pierre Parisot, but closed only a few years later. List of museums in Paris Beauvais Manufactory Moravská Gobelínová Manufaktura Wolf Burchard, The Sovereign Artist: Charles Le Brun and the Image of Louis XIV, London 2016 Lacordaire, Notice historique sur les Manufactures impériales de tapisseries des Gobelins et de tapis de la Savonnerie, précédée du catalogue des tapisseries qui y sont exposées Genspach, Répertoire détaillé des tapisseries exécutées aux Gobelins, 1662–1892 Jules Guiffrey, Histoire de la tapisserie en France.
Manufacture des Gobelins Gobelins tapestries in the Collections of the Mobilier national Museums of Paris entry Paris.org entry
Louis XV of France
Louis XV, known as Louis the Beloved, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774. He succeeded his great-grandfather Louis XIV at the age of five; until he reached maturity on 15 February 1723, the kingdom was ruled by Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, as Regent of France. Cardinal Fleury was his chief minister from 1726 until the Cardinal's death in 1743, at which time the young king took sole control of the kingdom, his reign of 59 years was the second longest in the history of France, exceeded only by his predecessor and great-grandfather, Louis XIV, who had ruled for 72 years. In 1748, Louis returned the Austrian Netherlands, won at the Battle of Fontenoy of 1745, he ceded New France in North America to Spain and Great Britain at the conclusion of the disastrous Seven Years' War in 1763. He incorporated the territories of the Duchy of Lorraine and the Corsican Republic into the Kingdom of France, he was succeeded in 1774 by his grandson Louis XVI, executed by guillotine during the French Revolution.
Two of his other grandsons, Louis XVIII and Charles X, occupied the throne of France after the fall of Napoleon I. Historians give his reign low marks as wars drained the treasury and set the stage for the governmental collapse and French Revolution in the 1780s. Louis XV was the great-grandson of Louis XIV and the third son of the Duke of Burgundy, his wife Marie Adélaïde of Savoy, the eldest daughter of Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy, he was born in the Palace of Versailles on 15 February 1710. When he was born, he was named the Duke of Anjou; the possibility of his becoming King seemed remote. However, the Grand Dauphin died of smallpox on 14 April 1711. On 12 February 1712 the mother of Louis, Marie Adélaïde, was stricken with measles and died, followed on 18 February by Louis's father, the former Duke of Burgundy, next in line for the throne. On 7 March, it was found that both Louis and his older brother, the former Duke of Brittany, had the measles; the two brothers were treated with bleeding.
On the night of 8–9 March, the new Dauphin died from the combination of the disease and the treatment. The governess of Louis, Madame de Ventadour, would not allow the doctors to bleed Louis further; when Louis XIV died on 1 September 1715, Louis, at the age of five, inherited the throne. The Ordinance of Vincennes from 1374 required that the kingdom be governed by a regent until Louis reached the age of thirteen; the title of Regent was given to his cousin Philippe, the Duke of Orleans. Louis XIV, distrusted Philippe, a renowned soldier, but was regarded by the King as an atheist and libertine; the King referred to Philippe as a Fanfaron des crimes. Louis XIV wanted France to be ruled by his favorite but illegitimate son, Duke of Maine, in the council. In August 1714, shortly before his own death, the King rewrote his will to restrict the powers of the regent. Philippe, nephew of Louis XIV, was named president of the council, but other members included the Duke of Maine and his allies. Decisions were to be made by majority vote, meaning that the Regent could be outvoted by Maine's party.
Orléans saw the trap, after the death of the King, he went to the Parlement of Paris, an assembly of nobles where he had many allies, had the Parlement annul the King's will. In exchange for their support, he restored to the Parlement its droit de remontrance – the right to challenge the King's decisions, removed by Louis XIV; the droit de remontrance would impair the monarchy's functioning and marked the beginning of a conflict between the Parlement and King which led to the French Revolution in 1789. On 9 September 1715, the Regent had the young King transported away from the court in Versailles to Paris, where the Regent had his own residence in the Palais Royal. On 12 September, he performed his first official act, opening the first lit de justice of his reign at the Palais Royal. From September 1715 until January 1716 he lived in the Château de Vincennes, before moving to the Tuileries Palace. In February 1717, when he reached the age of seven, he was taken from his governess Madame Ventadour and placed in the care of François de Villeroy, the 73-year-old Duke and Maréchal de France, named as his governor in Louis XIV's will of August 1714.
