Marquis de Sade
Donatien Alphonse François, Marquis de Sade, was a French nobleman, revolutionary politician and writer, famous for his libertine sexuality. His works include novels, short stories, plays and political tracts. In his lifetime some of these were published under his own name while others, which Sade denied having written, appeared anonymously. Sade is best known for his erotic works, which combined philosophical discourse with pornography, depicting sexual fantasies with an emphasis on violence, suffering and blasphemy against Christianity, he gained notoriety for putting these fantasies into practice. He claimed to be a proponent of absolute freedom, unrestrained by religion, or law; the words sadism and sadist are derived from his name. Sade was incarcerated in various prisons and an insane asylum for about 32 years of his life: 11 years in Paris, a month in the Conciergerie, two years in a fortress, a year in Madelonnettes Convent, three years in Bicêtre Asylum, a year in Sainte-Pélagie Prison, 12 years in the Charenton Asylum.
During the French Revolution, he was an elected delegate to the National Convention. Many of his works were written in prison. There continues to be a fascination in popular culture. Prolific French intellectuals such as Roland Barthes, Jacques Lacan, Jacques Derrida and Michel Foucault published studies of him. On the other hand the French hedonist philosopher Michel Onfray has attacked this cult, writing that "It is intellectually bizarre to make Sade a hero." There have been numerous film adaptions of his work, the most notable being Salò, or the 120 Days of Sodom, an adaptation of his infamous book, The 120 Days of Sodom. Donatien Alphonse François de Sade was born on 2 June 1740, in the Hôtel de Condé, Paris, to Jean Baptiste François Joseph, Count de Sade and Marie Eléonore de Maillé de Carman, distant cousin and Lady-in-waiting to the Princess of Condé, he was his parents' only surviving child. He was educated by the Abbé de Sade. In Sade's youth, his father abandoned the family, he was raised by servants who indulged "his every whim," which led to his becoming "known as a rebellious and spoiled child with an ever-growing temper."Later in his childhood, Sade was sent to the Lycée Louis-le-Grand in Paris, a Jesuit college, for four years.
While at the school, he was tutored by a priest. In life, at one of Sade's trials the Abbé testified, saying that Sade had a "passionate temperament which made him eager in the pursuit of pleasure" but had a "good heart." At the Lycée Louis-le-Grand, he was subjected to "severe corporal punishment," including "flagellation," and he "spent the rest of his adult life obsessed with the violent act." At age 14, Sade began attending an elite military academy. After 20 months of training, on 14 December 1755, at age 15, Sade was commissioned as a sub-lieutenant, becoming a soldier. After 13 months as a sub-lieutenant, he was commissioned to the rank of cornet in the Brigade de S. André of the Comte de Provence's Carbine Regiment, he became Colonel of a Dragoon regiment and fought in the Seven Years' War. In 1763, on returning from war, he courted a rich magistrate's daughter, but her father rejected his suitorship and instead arranged a marriage with his elder daughter, Renée-Pélagie de Montreuil. In 1766, he had a private theatre built in the Château de Lacoste, in Provence.
In January 1767, his father died. The men of the Sade family alternated between using the marquis and comte titles, his grandfather, Gaspard François de Sade, was the first to use marquis. The Sade family were noblesse d'épée, claiming at the time the oldest, Frank-descended nobility, so assuming a noble title without a King's grant, was customarily de rigueur. Alternating title usage indicates. At Court, precedence was by royal favor, not title. There is father-and-son correspondence. For many years, Sade's descendants regarded his work as a scandal to be suppressed; this did not change until the mid-twentieth century, when the Comte Xavier de Sade reclaimed the marquis title, long fallen into disuse, on his visiting cards, took an interest in his ancestor's writings. At that time, the "divine marquis" of legend was so unmentionable in his own family that Xavier de Sade only learned of him in the late 1940s when approached by a journalist, he subsequently discovered a store of Sade's papers in the family château at Condé-en-Brie, worked with scholars for decades to enable their publication.
