Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Châlons-en-Champagne is a city in the Grand Est region of France. It is the capital of the department of Marne, despite being only a quarter the size of the city of Reims. Called Châlons-sur-Marne, the city was renamed in 1998, it should not be confused with the Burgundian town of Chalon-sur-Saône. Châlons is conjectured to be the site of several battles including the Battle of Châlons fought in 274 between Roman Emperor Aurelian and Emperor Tetricus I of the Gallic Empire; the Catalaunian Fields was the site of the battle of Châlons in 451 which turned back the westward advance of Attila. It is the setting of the last operetta of Die Göttin der Vernunft. Saint Etienne's cathedral, including parts of the first Romanesque cathedral built in the 12th century, it was rebuilt in Gothic style. The west façade and two close spans were added in the 17th century. Notre-Dame-en-Vaux church, part of the UNESCO World Heritage. Built between 1157 and 1217, the collegiate church had a cloister and was a place of pilgrimage in the 12th century, Museum du Cloitre de Notre-Dame-en-Vaux 12th century.
Saint-Alpin the oldest church of the city. It still marked by the Romanesque style. Hôtel de Ville, it has a façade representative of the neo-classic period of the end of the 18th century. The steps of the building are protected by four stone lions. Porte Sainte-Croix. Called Porte Dauphine, this gate was one of the entries into the city, it was dedicated to Marie-Antoinette when she came via Châlons on her way to Paris to marry the future king Louis XVI of France. La Dernière Relève: war memorial next to the cathedral, with group of bronzes by French sculptor Gaston Broquet. Ancien Hotel des Intendants de Champagne. Today home to the Prefecture of the Champagne-Ardenne region and Prefecture of the Marne. Le Cirque; the old town circus, completed in 1899, is sheltering the Centre National des Arts du Cirque. The Gare de Châlons-en-Champagne railway station is served by the TGV network with service to and from Paris Gare de l'Est. Other destinations are Reims, Saint-Dizier, Bar-le-Duc and Verdun. Additionally, Châlons is connected with the Champagne-TGV station, near Reims, with high speed trains going to Lille, Nantes and Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport.
Châlons is located at the intersection of two major axes: A4 motorway, going from Paris to Strasbourg, towards Reims and Metz A26 motorway, going from Lille to Lyon, towards Reims and Dijon. Châlons is served by an international airport devoted to shipping, ranking third in France with 60,000 tonnes of freight passing through each year. Local transportation is provided by SITAC BUS buses. Arts et Métiers ParisTech, a national engineering graduate school; this teaching and research center was established in 1806. Students can attend courses focused on industrial engineering. Centre national des arts du cirque, a Circus Arts Learning Centre created in 1985; each year about twenty students learn all the disciplines of modern circus arts. Institut Universitaire Technologique of Reims, Châlons, Charleville, a branch of the University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne Institut Universitaire de Formation des Maîtres, a branch of the University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne ESPE Basket Châlons-en-Champagne is a Châlons' basketball team.
A temporary firing range was used for some shooting events at the 1924 Summer Olympics in Paris. Châlons-en-Champagne is twinned with: Ilkeston, United Kingdom. Neuss, Germany; the Camp de Mourmelon is a military camp of circa 10,000 hectares located near Mourmelon-le-Grand 22 kilometres north. It was created at the behest of Napoleon III and opened 30 August 1857 during the Second French Empire; the initial purpose was for practising military manoeuvres, but it turned into a showcase of the French Imperial Army, a theatrical propaganda display, where French citizens could meet the army and watch parades. Each year the camp was transformed into a town of wooden chalets; the camp survived the fall of the Second Empire in 1870, but changed into a training camp and a departure point for troops engaging in overseas operations. The camp is used for military manoeuvres, cavalry training, along with the neighbouring, 2,500 hectare, Camp de Moronvillers. Firing of live ordnance is prohibited. Châlons-en-Champagne was the birthplace of: Martin Akakia Thierry Beschefer, Jesuit missionary David Blondel, Protestant clergyman Claude D'Espence French theologian Jean Talon, first Intendant of New France Antoine de Chézy, hydraulics engineer Nicolas Appert, inventor of "appertisation" for the preservation of food Jean-Baptiste Charbonnier and organist Joseph-François Mangin, designer of the St. Patrick's Old Cathedral and the New York City Hall Henri Dagonet, psychiatrist Adolphe Willette, painter Maurice Renard, writer Etienne Oehmichen, considered father of the helicopter Robert Louis Antral painter Cabu, comic strip artist and caricaturist Maryvonne de Saint-Pulgent, senior civil servant and musicologist Mano Solo, singer Xavier Bertrand, politician Jacques Massu, general Châlons-en-Champagne was the death place of: Jean-Baptiste Charbonnier and organist Geor
Institut de France
The Institut de France is a French learned society, grouping five académies, including the Académie française. The Institute, located in Paris, manages 1,000 foundations, as well as museums and châteaux open for visit, it awards prizes and subsidies, which amounted to a total of over €27 million per year in 2017. Most of these prizes are awarded by the Institute on the recommendation of the académies; the building was constructed as the Collège des Quatre-Nations by Cardinal Mazarin, as a school for students from new provinces attached to France under Louis XIV. The Institut de France was established on 25 October 1795, by the French government. In 2017, Xavier Darcos was named the Institut de France's chancellor. Académie française – initiated 1635, suppressed 1793, restored 1803 as a division of the institute. Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres – initiated 1663. Académie des sciences – initiated 1666. Académie des beaux-arts – created 1816 as the merger of the Académie de peinture et de sculpture Académie de musique and Académie d'architecture Académie des sciences morales et politiques – initiated 1795, suppressed 1803, reestablished 1832.
