Amanz Gressly was a Swiss geologist and paleontologist. He introduced the use of the term facies in geology, he is considered one of the founders of modern stratigraphy and he initially studied medicine at Strasbourg, but his interest subsequently switched to geology, and from 1836 onward, he worked as an assistant to Louis Agassiz. From 1853 he served as a geologist during the construction of tunnels through the Jura Mountains. Since 2004 the Swiss Paleontological Society has awarded the Amanz-Gressly-Auszeichnung for outstanding achievements in the field of paleontology, in, Gallerie berühmter Schweizer der Neuzeit, Bd.1. Hugo Ledermann, Die wissenschaftliche Bedeutung von Amanz Gressly, hans R. Stampfli, Amanz Gressly, 1814-1865, Lebensbild eines außerordentlichen Menschen. Separatdruck aus, Mitteilungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft des Kantons Solothurn,32, dazu erschienen, Ergänzungen und Korrekturen,1993
Val-de-Travers is a municipality in the district of Val-de-Travers in the canton of Neuchâtel in Switzerland. It was created on 1 January 2009, when the municipalities of Boveresse, Couvet, Les Bayards, Môtiers, Saint-Sulpice. The region is known for its production of absinthe, Val-de-Travers is first mentioned in 1150 as Vallis traversis. Val-de-Travers has an area, as of 2009, of 124.9 square kilometers, of this area,52.92 km2 or 42. 4% is used for agricultural purposes, while 63.24 km2 or 50. 6% is forested. Of the rest of the land,7.54 km2 or 6. 0% is settled,0.59 km2 or 0. 5% is either rivers or lakes and 0.39 km2 or 0. 3% is unproductive land. Of the built up area and buildings made up 2. 5%, out of the forested land,46. 8% of the total land area is heavily forested and 3. 8% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land,5. 0% is used for growing crops and 23. 9% is pastures and 13. 4% is used for alpine pastures, all the water in the municipality is flowing water.
The municipality is located in a valley in the Neuchâtel Jura, the valley provides a connection between the Swiss plateau and Franche-Comte. The river LAreuse, flows lengthways of the valley, most of this river is a shallow river, this river provided much of the water and fish for the valley. Val-de-Travers has a population of 10,905, as of 2008,18. 0% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of -2. 5%, migration accounted for -1. 8%, while births and deaths accounted for -1. 6%. Most of the population speaks French as their first language, Italian is the second most common, as of 2008, the population was 48. 6% male and 51. 4% female. The population was made up of 4,161 Swiss men and 1,103 non-Swiss men, there were 4,677 Swiss women and 891 non-Swiss women. As of 2000, children and teenagers make up 25% of the population, while adults make up 55. 9%, as of 2009, the construction rate of new housing units was 0.6 new units per 1000 residents.
The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2010, was 1. 39%, the villages of Buttes, Les Verrières, Môtiers, Couvet and Travers are all part of the Inventory of Swiss Heritage Sites. As of 2010, Val-de-Travers had an unemployment rate of 6. 6%, as of 2008, there were 322 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 139 businesses involved in this sector. 1,980 people were employed in the sector and there were 162 businesses in this sector. 2,188 people were employed in the sector, with 374 businesses in this sector
Karl Christoph Vogt was a German scientist and politician who emigrated to Switzerland. Vogt published a number of works on zoology and physiology. All his life he was engaged in politics, in the German Frankfurt Parliament of 1848–9, Karl was the son of Dr. Philipp Friedrich Wilhelm Vogt, professor of clinics, and Louise Follenius. His maternal uncle was Charles Follen, Karl studied medicine at the University of Giessen. He earned his doctorate from the University of Bern in 1839 with a dissertation under the title Beiträge zur Anatomie der Amphibien. In 1847 he became professor of zoology at the University of Giessen and his earlier publications were on zoology. He dealt with the Amphibia, with Mollusca and Crustacea, in 1842, during his time with Louis Agassiz in Neuchâtel, he discovered the mechanism of apoptosis, the programmed cell death, while studying the development of the tadpole of the midwife toad. Charles Darwin mentions Vogts support for the theory of evolution in the introduction to his The Descent of Man, Vogt was a proponent of materialism and atheism.