His youngest son, the Marquis Thibault de Sade, has continued the collaboration. The family have claimed a trademark on the name; the family sold the Château de Condé in 1983. As well as the manuscripts they retain, others are held in libraries. Many, were lost in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. A substantial amount were destroyed after Sade's death at the instigation of his son, Donatien-Claude-Armand. Sade lived a scandalous libertine existence and procured young prostitutes as well as employees of both sexes in his castle in Lacoste, he was accused of blasphemy, a serious offense at that time. His behavior included an affair with his wife's sister, Anne-Prospère, who had come to live at the castle. Beginning in 176
Grand Orient de France
The Grand Orient de France is the largest of several Masonic organizations in France and is the oldest in Continental Europe. It is considered to be the mother lodge of traditional Liberal, or Continental Freemasonry. In 1777, the Grand Orient de France recognised the antiquity of the Lodge of Perfect Equality, said to have been formed in 1688. This, if it existed at that time, was a military lodge attached to the Earl of Granard's Royal Irish Regiment, formed by Charles II of England in Saint-Germain in 1661, just before his return to England; the regiment remained loyal to the Stuarts, did not return to France until after the fall of Limerick in 1689. They returned to barracks in Saint-Germain in 1698, surviving to become the 92nd Infantry Regiment after the revolution. With these dates in mind, modern scholars regard the 1688 lodge as a folk tale. An English Lodge is said to have been founded at Dunkirk in 1721. Another "first Lodge" was organised by exiled Jacobites under the Earl of Derwentwater in Paris about 1725.
A lodge was documented at the Louis d'Argent in the Rue des Boucheries, Paris, in 1732. These were English-speaking lodges. There was a French lodge listed in the 1723 minutes of the Premier Grand Lodge of England. Meeting at Solomon's Temple, in Hemmings Row the Master was Jean Theophile Desaguliers Deputy Grand Master and effective governor of the craft in England. In a list of members having French names, James Anderson, who compiled the first printed constitutions, is listed as "Jaques Anderson maitre et arts"; the first "deputisations" of lodges in France by the London Grand Lodge occurred in 1732, the Grand Orient now dates its foundation from 1733, when there started to be a recognisable Grand Lodge of France. It was in 1743 that the English Grand Lodge of France became a French phenomenon, with Louis, Count of Clermont becoming Grand Master until his death in 1771. Shortly after his death, a schism occurred, with the larger party becoming the Grand Orient de France in 1773; the ritual of the new Grand Lodge followed that of the Premier Grand Lodge of England.
By the time of the French Revolution, there were some 1250 Masonic Lodges in the country. The Lodge Les Neuf Sœurs was a prominent lodge attached to the Grand Orient de France, influential in organising French support for the American Revolution and in the intellectual ferment that preceded the French Revolution. Benjamin Franklin was a member of this Lodge; some notable French revolutionaries were Freemasons, including Marquis de Lafayette, Marquis de Condorcet, Georges Danton, the Duke of Orléans, Hébert. Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, a leader of the Liberal Aristocracy, was the Grand Master of the Grand Orient at the time of the French Revolution. In some parts of France, the Jacobin Clubs were continuances of Masonic lodges from the Ancien Régime, according to historian Alan Forrest "some early clubs, took over both the premises and much of the membership of masonic lodges, before rebadging themselves in the new idiom of the revolution."The Catholic Encyclopedia alleges that the Masonic book La Franc-Maçonnerie, écrasée in 1746 predicted the program of the French Revolution, claims to quote documents of the Grand Orient of France where Freemasonry claims credit for the French Revolution.