The Royal Society of Canada, initiated 1882, was modeled after the Institut de France and the Royal Society of London. The Lebanese Academy of Sciences, known by its French name "Académie des Sciences du Liban", is broadly fashioned after the French Academy of Sciences, with which it continues to develop joint programs. Collège des Quatre-Nations National academy List of museums in Paris List of honorary societies Media related to Institut de France at Wikimedia Commons Official website Notes on the Institut de France from the Scholarly Societies project
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Reign of Terror
The Reign of Terror, or The Terror, refers to a period during the French Revolution after the First French Republic was established. Several historians consider the "reign of terror" to have begun in 1793, placing the starting date at either 5 September, June or March, while some consider it to have begun in September 1792, or July 1789, but there is a consensus that it ended with the fall of Maximilien Robespierre in July 1794. Between June 1793 and the end of July 1794, there were 16,594 official death sentences in France, of which 2,639 were in Paris. There was a sense of emergency among leading politicians in France in the summer of 1793 between the widespread civil war and counter-revolution. Bertrand Barère exclaimed on 5 September 1793 in the Convention: "Let's make terror the order of the day!" They were determined to avoid street violence such as the September Massacres of 1792 by taking violence into their own hands as an instrument of government. Robespierre in February 1794 in a speech explained the necessity of terror: If the basis of popular government in peacetime is virtue, the basis of popular government during a revolution is both virtue and terror.
Terror is nothing more than speedy and inflexible justice. Some historians argue. Others suggest there were additional causes, including emotional. Enlightenment thought emphasized the importance of rational thinking and began challenging legal and moral foundations of society, providing the leaders of the Terror with new ideas about the role and structure of government. Rousseau's Social Contract argued that each person was born with rights, they would come together to form a government that would protect those rights. Under the social contract, the government was required to act for the general will, which represented the interests of everyone rather than a few factions. Drawing from the idea of a general will, Robespierre felt that the French Revolution could result in a Republic built for the general will but only once those who fought this ideal were expelled; those who resisted the government were deemed "tyrants" fighting against the virtue and honor of the general will. The leaders felt their ideal version of government was threatened from the inside and outside of France, terror was the only way to preserve the dignity of the Republic created from French Revolution.
Robespierre's ideology was not derived from Rousseau. The writings of another Enlightenment thinker of the time, Baron de Montesquieu influenced Robespierre. One of Montesquieu's writings, The Spirit of the Laws, defines a core principle of a democratic government: virtue, he describes it as "the love of laws and of our country." In Robespierre's speech to the National Convention on 5 February 1794, On Political Morality, he talks about virtue being the "fundamental principle of popular or democratic government." This was, in fact, the same virtue defined by Montesquieu 50 years earlier. Robespierre believed that the virtue needed for any democratic government was lacking in the French people; as a result, he decided to weed out those. The result was a continual push towards Terror; the Convention used this as justification for the course of action to "crush the enemies of the revolution... let the laws be executed, … and let liberty be saved."These members of the Enlightenment movement influenced revolutionary leaders.
Voltaire's warnings were overlooked, though some of his ideas were used for justification of the Revolution and the start of the Terror. He protested against Catholic Dogmas and the ways of Christianity stating, "of all religions, the Christian should of course inspire the most toleration, but till now the Christians have been the most intolerant of all men." These criticisms were used by Robespierre and other leaders as justification for their anti-religious reforms. Voltaire laid down some warnings. In his Philosophical Dictionary, he states, "we are all steeped in error. After the beginning of the French Revolution, the surrounding monarchies did not show great hostility towards the rebellion. Though ignored, Louis XVI was able to find support in Leopold II of Austria and Frederick William II of Prussia. On 27 August 1791, these foreign leaders made the Pillnitz Declaration saying they would restore the French monarch if other European rulers joined. In response to what they viewed to be the meddling of foreign powers, France declared war on 20 April 1792.
However, at this point, the war was only Austria against France. France began this war with a large series of defeats which set a precedent of fear of invasion in the people that would last throughout the war. Massive reforms of military institutions, while effective in the long run, presented the initial problems of inexperienced forces and leaders of questionable political loyalty. In the time it took for officers of merit to use their new freedoms to climb the chain of command, France suffered. Many of the early battles were definitive losses for the Fren