Vogt was active in German politics and was a representative in the Frankfurt Parliament. Karl Marx scathingly replied to attacks by Karl Vogt in his book Herr Vogt, Karl Vogt was a proponent of polygenist evolution, he rejected the monogenist beliefs of most Darwinists and instead believed that each race had evolved from a different type of ape. Vogt believed that the Negro was related to the ape and he wrote the White race was a separate species from Negroes. In Chapter VII of his Lectures on Man he compared the Negro to the White race, the differences between them, he claimed, are greater than those between two species of ape, and this proved that Negroes are a separate species from Whites. The city of Geneva, Switzerland named a boulevard after Vogt, ludwig Büchner Jacob Moleschott Fredrick Gregory, Scientific Materialism in Nineteenth Century Germany, Berlin u. a. 1977, ISBN 90-277-0760-X Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Vogt, short biography and bibliography in the Virtual Laboratory of the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science
James David Forbes
James David Forbes FRS FRSE FGS was a Scottish physicist and glaciologist who worked extensively on the conduction of heat and seismology. Forbes was a resident of Edinburgh for most of his life, educated at the University and he invented the seismometer in 1842. Forbes was born at 86 George Street in Edinburgh, the son of Sir William Forbes, 7th Baronet, of Monymusk and Pitsligo. His brothers were the advocate and agriculturalist Sir John Stuart Hepburn Forbes of Fettercairn and Pitsligo and he entered the University of Edinburgh in 1825, and soon afterwards began to contribute papers to the Edinburgh Philosophical Journal anonymously under the signature Δ. At the age of nineteen he became a fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, at this time he maintained correspondence with Sir David Brewster, who encouraged him to pursue an original research in science. In 1859 he was appointed successor to Brewster in the principalship of the United College of St. Andrews, as a scientific investigator he is best known for his researches on heat and on glaciers.
Between 1836 and 1844 he published in the Trans, a notable defender of Forbes in this controversy was John Ruskin, the two having first met by coincidence in 1844 during a study tour of the Alps. During these expeditions, he made measurements of the boiling point of water at various altitudes. It emphasises the importance of residuals analysis in linear regression as the residuals manifest an outlier that is not apparent in an inspection of the raw data. Forbes was interested in geology, and published memoirs on the springs of the Pyrenees, on the extinct volcanoes of the Vivarais, on the geology of the Cuchullin and Eildon hills. He was the author of the Dissertation on the Progress of Mathematical and Physical Science, the Forbes River and Forbes Glaciers in New Zealand are named after him as is Aiguille Forbes between the Glacier de Saleina and the Glacier du Tour in the Mont Blanc massif. He is buried in Dean Cemetery in Edinburgh, the grave is marked by a simple but large grey granite Celtic cross and lies on the south side of the main path just west of the roundel.
His wife, Alicia Wauchope, is buried with him and his cousins were Scottish Episcopal Church leaders Alexander Penrose Forbes and George Hay Forbes. His son was the scientist Prof George Forbes, travels through the Alps of Savoy and Other Parts of the Pennine Chain, with Observations on the Phenomena of Glaciers. A Tour of Mont Blanc and Monte Rosa, occasional Papers on the Theory of Glaciers. Shairp, John Campbell, Peter Guthrie, Adams-Reilly and Letters of James David Forbes. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
Geology is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can refer generally to the study of the features of any terrestrial planet. Geology gives insight into the history of the Earth by providing the evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life. Geology plays a role in engineering and is a major academic discipline. The majority of data comes from research on solid Earth materials. These typically fall into one of two categories and unconsolidated material, the majority of research in geology is associated with the study of rock, as rock provides the primary record of the majority of the geologic history of the Earth. There are three types of rock, igneous and metamorphic. The rock cycle is an important concept in geology which illustrates the relationships between three types of rock, and magma. When a rock crystallizes from melt, it is an igneous rock, the sedimentary rock can be subsequently turned into a metamorphic rock due to heat and pressure and is weathered, eroded and lithified, ultimately becoming a sedimentary rock.