However, the New Catholic Encyclopedia of 1967 says that modern historians see Freemasonry's role in the French Revolution as exaggerated. In 1804 it merged with the Rite Ecossais. In France Napoleon III established a dictatorship over official French Freemasonry, appointing first Prince Lucien Murat and Marshal Magnan to supervise Freemasonry and suppress any hints of opposition to the regime. According to the Marxist author Ernest Belfort Bax, Freemasons had a considerable involvement in the Paris Commune after a couple of unsuccessful attempts at reconciling the Commune with the French Government. In 1877, at the instigation of the Protestant pastor Frédéric Desmons, it allowed those who had no belief in a supreme being to be admitted; the United Grand Lodge of England and related Lodges regarded belief in the Supreme Being as a Masonic Landmark. It was this decision, the root cause of the schism between the Grand Orient, the rest of Freemasonry, it is a schism in Freemasonry. It is argued that the definition is ambiguous, that Anderson's Landmarks are his own collection and interpretation of the historical landmarks, that changes in both interpretation and practice have occurred before and since.
The decision was not universally approved in France. By 1894 many lodges had split off in protest and formed the Grande Loge de France In 1910, a few members of the Grand Orient, wishing to re-introduce the concept of God the Great Architect, brought back the Rectified Scottish Rite from Switzerland. In the resulting friction with the national body, they amalgamated with the English lodge of Bordeaux to produce, in 1913, a third grand lodge, la Grande Loge Nationale Indépendante et Régulière pour la France et les Colonies françaises, now the Grande Loge Nationale Française; the Grand Orient was instrumental in the founding of the left wing Republican Party. The Grand Orient was implicated in the Affaire Des Fiches, where it was accused of collecting and holding information on the religious and political affiliation of army officers, passed on by a member of the government, having been colle
Taranto is a coastal city in Apulia, Southern Italy. It is the capital of the Province of Taranto and is an important commercial port as well as the main Italian naval base, it is the third-largest continental city of Southern Italy. According to 2011 population census, it had a population of 200,154. Taranto is an important commercial and military port with well-developed steel and iron foundries, oil refineries, chemical works, naval shipyards, food-processing factories. In ancient times around 500 BC the city was one of the largest in the world with population estimates up to 300,000 people. Taranto's pre-history dates back to 706 BC when it was founded as a Greek colony, established by the Spartans; the ancient city was situated on a peninsula. The islets of S. Pietro and S. Paolo, collectively known as Cheradi Islands, protect the bay, called Mar Grande, where the commercial port is located. Another bay, called Mar Piccolo, is formed by the peninsula of the old city, has flourishing fishing.
Mar Piccolo is a military port with strategic importance. At the end of the 19th century, a channel was excavated to allow military ships to enter the Mar Piccolo harbour, the ancient Greek city become an island connected to the mainland by bridges. In addition, the islets and the coast are fortified; because of the presence of these two bays, Taranto is called "the city of the two seas". The Greek colonists from Sparta called the city Taras, after the mythical hero Taras, while the Romans, who connected the city to Rome with an extension of the Appian way, called it Tarentum; the natural harbor at Taranto made it a logical home port for the Italian naval fleet before and during the First World War. During World War II, Taranto became famous as a consequence of the November 1940 British air attack on the Regia Marina naval base stationed here, which today is called the Battle of Taranto. Taranto is the origin of the common name of the Tarantula spider family, Theraphosidae though speaking there are no members of Theraphosidae in the area.
In ancient times, residents of the town of Taranto, upon being bitten by the large local Wolf Spider, Lycosa tarentula, would promptly do a long vigorous dance like a Jig. This was done in order to sweat the venom out of their pores though the spider's venom was not fatal to humans; the frenetic dance became known as the Tarantella. In geology, Taranto gives its name to the Tarantian Age of the Pleistocene Epoch. Taranto faces the Ionian Sea, it is 14.5 metres above sea level. It was built on a plain running north/north-west–southeast, surrounded by the Murgia plateau from the north-west to the east, its territory extends for 209.64 square kilometres and is underwater. It is characterised by three natural peninsulas and a man-made island, formed by digging a ditch during the construction of Aragon Castle; the city is known as the "city of two seas" because it is washed by the Big Sea in the bay between Punta Rondinella to the northwest and Capo San Dante to the south, by the vast reservoir of the Little Sea.