Villeroy instructed the young King in court etiquette, taught him how to review a regiment, how to receive royal visitors. His guests included the Russian Tsar Peter the Great in 1717. Louis learned the skills of horseback riding and hunting, which became the great passion of the young King. In 1720, following the example of Louis XIV, Villeroy had the young Louis dance in public in two ballets at the Tuileries Palace on 24 February 1720, again in The Ballet des Elements on 31 December 1721; the shy Louis evidently did not enjoy the experience. The King's tutor was the Abbé André-Hercule de Fleury, the bishop of Fréjus, who saw that he was instructed in Latin, history
Battle of Fleurus (1690)
The Battle of Fleurus, fought on 1 July 1690, was a major engagement of the Nine Years' War. In a bold envelopment the Duc de Luxembourg, commanding Louis XIV of France’s army of some 35,000 men, soundly defeated Prince Waldeck’s Allied force of 38,000 men comprising Dutch and Spanish troops. Waldeck suffered heavy losses in prisoners and equipment, Luxembourg moved ahead to control Flanders. Although the French War Minister, wished to press ahead and secure further success, King Louis overruled him and ordered Luxembourg to reinforce the Dauphin’s army on the Rhine and forgo any major siege; the Allies, withdrew to Brussels to recover and rebuild their army. In 1690 the main theatre of the Nine Years' War moved to the Spanish Netherlands. Command of French forces now passed to the talented Marshal Luxembourg, superseding Marshal Humières who had suffered defeat at the Battle of Walcourt the previous year. Luxembourg's army consisted of 94 squadrons. Once again King William entrusted Allied forces in the region to Prince Waldeck.
In other theatres Marshal de Lorge commanded French forces in the Rhineland. De Lorge was opposed by the Elector of Bavaria, who had succeeded command of Allied forces in the region after the death of Charles of Lorraine. Meanwhile, Marshal Catinat led the French forces in Dauphiné against the Duke of Savoy, whilst Marshal Noailles commanded forces deployed on the border of Catalonia. Prince Waldeck had hoped to delay the campaign to enable the Elector of Brandenburg to move on the Moselle and tie down Boufflers, but Luxembourg's early manoeuvres had allowed Boufflers to move between the rivers Sambre and Meuse to support the French commander. Waldeck, left his assembly point at Tienen and advanced to Wavre. After dispersing his troops to live off forage, the Allied army reassembled and advanced to Genappe on 8 June. In mid-June Luxembourg split his forces. Humières was relegated to supervise the garrison of the Lines of the Lys and the Scheldt, whilst the main French army left Deinze and marched south, crossing the River Sambre at Jeumont on 23 June.
Meanwhile, detachments from Boufflers force under Rubantel had augmented Luxembourg's army, which continued its march, camping at Boussu on 27 June. As Luxembourg manoeuvred south of Mons and Charleroi, Waldeck moved his camp between Nivelles and Pieton on 28 June; that same evening, Luxembourg led a detachment from Gerpinnes, to establish a crossing of the Sambre at Ham. A fortified position at Froidmont was soon compelled to surrender after artillery was brought across the river. With the bridgehead secure, the rest of the French army crossed the Sambre on 30 June.. Waldeck moved towards the French bridgehead. French and Dutch cavalry sent out to reconnoitre the area crossed swords in an inconclusive action near Fleurus, but by evening the French cavalry had withdrawn to Velaine where it was joined by the rest of their army, only 3 km from the Allies. On the morning of 1 July, Luxembourg marched his forces towards Fleurus. Waldeck had set up his 38,000 troops in the two customary lines on the high ground between the village of Heppignies on their right and past the chateau of St Amant on their left.
Luxembourg divided his forces to attack both flanks of the Allied army – an audacious plan that in order for it to succeed would require secrecy and deception. The columns of the first French line split to take position between Heppignies and Fleurus, with some troops moving up towards St Amant; the two columns of Luxembourg's right veered off to the north across the Orme, their passage covered by the hedges and wheat fields, by a screen of French cavalry. Forty cannon were positioned near the chateau of St Amant, another 30 guns positioned between the chateau and Fleurus. Unnoticed by Waldeck, Luxembourg had enveloped his flanks. Had the Allied commander realised that Luxembourg had split his army in two, he might have overwhelmed the isolated French left before the right came into position, but he did not. After the French right wing was in position, their artillery opened fire at about 10:00, striking the Allied infantry with great effect; the French left wing, commanded by Lieutenant-General Jean Christophe, comte de Gournay, opened their attack with a cavalry charge but Gournay was killed in the assault.