Sedimentary rock may be re-eroded and redeposited, and metamorphic rock may undergo additional metamorphism, all three types of rocks may be re-melted, when this happens, a new magma is formed, from which an igneous rock may once again crystallize. Geologists study unlithified material which typically comes from more recent deposits and these materials are superficial deposits which lie above the bedrock. Because of this, the study of material is often known as Quaternary geology. This includes the study of sediment and soils, including studies in geomorphology and this theory is supported by several types of observations, including seafloor spreading, and the global distribution of mountain terrain and seismicity. This coupling between rigid plates moving on the surface of the Earth and the mantle is called plate tectonics. The development of plate tectonics provided a basis for many observations of the solid Earth. Long linear regions of geologic features could be explained as plate boundaries, mid-ocean ridges, high regions on the seafloor where hydrothermal vents and volcanoes exist, were explained as divergent boundaries, where two plates move apart.
Arcs of volcanoes and earthquakes were explained as convergent boundaries, where one plate subducts under another, transform boundaries, such as the San Andreas Fault system, resulted in widespread powerful earthquakes. Plate tectonics provided a mechanism for Alfred Wegeners theory of continental drift and they provided a driving force for crustal deformation, and a new setting for the observations of structural geology
Agassiz grew up in Switzerland, and studied and received Doctor of Philosophy and medical degrees at Erlangen and Munich, respectively. After further studies with Cuvier and Humboldt in Paris, Agassiz proceeded with leading to his appointment as professor of natural history at University of Neuchâtel. He made vast institutional and scientific contributions to zoology, nevertheless, his reputation has suffered somewhat in hindsight by the evidence of his resistance to Darwinian evolution, and his writings on human polygenism. Louis Agassiz was born in Môtier in the canton of Fribourg, educated first at home, spending four years of secondary school in Bienne, he completed his elementary studies in Lausanne. In 1829 he received the degree of doctor of philosophy at Erlangen, moving to Paris he came under the tutelage of Alexander von Humboldt Humboldt and Georges Cuvier launched him on his careers of geology and zoology respectively. Previously he had not paid attention to the study of ichthyology.
Spix, who died in 1826, did not live enough to work out the history of these fish. He at once threw himself into the work with an enthusiasm which characterized him to the end of his busy life, the task of describing the Brazilian fish was completed and published in 1829. This was followed by research into the history of the found in Lake Neuchâtel. Enlarging his plans, in 1830 he issued a prospectus of a History of the Freshwater Fish of Central Europe and it was only in 1839, that the first part of this publication appeared, and it was completed in 1842. In 1832 he was appointed professor of history in the University of Neuchâtel. The fossil fish there soon attracted his attention, the fossil-rich stones furnished by the slates of Glarus and the limestones of Monte Bolca were known at the time, but very little had been accomplished in the way of scientific study of them. Agassiz, as early as 1829, planned the publication of the work which, more than any other, five volumes of his Recherches sur les poissons fossiles appeared at intervals from 1833 to 1843.
They were magnificently illustrated, chiefly by Joseph Dinkel, in gathering materials for this work Agassiz visited the principal museums in Europe, and meeting Cuvier in Paris, he received much encouragement and assistance from him. They had known him for seven years at the time, Agassiz found that his palaeontological labors made necessary a new basis of ichthyological classification. The fossils rarely exhibited any traces of the tissues of fish. They consisted chiefly of the teeth and fins, with the bones being perfectly preserved in comparatively few instances. He therefore adopted a classification which divided fish into four groups, Placoids and Ctenoids, based on the nature of the scales, while Agassiz did much to improve fish taxonomy, his classification has been superseded by work
Natural history is the research and study of organisms including animals and plants in their environment, leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study. It encompasses scientific research but is not limited to it, with articles nowadays more often published in magazines than in academic journals. Grouped among the sciences, natural history is the systematic study of any category of natural objects or organisms. That is a broad designation in a world filled with many narrowly focused disciplines. For example, geobiology has a strong multi-disciplinary nature combining scientists, a person who studies natural history is known as a naturalist or natural historian. The English term natural history is a translation of the Latin historia naturalis and its meaning has narrowed progressively with time, while the meaning of the related term nature has widened. In antiquity, it covered essentially anything connected with nature or which used materials drawn from nature. For example, Pliny the Elders encyclopedia of this title, published circa 77 to 79 AD, covers astronomy, geography and his technology and superstition as well as animals and plants.