The Big Sea is known as the Big Sea bay as, where ships harbour. It is separated from the Little Sea by a cape which closes the gulf, leading to the artificial island; this island formed the heart of the original city and it is connected to the mainland by the Ponte di Porta Napoli and the Ponte Girevole. The Big Sea is separated from the Ionian Sea by the Capo San Vito, the Isole Cheradi of St Peter and St Paul, the three islands of San Nicolicchio, which are incorporated by the steel plant; the latter form a little archipelago. The Little Sea is considered to be a lagoon, it is divided into two by the Ponte Punta Penna Pizzone, which joins the Punta Penna to the Punta Pizzone. The first of these forms a rough triangle, whose corners are the opening to the east and the Porta Napoli channel linking it to the Big Sea in the west; the second half forms an ellipse whose major axis measures 5 kilometres from the south-west to the north-east. The Galeso river flows into the first half; the two water bodies have different winds and tides and their underwater springs have different salinities.
These affect the currents on the surface and in the depths of the Big Sea and the two halves of the Little Sea. In the Big Sea and in the northern part of the Little Sea, there are some underwater springs called citri, which carry undrinkable freshwater together with salt water; this creates the ideal biological conditions for cultivating Mediterranean mussels, known locally as cozze. The climate of the city, recorded by the weather station situated near the Grottaglie Military Airport, is typical of the Mediterranean with frequent Continental features; the spring is mild and rainy, but it is not uncommon to have sudden cold spells come in from the east, which cause snowfall. Average annual precipitation is low, measuring just 16.7 inches per year. The summer is hot and humid, with temperatures reaching up to 40 °C. On 28 November 2012 a large F3 tornado hit the port of Taranto and damaged the Taranto Steel Mill where workers were protesting against the plant's pollution emissions; the tornado is one of nine to hit Italy since 1 October.
It is classified as Geographical
Grenoble is a city in southeastern France, at the foot of the French Alps where the river Drac joins the Isère. Located in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, Grenoble is the capital of the department of Isère and is an important European scientific centre; the city advertises itself as the "Capital of the Alps", due to its size and its proximity to the mountains. Grenoble's history goes back to a time when it was a small Gallic village, it gained somewhat in stature by becoming the capital of the Dauphiné in the 11th century, but Grenoble remained for most of its history a modest parliamentary and garrison city on the borders of the kingdom of France. Industrial development increased the prominence of Grenoble through several periods of economic expansion over the last three centuries; this started with a booming glove industry in the 18th and 19th centuries, continued with the development of a strong hydropower industry in the late 19th to early 20th centuries, ended with a post-World War II economic boom symbolized by the holding of the X Olympic Winter Games in 1968.
The city has grown to be one of Europe's most important research and innovation centers, with each fifth inhabitant working directly in these domains. The population of the city of Grenoble was 160,215 at the 2013 census, while the population of the Grenoble metropolitan area was 664,832; the residents of the city are called "Grenoblois". The many suburb communes that make up the rest of the metropolitan area include three with populations exceeding 20,000: Saint-Martin-d'Hères, Échirolles, Fontaine. For the ecclesiastical history, see Bishopric of Grenoble; the first references to what is now Grenoble date back to 43 BC. Cularo was at that time a small Gallic village of the Allobroges tribe, near a bridge across the Isère. Three centuries and with insecurity rising in the late Roman empire, a strong wall was built around the small town in 286 AD; the Emperor Gratian visited Cularo and, touched by the people's welcome, made the village a Roman city. In honour of this, Cularo was renamed Gratianopolis in 381.
