Jean-Nicolas Corvisart-Desmarets was a French physician. Born in the French village of Dricourt in 1755, Corvisart translated Leopold von Auenbrugg's Inventum Novum from Latin into French. Corvisart was fond of Auenbrugg's use of chest percussion as a diagnostic tool, began to perfect the technique, he resurrected percussion during the French Revolution. Corvisart examined postmortem evidence as well. From 1777 he studied at the Ecole de médecine in Paris qualifying as docteur régent of the Faculté de Paris. In 1797, Corvisart began to teach at the Collège de France, where he gained a reputation as an expert in cardiology. Among his students were René Laennec, Guillaume Dupuytren, Marie François Xavier Bichat and Pierre Bretonneau. In 1804, Corvisart became the primary physician of Napoléon Bonaparte, who he continued to attend to until Bonaparte's exile to St. Helena Island, October 1815. In 1820 he was made a member of Académie Nationale de Médecine, he died the following year at Courbevoie. Jean-Nicolas Corvisart was born on February 1755, in the French village of Dricourt, Ardennes.
His father, Pierre Corvisart, was an attorney for the Parliament of Paris. He moved to Dricourt when the Parliament dissolved, but returned to Paris after the birth of his son, who he destined to be a fellow lawyer. At the age of 12, at his fathers wish, Jean-Nicolas Corvisart entered the prestigious college of Sainte-Barbe. A mediocre student, Corvisart spent most of his time playing outdoor sports, giving no indication of the bright future his father dreamt. However, one day, after listening to anatomy professor, Anoine Petit, visiting medical clinics in Paris, Corvisart became fascinated in medicine, he quit pursuing law to pursue a medical profession. Corvisart obtained a position at the Hotel-Dieu as a male nurse, he attended medical school at the Faculte de Medicine, where he was an outstanding student, known for his work ethic, observation skills, independent spirit. To his peers, he was known to be stocky in stature, vigorous in manner, honest, generous to the poor, not afraid to defy tradition.
Corvisart had the option of choosing between medicine and surgery, decided he preferred and was more attracted towards medicine. While in medical school, Corvisart studied and followed the likes of Debois de Rochefort, Busquet Halle, Pelletan Roger, Vicq d' Azyr and was a favorite pupil of Atonine Petit and Pierre-Joseph Desault; as the youngest member of his class, Corvisart was at the top of his class. He presented his inaugural thesis on September 2, 1782, graduated from medical school that same year, his defiance to tradition led to his failure in finding work after graduation. He had applied to the Hosipital of Paroisses, founded by Madam Necker, but was denied of working there as a physician by Necker because he refused to wear the powdered wig required for the position. Thus, Corvisart started his practice as a doctor in the poor neighborhoods of Saint Sulpice in Paris. Corvisart soon became distinguished for not only his skills as a clinician, but for his personality, he became more and more well known, climbing up the ranks, in 1783, was appointed to teach physiology and obstetrics to medical school.
In 1786, he became the professor of clinical pathology. Corvisart worked with Debois de Rochfort at the Charite Hospital in Paris. Upon Rochfort's death, Corvisart worked as a physician at the hospital. Once again, Corvisart his reputation spread across the hospital and the city. By 1795, Corvisart was elected to be the Chair of Clinical Medicine of what was a newly formed medical school at the Charite Hospital in Paris and took over the clinical teaching. Corvisart innovated new methods in treating patients, focusing not on researching diseases in cadavers, but on recognizing particular diseases based on signs and symptoms given off by the patient; this new method was taught to the entire hospital, thus adopting a new method of treating patients, still used today. Patients were divided into different categories of diseases, an assistant would have daily observations of the patient, present the observation and heath status of the patient to the respective physician. At age 60, Corvisart retired.
He died on September 15, 1821 after a third attack of apoplexy, which caused a hemiplegia, 4 months after Napoleon died. Napoleon was said to be a'difficult' person to treat in the clinical setting, as he demanded a full explanation for each aspect of the ailments he experienced. Napoleon refused to take prescribed medicine and was skeptical as to the practice and application of medical treatment, save that suggested by Corvisart, who he deemed as both competent and reliable. In 1799, Corvisart and fellow French physician Paul Joseph Barthez were appointed by the French government as'physicians of the Government'; when Barthez died in 1806, Corvisart was given the title of'chief physician' and attended to Napoleon and his family, consisting of the Empress as well as the Imperial House and court. In 1801, one of Corvisart's first patients, invited Corvisart to a reception, where he was introduced to General Napoleon Bonaparte and his wife Josephine. There, they had the following conversation.