A cavalry charge on the right wing however, met with more success. On the heels of this attack, the French infantry now advanced against both flanks of Waldeck's line which, finding itself enveloped by the enemy broke; some of the Allied troops managed to regroup on high ground near Fleurus, but were overwhelmed. Despite being pressed by French cavalry, Waldeck was able to create a new line with his remaining forces further back. However, this line collapsed, broken by French infantry flushed with confidence from their initial success; the remainder of Waldeck's troops streamed towards Nivelles in the best order. The Battle of Fleurus was a complete success, bu
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Pierre-Jean Mariette was a collector of and dealer in old master prints, a renowned connoisseur of prints and drawings, a chronicler of the careers of French Italian and Flemish artists. He was born and died in Paris, was a central figure in the artistic culture of the city for decades. Mariette was born to a long-established and successful family of engravers, book publishers and printsellers in Paris: when his grandfather Pierre Mariette bought the business from his father in 1657, it was valued at 30,000 livres; the family connections put him in contact as a young man with antiquarians such as the comte de Caylus, for whom Mariette would write his Lettre sur Leonardo da Vinci, printed as a preface to Caylus's book on Leonardo's caricatures, 1730. In 1722 he first met the immensely rich patron of the arts Pierre Crozat, whom he advised, whose collection he catalogued and from whose sale he purchased outstanding drawings. After he attended the Jesuit college in Paris, his father, Jean Mariette, sent him on tour in 1717, to sharpen his connoisseurship and further family connections.
First he went to Amsterdam, the center of the art trade, to Germany. In Vienna Mariette catalogued the art collection of Prince Eugene of Savoy. Everywhere the affable and sociable Mariette made acquaintances and formed contacts with the scholarly and artistic community in Europe, which he maintained through correspondence. Through his artistic connections, Mariette was named a member of the prestigious Accademia delle Arti del Disegno, Florence, in 1733, his knowledge of prints and his close friendship with Caylus and the artist Charles-Antoine Coypel secured him a position reorganizing the old master print collection of the Bibliothèque Royale. In 1741 Mariette was asked to write the sale catalogue of Crozat's collection of paintings and antiquities, the first example of the modern descriptive sale catalogue, he purchased some of Crozat's drawings at the sale himself. His engravings illustrated the Cours d'architecture qui comprend les ordres de Vignole ä ceux de Michel-Ange of Augustin-Charles d'Aviler, Before the death of his father in 1742, Mariette had been running the family publishing and print-making business, an aspect of his career overlooked by art historians.
The firm had published Pierre Fauchard's Le chirurgien dentiste, ou traité des dents 1728, the first modern work on dentistry and a milestone of medical history,By 1750 he sold the family business that he had inherited in 1744, in order to purchase the office of Contrôleur Général de la Grande Chancellerie, a sinecure that allowed him to devote the rest of his life to his researches and to increasing his celebrated collection. He concentrated on prints and drawings, but included paintings and terracottas. Among his great drawings was a Michelangelo study of a nude for the Sistine Chapel, he shared Crozat's taste for the drawings of Rubens: at Crozat's sale he purchased sixty-two of the finest for his own collection. When his collections were dispersed at auction after his death, 1266 drawings were acquired by the Crown; the albums of more than 3500 prints mounted on fine paper, begun by his father, Jean Mariette, passed into the collection of the Earls Spencer. These "Spencer Albums" of Mariette's prints are one of the most important acquisitions made by the Harvard University Art Museums in recent years.
The albums include etchings and engravings in a near-perfect state of preservation by Italian and Flemish printmakers, including Jacques Callot, Jusepe de Ribera, Adriaen van Ostade. Mariette collected contemporary French paintings, Although he was immune to the forceful realism of Chardin, the more sentimental charm of Greuze found a place on his walls: Greuze's Young Peasant Boy, shown at the Salon of 1763 had been purchased by Mariette, together with its pendant, before it was exhibited. Mariette's further published works were not many. In 1750 he published a Traité historique des pierres gravées du Cabinet du Roi, on the hardstone carvings in the royal collection, his reputation as a connoisseur, who laid down the principles by which the hands of Italian master drawings could be ascertained, led to him being made an associate an honorary member of the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture. In 1764-65 he got into a public dispute in the pages of the Gazette littéraire de l'Europe with Giovanni Battista Piranesi, whom Mariette admired as an artist, over Piranesi's polemical stand that the magnificence of Roman art derived from its Etruscan roots, rather than from its Greek borrowings Mariette's circle of friends was large, included Andre-Charles Boulle and was broad enough to define the state of art connoisseurship in France during his time, beginning with the circle he met at the houses of the prodigious collection Pierre-Antoine Crozat, where besides artists like Antoine Watteau and the classicizing sculptor Edmé Bouchardon, Mariette met the abbé de Maroulle and the comte de Caylus, who helped sharpen his eye.
Mariette married Angélique-Catherine Doyen in 1724. He acquired a country house at Croissy, which he named "Le Colifichet" was ennobled during the reign of Louis XV, honored with the Order of the Saint-Esprit, his major ambition was to write a dictionary of artists. In
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website