Christianity spread to the region during the 4th century, the diocese of Grenoble was founded in 377 AD. From that time on, the bishops exercised significant political power over the city; until the French Revolution, they styled themselves the "bishops and princes of Grenoble". After the collapse of the Roman Empire, the city was part of the first Burgundian kingdom in the 5th century and the second Burgundian Kingdom of Arles until 1032, when it was integrated into the Holy Roman Empire. Arletian rule was interrupted between 970 due to Arab rule based in Fraxinet. Grenoble grew in the 11th century when the Counts of Albon chose the city as the capital of their territories. At the time, their possessions were a patchwork of several territories sprawled across the region; the central position of Grenoble allowed the Counts to strengthen their authority. When they took the title of "Dauphins", Grenoble became the capital of the State of Dauphiné. Despite their status, the Counts had to share authority over the city with the Bishop of Grenoble.
One of the most famous of those was Saint Hugh. Under his rule, the city's bridge was rebuilt, a regular and leper hospital were built; the inhabitants of Grenoble took advantage of the conflicts between the Counts and the bishops and obtained the recognition of a Charter of Customs that guaranteed their rights. That charter was confirmed by Kings Louis XI in 1447 and Francis I in 1541. In 1336 the last Dauphin Humbert II founded a court of justice, the Conseil delphinal, which settled at Grenoble in 1340, he established the University of Grenoble in 1339. Without an heir, Humbert sold his state to France in 1349, on the condition that the heir to the French crown used the title of Dauphin; the first one, the future Charles V, spent nine months in Grenoble. The city remained the capital of the Dauphiné, henceforth a province of France, the Estates of Dauphiné were created; the only Dauphin who governed his province was the future Louis XI, whose "reign" lasted from 1447 to 1456. It was only under his rule.
The Old Conseil Delphinal became a Parlement, strengthening the status of Grenoble as a Provincial capital. He ordered the construction of the Palais du Parlement and ensured that the Bishop pledged allegiance, thus forging the political union of the city. At that time, Grenoble was a crossroads between Vienne, Geneva and Savoy, it was the industrial centre of the Dauphiné and the biggest city of the province, but nonetheless a rather small one. Owing to Grenoble's geographical situation, French troops were garrisoned in the city and its region during the Italian Wars. Charles VIII, Louis XII, Francis I went several times to Grenoble, its people had to suffer from the exactions of the soldiers. The nobility of the region took part in doing so gained significant prestige; the best-known of its members was Bayard, "the knight without fear and beyond reproach". Grenoble suffered as a result of the French Wars of Religion; the Dauphiné was indeed an important settlement for Protestants and therefore experienced several conflicts.
The baron des Adrets, the leader of the Huguenots, pillaged the Cathedral of Grenoble and destroyed the tombs of the former Dauphins. In August 1575, Lesdiguières became the new leader of the Protestants and, thanks to the accession of Henry
Toul is a commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in north-eastern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department. Toul is located between Commercy and Nancy, situated between the Moselle River and the Canal de la Marne au Rhin. Toul was known to the Romans as Tullum Leucorum, was the capital of the Gaulish tribe of the Leuci. In 612, King Theudebert II of Austrasia was defeated by King Theuderic II of Burgundy near Toul. By the Treaty of Meerssen of 870, Toul became part of East Francia, the Holy Roman Empire. During the High Middle Ages, it became a Free Imperial City. Toul was annexed to France by King Henry II in 1552, it was a part of the French province of the Three Bishoprics. Toul was the seat of the bishops of Toul. During the siege of 1870 during the Franco-Prussian War, the last time that Toul's defenses were used as a classic fortress, 64 guns opened fire at 6:00 a.m. on 23 September, the fortress surrendered at 3:00 p.m. after 2,433 shells had been fired. The city was the primary base of the Air Service, United States Army, a predecessor organization of the United States Air Force during World War I.