In August 1803, Napoleon sent for Corvisart due to a sudden cough. Napoleon had been characterized as reluctant to access his physicians, including Corvisart at first. Corvisart diagnosed Napoleon with a pulmonary congestion, which he did not disclose to the emperor out of regard fo
Gaspard Laurent Bayle
Gaspard Laurent Bayle was a French physician. He studied medicine under Jean-Nicolas Corvisart, was a colleague to René Laennec. Beginning in 1805 he practiced medicine at the Hôpital de la Charité in Paris, he was an uncle to physician Antoine Laurent Bayle. Bayle is remembered for his extensive work in pathological anatomy, making contributions in research of cancer and tuberculosis; as the result of 900 post-mortem investigations, he described six different types of tuberculosis — ulcerous phthisis, calculous phthisis, cancerous phthisis, tubercular phthisis, glandular phthisis and phthisis with melanosis. His best known written effort was the 1810 Recherches sur la phthisie pulmonaire, he penned a treatise on cancerous diseases, published posthumously by his nephew, Antoine Laurent Bayle. Heirs of Hippocrates Gaspard Laurent Bayle
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. The various types of sugar are derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose and galactose. "Table sugar" or "granulated sugar" refers to a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. In the body, sucrose is hydrolysed into glucose. Sugars are found in the tissues of most plants, but sucrose is concentrated in sugarcane and sugar beet, making them ideal for efficient commercial extraction to make refined sugar. Sugarcane originated in tropical Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, is known of from before 6,000 BP, sugar beet was first described in writing by Olivier de Serres and originated in southwestern and Southeast Europe along the Atlantic coasts and the Mediterranean Sea, in North Africa, Macaronesia, to Western Asia. In 2016, the combined world production of those two crops was about two billion tonnes. Other disaccharides include lactose. Longer chains of sugar molecules are called polysaccharides.
Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol and sugar alcohols, may have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugar. Sucrose is used in prepared foods, is sometimes added to commercially available beverages, may be used by people as a sweetener for foods and beverages; the average person consumes about 24 kilograms of sugar each year, or 33.1 kilograms in developed countries, equivalent to over 260 food calories per day. As sugar consumption grew in the latter part of the 20th century, researchers began to examine whether a diet high in sugar refined sugar, was damaging to human health. Excessive consumption of sugar has been implicated in the onset of obesity, cardiovascular disease and tooth decay. Numerous studies have tried to clarify those implications, but with varying results because of the difficulty of finding populations for use as controls that consume little or no sugar. In 2015, the World Health Organization recommended that adults and children reduce their intake of free sugars to less than 10%, encouraged a reduction to below 5%, of their total energy intake.
The etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. From Sanskrit शर्करा, meaning "ground or candied sugar," "grit, gravel", came Persian shakar, whence Arabic سكر, whence Medieval Latin succarum, whence 12th-century French sucre, whence the English word sugar. Italian zucchero, Spanish azúcar, Portuguese açúcar came directly from Arabic, the Spanish and Portuguese words retaining the Arabic definite article; the earliest Greek word attested is σάκχαρις. The English word jaggery, a coarse brown sugar made from date palm sap or sugarcane juice, has a similar etymological origin: Portuguese jágara from the Malayalam ചക്കരാ, itself from the Sanskrit शर्करा. Sugar has been produced in the Indian subcontinent since ancient times and its cultivation spread from there into modern-day Afghanistan through the Khyber Pass, it was not plentiful or cheap in early times, in most parts of the world, honey was more used for sweetening. People chewed raw sugarcane to extract its sweetness. Sugarcane was a native of Southeast Asia.
Different species seem to have originated from different locations with Saccharum barberi originating in India and S. edule and S. officinarum coming from New Guinea. One of the earliest historical references to sugarcane is in Chinese manuscripts dating to 8th century BCE, which state that the use of sugarcane originated in India. In the tradition of Indian medicine, the sugarcane is known by the name Ikṣu and the sugarcane juice is known as Phāṇita, its varieties and characterics are defined in nighaṇṭus such as the Bhāvaprakāśa. Sugar remained unimportant until the Indians discovered methods of turning sugarcane juice into granulated crystals that were easier to store and to transport. Crystallized sugar was discovered by the time of the Imperial Guptas, around the 5th century CE. In the local Indian language, these crystals were called khanda, the source of the word candy. Indian sailors, who carried clarified butter and sugar as supplies, introduced knowledge of sugar along the various trade routes they travelled.