Medieval European academics considered knowledge to have two divisions, the humanities and divinity, with science studied largely through texts rather than observation or experiment. In modern terms, natural philosophy roughly corresponded to modern physics and chemistry, natural history had been encouraged by practical motives, such as Linnaeus aspiration to improve the economic condition of Sweden. Similarly, the Industrial Revolution prompted the development of geology to help find useful mineral deposits, the astronomer, William Herschel was a natural historian. Instead of working with plants or minerals he worked with the stars and he spent his time building telescopes to see the stars and the rest of the time watching the stars. In the beginning, he believed there to be a known as a nebulae. Herschel can be considered a natural historian because he observed the natural world, in the process he made charts of all the stars and kept records of all that he saw. S. Wilcove and T. Eisner, The close observation of organisms—their origins, their evolution, their behavior and it encompasses changes in internal states insofar as they pertain to what organisms do.
Some definitions go further, focusing on observation of organisms in their environment. Bartholomew, A student of history, or a naturalist, studies the world by observing plants. A common thread in many definitions of natural history is the inclusion of a component, as seen in a recent definition by H. W. Greene
Echinoderm is the common name given to any member of the phylum Echinodermata of marine animals. The adults are recognizable by their symmetry, and include such well-known animals as sea stars, sea urchins, sand dollars. Echinoderms are found at every ocean depth, from the zone to the abyssal zone. The phylum contains about 7000 living species, making it the second-largest grouping of deuterostomes, echinoderms are the largest phylum that has no freshwater or terrestrial representatives. Aside from the hard-to-classify Arkarua, the first definitive members of the phylum appeared near the start of the Cambrian, the echinoderms are important both ecologically and geologically. Ecologically, there are few other groupings so abundant in the desert of the deep sea. Most echinoderms are able to regenerate tissue, limbs, the value of echinoderms is in their ossified skeletons, which are major contributors to many limestone formations, and can provide valuable clues as to the geological environment.
They were the most used species in regenerative research in the 19th and 20th centuries, further, it is held by some scientists that the radiation of echinoderms was responsible for the Mesozoic Marine Revolution. Along with the chordates and hemichordates, echinoderms are deuterostomes, one of the two divisions of the bilaterians, the other being the protostomes. During the early development of the embryo, in deuterostomes, the blastopore becomes the anus whereas in the protostomes, in deuterostomes, the mouth develops at a stage, at the opposite end of the blastula from the blastopore, and a gut forms connecting the two. There are a total of about 7,000 extant species of echinoderm as well as about 13,000 extinct species and they are found in habitats ranging from shallow intertidal areas to abyssal depths. These consist of the Crinoidea and the extinct blastoids and Paracrinoids, a fifth class of Eleutherozoa consisting of just three species, the Concentricycloidea, were recently merged into the Asteroidea.
The fossil record includes a number of other classes which do not appear to fall into any extant crown group. All echinoderms are marine and nearly all are benthic, the oldest known echinoderm fossil may be Arkarua from the Precambrian of Australia. It is a fossil with radial ridges on the rim. However, no stereom or internal structure showing a water system is present. The first universally accepted echinoderms appear in the Lower Cambrian period, asterozoans appeared in the Ordovician, echinoderms left behind an extensive fossil record. It is hypothesised that the ancestor of all echinoderms was a simple, bilaterally symmetrical animal with a mouth and this ancestral stock adopted an attached mode of life and suspension feeding, and developed radial symmetry as this was more advantageous for such an existence
The Jungfrau at 4,158 metres is one of the main summits of the Bernese Alps, located between the northern canton of Berne and the southern canton of Valais, halfway between Interlaken and Fiesch. Together with the Eiger and Mönch, the Jungfrau forms a wall overlooking the Bernese Oberland. The summit was first reached on August 3,1811 by the Meyer brothers of Aarau, the ascent followed a long expedition over the glaciers and high passes of the Bernese Alps. It was not until 1865 that a direct route on the northern side was opened. Along with the Aletsch Glacier to the south, the Jungfrau is part of the Jungfrau-Aletsch area, the Jungfrau is split between the municipalities of Lauterbrunnen and Fieschertal. It is the third-highest mountain of the Bernese Alps after the nearby Finsteraarhorn and Aletschhorn and this, and the extreme steepness of the north face, secured for it an early reputation for inaccessibility. The Jungfrau is the westernmost and highest point of a gigantic 10 km wall dominating the valleys of Lauterbrunnen, the Jungfrau is approximately 6 km from the Eiger, with the summit of the Mönch between the two mountains,3.5 km from the Jungfrau.