As such, it was a base for many of the 45 wartime squadrons of the First Army Air Service, including the squadrons of the 1st Pursuit Group, First Army Observation Group and others. The Americans referred to the area around Toul as the Toul Sector. Two large operations were launched from this area: the St. Mihiel Offensive and the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, both in September 1918. During World War II, the American 358th Fighter Group used Toul-Croix De Metz Airfield during the fall of 1944 and spring of 1945, Toul-Rosières Air Base was an American NATO air base during the 1950s and 1960s; the most striking features are the impressive stone ramparts. Those that exist today are the work of Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, Louis XIV's military engineer. In 1698 he designed a new enclosure and work began in 1699-1700. Several of Vauban's fortifications in France are listed as a combined UNESCO World Heritage Site. Although the fortifications at Toul are not in that list they do follow the general defiladed fortification pattern for which Vauban is known.
There appears to have been a fortified town at this location since the earliest recorded history. Today, the ramparts define the old town, they are built of dressed white stone, topped with grass, in places are over five metres high. There is a great deal of Roman archæology in the area and some in the town; the Roman fortified town of Grand is some 30 km away, with its great amphitheatre and temple to the Cult of Apollo. The old town's architecture is dominated by past glories in various states of decay, including a major Gothic cathedral, in a poor condition and is being restored. Many of the houses were built as canonical residences in the Late Middle Ages and bear vestiges in the form of ornamental stonework. There is no trace of the monastery, however its wine-cellars still exist, under the shops on the north side of the Rue Gambetta.. Toul is at the intersection of the Moselle River with the Canal de la Marne au Rhin, was once an important port; the barges known as péniches still navigate these watercourses commercially carrying steel, though in the summer much more of the water traffic is for pleasure.
There is a main-line railway station at Toul, the last major station before the marshalling yards at Nancy. However, the Paris-Strasbourg TGV line, now under construction, will pass about 20 km north of Toul midway between Metz and Nancy, its completion will reduce Toul's importance as a station. The surrounding countryside is a wine-growing region, in which the AOC Côtes de Toul vintage is produced. Notable is the Gris de Toul. Toul is the seat and part of the canton of Toul, of the arrondissement of Toul. Hamm, since 1987 Jaroměř, Czech republic, since 2017 Saint Gerard of Toul, bishop Antoine Augustin Calmet, monk Marcel Bigeard, French Army General Mickaël Causse, Neuroscientist Laurent Gouvion Saint-Cyr, military leader Rachid Hamdani, footballer Louis Majorelle, furniture designer and manufacturer Pascal Vigneron and director of the Bach Toul Festival Arrondissement of Toul Toul-Rosieres Air Base Official site Toul tourism office Toul stronghold 1870 - 1915 USAS in France interactive Google Map of bases, etc. at www.usaww1.com
Valence is a commune in southeastern France, the capital of the Drôme department and within the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region. It is situated on the left bank of the Rhône, about 100 kilometres south of Lyon, along the railway line that runs from Paris to Marseille, it is the 5th largest city in the region by its population, with 62,481 registered inhabitants in 2012. The city of Valence is divided into four cantons, its inhabitants are called Valentinois. Located in the heart of the Rhone corridor, Valence is referred to as "the door to the South of France", the local saying à Valence le Midi commence pays tribute to the city's southern culture. Between Vercors and Provence, its geographical location attracts many tourists. Axes of transport and communications are the A7 and A49 autoroutes, the RN7, Paris/Marseille TGV line, as well as the Rhône. In addition, the Valence agglomeration is equipped with a marina, a trading port, two railway stations and an airport, its business is turned towards the sectors of agriculture, metallurgy and electronics.
The commune, founded in 121 BC, after the invasion of Gallia Narbonensis by the Romans, it moved to become the largest crossroad behind Lyon. With its growing importance, Valence gained the status of Roman colony. Over the centuries, the town grew. Today, many vestiges of the Middle Ages, but from the 17th century, 18th century and 19th century are visible in the city centre; the city is attached to the Dauphiné, of which it forms the second largest city after Grenoble and is today part of the network of French Towns and Lands of Art and History. The duchy of Valentinois, it was ruled by the Duke of Valentinois, a title, still claimed by the Sovereign Prince of Monaco, though he has no actual administrative control over the area. Valence has beautiful monuments such as the Maison des Têtes, built between 1528 and 1532 by Antoine de Dorne, the Saint-Apollinaire Cathedral, built between 1063 and 1099 under the leadership of Bishop Gontard and the monumental fountain designed by the architect Eugène Poitoux.