Traveling Buddhist monks took sugar crystallization methods to China. During the reign of Harsha in North India, Indian envoys in Tang China taught methods of cultivating sugarcane after Emperor Taizong of Tang made known his interest in sugar. China established its first sugarcane plantations in the seventh century. Chinese documents confirm at least two missions to India, initiated in 647 CE, to obtain technology for sugar refining. In the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East and China, sugar became a staple of cooking and desserts. Nearchus, admiral of Alexander of Macedonia, knew of sugar during the year 325 B. C. because of his participation in the campaign of India led by Alexander. The Greek physician Pedanius Dioscorides in the 1st century CE described sugar in his medical treatise De Materia Medica, Pliny the Elder, a 1st-century CE Roman, described sugar in his Natural History: "Sugar is made in Arabia as well, but Indian sugar is better, it is a kind of honey found in cane, white as gum, it crunches between the teeth.
It comes in lumps the size of a hazelnut. Sugar is used only for medical purposes." Crusaders brought sugar back to Europe after their campaigns in the Hol
The Napoleonic Wars were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions and led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict; the wars are categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon: the Third Coalition, the Fourth, the Fifth, the Sixth, the Seventh. Napoleon, upon ascending to First Consul of France in 1799, had inherited a chaotic republic. In 1805, Austria and Russia waged war against France. In response, Napoleon defeated the allied Russo-Austrian army at Austerlitz in December 1805, considered his greatest victory. At sea, the British defeated the joint Franco-Spanish navy in the Battle of Trafalgar on October 1805; this victory prevented the invasion of Britain itself. Concerned about the increasing French power, Prussia led the creation of the Fourth Coalition with Russia and Sweden, the resumption of war in October 1806.
Napoleon defeated the Prussians in Jena and the Russians in Friedland, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. The peace failed, though, as war broke out in 1809, when the badly prepared Fifth Coalition, led by Austria, was defeated in Wagram. Hoping to isolate Britain economically, Napoleon launched an invasion of Portugal, the only remaining British ally in continental Europe. After occupying Lisbon in November 1807, with the bulk of French troops present in Spain, Napoleon seized the opportunity to turn against his former ally, depose the reigning Spanish Bourbon family and declare his brother King of Spain in 1808 as Joseph I; the Spanish and Portuguese revolted with British support, after six years of fighting, expelled the French from Iberia in 1814. Concurrently, unwilling to bear economic consequences of reduced trade violated the Continental System, enticing Napoleon to launch a massive invasion of Russia in 1812; the resulting campaign ended with the dissolution and disastrous withdrawal of the French Grande Armée.
Encouraged by the defeat, Prussia and Russia formed the Sixth Coalition and began a new campaign against France, decisively defeating Napoleon at Leipzig in October 1813 after several inconclusive engagements. The Allies invaded France from the East, while the Peninsular War spilled over southwestern French territory. Coalition troops captured Paris at the end of March 1814 and forced Napoleon to abdicate in early April, he was exiled to the island of Elba, the Bourbons were restored to power. However, Napoleon escaped in February 1815, reassumed control of France; the Allies responded with the Seventh Coalition, defeating Napoleon permanently at Waterloo in June 1815 and exiling him to St Helena where he died six years later. The Congress of Vienna redrew the borders of Europe, brought a lasting peace to the continent; the wars had profound consequences on global history, including the spread of nationalism and liberalism, the rise of the British Empire as the world's foremost power, the appearance of independence movements in Latin America and subsequent collapse of the Spanish Empire, the fundamental reorganisation of German and Italian territories into larger states, the establishment of radically new methods of conducting warfare.
Napoleon seized power in 1799. There are a number of opinions on the date to use as the formal beginning of the Napoleonic Wars; the Napoleonic Wars began with the War of the Third Coalition, the first of the Coalition Wars against the First French Republic after Napoleon's accession as leader of France. Britain ended the Treaty of Amiens and declared war on France in May 1803. Among the reasons were Napoleon's changes to the international system in Western Europe in Switzerland, Germany and the Netherlands. Kagan argues that Britain was irritated in particular by Napoleon's assertion of control over Switzerland. Furthermore, Britons felt insulted when Napoleon stated that their country deserved no voice in European affairs though King George III was an elector of the Holy Roman Empire. For its part, Russia decided that the intervention in Switzerland indicated that Napoleon was not looking toward a peaceful resolution of his differences with the other European powers; the British enforced a naval blockade of France to starve it of resources.