The wall is extended to the east by the Fiescherwand and to the west by the Lauterbrunnen Wall, the difference of altitude between the deep valley of Lauterbrunnen and the summit is particularly visible from the area of Mürren. From the valley floor, west of the massif, the gain is more than 3 km for a horizontal distance of 4 km. The landscapes around the Jungfrau are extremely contrasted, instead of the vertiginous precipices of the north-west, the south-east side emerges from the upper snows of the Aletsch Glacier at around 3,500 metres. The 20 km long valley of Aletsch on the south-east is completely uninhabited, the whole area constitutes the largest glaciated area in the Alps as well as in Europe. After the Guttannen porter was sent back alone over the Lötschenlücke and they recrossed the two passes named to their point of departure in Valais, and went home again over the Grimsel. The journey was a most extraordinary one for the time, to settle these another expedition was undertaken in 1812.
In this the two sons and Gottlieb, of Johann Rudolf Meyer, played the chief parts. Next day the party attempted the ascent of the Finsteraarhorn from the Studer névé on the east by way of the southeast ridge. The following day the party crossed the Grünhornlücke to the Aletsch Glacier, at a bivouac, probably just opposite the present Konkordia Hut, the rest of the party, having come over the Oberaarjoch and the Grünhornlücke, joined the Finsteraarhorn party. Gottlieb, Rudolfs younger brother, had more patience than the rest and remained longer at the huts near the Märjelensee, where the adventurers had taken refuge. He could make the ascent of the Jungfrau, the Rottalsattel being reached from the east side as is now usual
Grand Duchy of Hesse
Hesse lost its independence when it joined the German Empire in 1871. Before 1866, its northern neighbour was its former sister Landgraviate, since 1803 an Electorate, of Hesse-Kassel – for this reason, Hesse-Darmstadt was a member of Napoleons Confederation of the Rhine during the Napoleonic Wars. Rapidly expanding during the mediatizations, Hesse-Darmstadt became an amalgamation of smaller German states, the legal patchwork of the state culminated in a decree issued on 1 October 1806 by Louis I. The old territorial estates were abolished, which altered Hesse-Darmstadt from a mosaic of patrimonial fragments into a centralized, during the Congress of Vienna it was forced to cede the Duchy of Westphalia, which Hesse-Darmstadt had received in 1803, to the Kingdom of Prussia. However, Hesse-Darmstadt received some territory on the bank of the Rhine. The Grand Duchy changed its name to the Grand Duchy of Hesse, in 1867, the northern half of the Grand Duchy became a part of the North German Confederation, while the half of the Grand Duchy south of the Main remained outside.
In 1871, it became a constituent state of the German Empire, the last Grand Duke, Ernst Ludwig, was forced from his throne at the end of World War I, and the state was renamed the Peoples State of Hesse. After World War II, the majority of the state combined with Frankfurt am Main, the Waldeck area, excluded were the Montabaur district from Hessen-Nassau and that part of Hessen-Darmstadt on the left bank of the Rhine, which became part of the Rhineland-Palatinate state. Wimpfen—an exclave of Hessen-Darmstadt—became part of Baden-Württemberg, in the district of Sinsheim, after a plebiscite on 29 April 1951, Bad Wimpfen was transferred from Sinsheim district to Heilbronn District. This change to Heilbronn was carried out on 1 May 1952, the Grand Duchy of Hesse was divided into three provinces, Right bank of the Rhine, south of the Main. Rhenish Hesse, Left bank of the Rhine, territory gained from the Congress of Vienna, upper Hesse, North of the Main, separated from Starkenburg by the Free City of Frankfurt.
List of rulers of Hesse Line of succession to the former Hessian throne Hessenlager Constitution of Hesse Das Großherzogtum Hessen 1806–1918 Großherzogtum Hessen 1910