The city has many historical monuments. Inscribed on the list of flowery towns and villages of France, Valence is one of the seventeen municipalities of the Rhône-Alpes region to be labeled "four flowers" by the Concours des villes et villages fleuris, i.e. the maximum level. By its geographical location, Valence is one of the points of compulsory passage between Paris and the Mediterranean Sea, its position at the centre of the meridian axis of the Rhone Valley places the city at the mouth of the Valley of the Isère, in the west of the historical province of Dauphiné, within the natural and historic region of the Valentinois, the boundary of the department of Ardèche. The city is surrounded by several mountain ranges, including the Massif Central and the Ardèche hills to the west, the Vercors Massif in the French Prealps to the east. Valence is 561 kilometres to the southeast of Paris, equidistant south of Lyon and southwest of Grenoble, 120 kilometres north of Avignon, 220 kilometres north of Marseille, 204 kilometres north of Montpellier, 110 kilometres south-west of Saint-Étienne, 113 kilometres to the east of Le Puy-en-Velay, 50 kilometres north of Montélimar, 40 kilometres to the east of Privas and 65 kilometres to the west of Die.
Located a few kilometres south of the 45th parallel, the city is referred to as the "gateway to Southern France." "À Valence le Midi commence", say people from the north. The agglomeration is based on four alluvial terraces ranging on the left bank of the Rhone: The lowest, closest to the river, where the districts of fishermen and sailors were; the intermediate terrace, safe from the floods of the river, which grew into the historic city, first within its walls expanded outside. The third terrace urbanised in the second half of the 20th century; the highest, called the plateau of Lautagne which has developed as a centre of technological activities since the end of the 20th century on the edge of grain and vegetable farms. Administratively, the commune is located in the south of the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, in the northern half of the Drôme department, in the south-west of the Arrondissement of Valence. Moreover, Valence is the chef-lieu of four cantons, Valence-1, Valence-2, Valence-3 and Valence-4, the city is therefore divided into four at the cantonal level.
The commune is part of the Communauté d'agglomération Valence Romans Agglo, which includes 56 communes since its inception on 1 January 2017, Valence is the most populous city. Valence was part of two intercommunalities: SISAV which includes seven Drôme and Ardèche communes from 1990 to 2009, of the agglomeration community of Valence Agglo – Sud Rhône-Alpes which consisted of eleven communes from 2009 to 2014; the area of the commune is 3,669 hectares. The granitic base, cut by the Rhône in the Saint-Vallier/Tain-l'Hermitage pass, is covered by 4,000 metres of sediments in
La Rochelle is a city in western France and a seaport on the Bay of Biscay, a part of the Atlantic Ocean. It is the capital of the Charente-Maritime department; the city is connected to the Île de Ré by a 2.9-kilometre bridge completed on 19 May 1988. Its harbour opens into the Pertuis d'Antioche; the area of La Rochelle was occupied in antiquity by the Gallic tribe of the Santones, who gave their name to the nearby region of Saintonge and the city of Saintes. The Romans subsequently occupied the area, where they developed salt production along the coast as well as wine production, re-exported throughout the Empire. Roman villas have been found at Saint-Éloi and at Les Minimes, as well as salt evaporation ponds dating from the same period. La Rochelle became an important harbour in the 12th century; the establishment of La Rochelle as a harbour was a consequence of the victory of Duke Guillaume X of Aquitaine over Isambert de Châtelaillon in 1130 and the subsequent destruction of his harbour of Châtelaillon.