Napoleon responded with economic embargoes against Britain, sought to eliminate Britain's Continental allies to break the coalitions arrayed against him. The so-called Continental System formed a league of armed neutrality to disrupt the blockade and enforce free trade with France; the British responded by capturing the Danish fleet, breaking up the league, secured dominance over the seas, allowing it to continue its strategy. Napoleon won the War of the Third Coalition at Austerlitz, forcing the Austrian Empire out of the war and formally dissolving the Holy Roman Empire. Within months, Prussia declared war; this war ended disastrously for Prussia and occupied within 19 days of the beginning of the campaign. Napoleon subsequently defeated the Russian Empire at Friedland, creating powerful client states in Eastern Europe and ending the fourth coalition. Concurrently, the refusal of Portugal to commit to the Con
Poetry is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning. Poetry has a long history, dating back to prehistorical times with the creation of hunting poetry in Africa, panegyric and elegiac court poetry was developed extensively throughout the history of the empires of the Nile and Volta river valleys; some of the earliest written poetry in Africa can be found among the Pyramid Texts written during the 25th century BCE, while the Epic of Sundiata is one of the most well-known examples of griot court poetry. The earliest Western Asian epic poetry, the Epic of Gilgamesh, was written in Sumerian. Early poems in the Eurasian continent evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese Shijing, or from a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit Vedas, Zoroastrian Gathas, the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Ancient Greek attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle's Poetics, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric, drama and comedy.
Attempts concentrated on features such as repetition, verse form and rhyme, emphasized the aesthetics which distinguish poetry from more objectively informative, prosaic forms of writing. Poetry uses forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretation to words, or to evoke emotive responses. Devices such as assonance, alliteration and rhythm are sometimes used to achieve musical or incantatory effects; the use of ambiguity, symbolism and other stylistic elements of poetic diction leaves a poem open to multiple interpretations. Figures of speech such as metaphor and metonymy create a resonance between otherwise disparate images—a layering of meanings, forming connections not perceived. Kindred forms of resonance may exist, between individual verses, in their patterns of rhyme or rhythm; some poetry types are specific to particular cultures and genres and respond to characteristics of the language in which the poet writes. Readers accustomed to identifying poetry with Dante, Goethe and Rumi may think of it as written in lines based on rhyme and regular meter.
Much modern poetry reflects a critique of poetic tradition, playing with and testing, among other things, the principle of euphony itself, sometimes altogether forgoing rhyme or set rhythm. In today's globalized world, poets adapt forms and techniques from diverse cultures and languages; some scholars believe. Others, suggest that poetry did not predate writing; the oldest surviving epic poem, the Epic of Gilgamesh, comes from the 3rd millennium BCE in Sumer, was written in cuneiform script on clay tablets and on papyrus. A tablet dating to c. 2000 BCE describes an annual rite in which the king symbolically married and mated with the goddess Inanna to ensure fertility and prosperity. An example of Egyptian epic poetry is The Story of Sinuhe. Other ancient epic poetry includes the Iliad and the Odyssey. Epic poetry, including the Odyssey, the Gathas, the Indian Vedas, appears to have been composed in poetic form as an aid to memorization and oral transmission, in prehistoric and ancient societies.
Other forms of poetry developed directly from folk songs. The earliest entries in the oldest extant collection of Chinese poetry, the Shijing, were lyrics; the efforts of ancient thinkers to determine what makes poetry distinctive as a form, what distinguishes good poetry from bad, resulted in "poetics"—the study of the aesthetics of poetry. Some ancient societies, such as China's through her Shijing, developed canons of poetic works that had ritual as well as aesthetic importance. More thinkers have struggled to find a definition that could encompass formal differences as great as those between Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and Matsuo Bashō's Oku no Hosomichi, as well as differences in content spanning Tanakh religious poetry, love poetry, rap. Classical thinkers employed classification as a way to assess the quality of poetry. Notably, the existing fragments of Aristotle's Poetics describe three genres of poetry—the epic, the comic, the tragic—and develop rules to distinguish the highest-quality poetry in each genre, based on the underlying purposes of the genre.