In 1137, Guillaume X to all intents and purposes made La Rochelle a free port and gave it the right to establish itself as a commune. Fifty years Eleanor of Aquitaine upheld the communal charter promulgated by her father, for the first time in France, a city mayor was appointed for La Rochelle, Guillaume de Montmirail. Guillaume was assisted in his responsibilities by 24 municipal magistrates, 75 notables who had jurisdiction over the inhabitants. Under the communal charter, the city obtained many privileges, such as the right to mint its own coins, to operate some businesses free of royal taxes, factors which would favour the development of the entrepreneurial middle-class. Eleanor married Henry Plantagenet in 1152, who became king of England as Henry II in 1154, thus putting La Rochelle under Plantagenet rule, until Louis VIII captured it in the 1224 Siege of La Rochelle. During the Plantagenet control of the city in 1185, Henry II had the Vauclair castle built, remains of which are still visible in the Place de Verdun.
The main activities of the city were in the areas of maritime commerce and trade with England, the Netherlands and Spain. In 1196, wealthy bourgeois Alexandre Auffredi sent a fleet of seven ships to Africa seeking wealth, he went bankrupt awaiting the return of his ships. The Knights Templar had a strong presence in La Rochelle since before the time of Eleanor of Aquitaine, who exempted them from duties and gave them mills in her 1139 Charter. La Rochelle was for the Templars their largest base on the Atlantic Ocean, where they stationed their main fleet. From La Rochelle, they were able to act as intermediaries in trade between England and the Mediterranean. A popular thread of conspiracy theory originating with Holy Blood, Holy Grail has it that the Templars used a fleet of 18 ships which had brought Jacques de Molay from Cyprus to La Rochelle to escape arrest in France; the fleet left laden with knights and treasures just before the issue of the warrant for the arrest of the Order in October 1307.
During the Hundred Years' War in 1360, following the Treaty of Bretigny La Rochelle again came under the rule of the English monarch. La Rochelle however expelled the English in June 1372, following the naval Battle of La Rochelle, between Castilian-French and English fleets; the French and Spanish decisively defeated the English, securing French control of the Channel for the first time since the Battle of Sluys in 1340. The naval battle of La Rochelle was one of the first cases of the use of handguns on warships, which were deployed by the French and Spanish against the English. Having recovered freedom, La Rochelle refused entry to Du Guesclin, until Charles V recognized the privileges of the city in November 1372. In 1402, the French adventurer Jean de Béthencourt left La Rochelle and sailed along the coast of Morocco to conquer the Canary islands; until the 15th century, La Rochelle was to be the largest French harbour on the Atlantic coast, dealing in wine and cheese. During the Renaissance, La Rochelle adopted Protestant ideas.
Calvinism started to be propagated in the region of La Rochelle, resulting in its suppression through the establishment of Cours présidiaux tribunals by Henry II. An early result of this was the burning at the stake of two "heretics" in La Rochelle in 1552. Conversions to Calvinism however continued, due to a change of religious beliefs, but to a desire for political independence on the part of the local elite, a popular opposition to royal expenses and requisitions in the building projects to fortify the coast against England. On the initiative of Gaspard de Coligny, the Calvinists attempted to colonize the New World to find a new home for their religion, with the likes of Pierre Richier and Jean de Léry. After the short-lived attempt of France Antarctique, they failed to establish a colony in Brazil, resolved to make a stand in La Rochelle itself. Pierre Richier became "Ministre de l'église de la Rochelle" when he returned from Brazil in 1558, was able to increase the Huguenot presence in La Rochelle, from a small base of about 50 souls, secretly educated in the Lutheran faith by Charles de Clermont the previous year.
He has been described, by Lancelot Voisin de La Popelinière, as "le père de l'église de La Rochelle". La Rochelle was the first French city, with Rouen, to experience iconoclastic riots in 1560, at the time of the suppression of the Amboise conspiracy, before the riots spread to many other cities. Further cases of Reformation iconoclasm were recorded in L