Aestheticians identified three major genres: epic poetry, lyric poetry, dramatic poetry, treating comedy and tragedy as subgenres of dramatic poetry. Aristotle's work was influential throughout the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age, as well as in Europe during the Renaissance. Poets and aestheticians distinguished poetry from, defined it in opposition to prose, understood as writing with a proclivity to logical explication and a linear narrative structure; this does not imply that poetry is illogical or lacks narration, but rather that poetry is an attempt to render the beautiful or sublime without the burden of engaging the logical or narrative thought process. English Romantic poet John Keats termed this escape from logic "Negative Capability"; this "romantic" approach views form as a key element of successful poetry because form is abstract and distinct from the underlying notional logic. This approach remained influential into t
The stethoscope is an acoustic medical device for auscultation, or listening to the internal sounds of an animal or human body. It has a small disc-shaped resonator, placed against the chest, two tubes connected to earpieces, it is used to listen to lung and heart sounds. It is used to listen to intestines and blood flow in arteries and veins. In combination with a sphygmomanometer, it is used for measurements of blood pressure. Less "mechanic's stethoscopes", equipped with rod shaped chestpieces, are used to listen to internal sounds made by machines, such as diagnosing a malfunctioning automobile engine by listening to the sounds of its internal parts. Stethoscopes can be used to check scientific vacuum chambers for leaks, for various other small-scale acoustic monitoring tasks. A stethoscope that intensifies auscultatory sounds is called phonendoscope; the stethoscope was invented in France in 1816 by René Laennec at the Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital in Paris. It was monaural. Laennec invented the stethoscope because he was uncomfortable placing his ear on women's chests to hear heart sounds.
He observed that a rolled piece of paper, placed between the patient's chest and his ear, could amplify heart sounds without requiring physical contact. Laennec's device was similar to a historical form of hearing aid. Laennec called his device the "stethoscope", he called its use "mediate auscultation", because it was auscultation with a tool intermediate between the patient's body and the physician's ear; the first flexible stethoscope of any sort may have been a binaural instrument with articulated joints not clearly described in 1829. In 1840, Golding Bird described a stethoscope. Bird was the first to publish a description of such a stethoscope but he noted in his paper the prior existence of an earlier design which he described as the snake ear trumpet. Bird's stethoscope had a single earpiece. In 1851, Irish physician Arthur Leared invented a binaural stethoscope and, in 1852, George Philip Cammann perfected the design of the stethoscope instrument for commercial production, which has become the standard since.
Cammann wrote a major treatise on diagnosis by auscultation, which the refined binaural stethoscope made possible. By 1873, there were descriptions of a differential stethoscope that could connect to different locations to create a slight stereo effect, though this did not become a standard tool in clinical practice. Somerville Scott Alison described his invention of the stethophone at the Royal Society in 1858; this was used to do definitive studies on binaural hearing and auditory processing that advanced knowledge of sound localization and lead to an understanding of binaural fusion. The medical historian Jacalyn Duffin has argued that the invention of the stethoscope marked a major step in the redefinition of disease from being a bundle of symptoms, to the current sense of a disease as a problem with an anatomical system if there are no noticeable symptoms; this re-conceptualization occurred in part, Duffin argues, because prior to stethoscopes, there were no non-lethal instruments for exploring internal anatomy.
Rappaport and Sprague designed a new stethoscope in the 1940s, which became the standard by which other stethoscopes are measured, consisting of two sides, one of, used for the respiratory system, the other for the cardiovascular system. The Rappaport-Sprague was made by Hewlett-Packard. HP's medical products division was spun off as part of Agilent Technologies, Inc. where it became Agilent Healthcare. Agilent Healthcare was purchased by Philips which became Philips Medical Systems, before the walnut-boxed, $300, original Rappaport-Sprague stethoscope was abandoned ca. 2004, along with Philips' brand electronic stethoscope model. The Rappaport-Sprague model stethoscope was heavy and short with an antiquated appearance recognizable by their two large independent latex rubber tubes connecting an exposed leaf-spring-joined pair of opposing F-shaped chrome-plated brass binaural ear tubes with a dual-head chest piece. Several other minor refinements were made to stethoscopes until, in the early 1960s, David Littmann, a Harvard Medical School professor, created a new stethoscope, lighter than previous models and had improved acoustics.
In the late 1970s, 3M-Littmann introduced the tunable diaphragm: a hard glass-epoxy resin diaphragm member with an overmolded silicone flexible acoustic surround which permitted increased excursion of the diaphragm member in a Z-axis with respect to the plane of the sound collecting area. The left shift to a lower resonant frequency increases the volume of some low frequency sounds due to the longer waves propagated by the increased excursion of the hard diaphragm member suspended in the concentric accountic surround. Conversely, restricting excursion of the diaphragm by pressing the stethoscope diaphragm surface against the anatomical area overlying the physiological sounds of interest, the acoustic surround could be used to dampen excursion of the diaphragm in response to "z"-axis pressure against a concentric fret; this raises the freq