Musée National d'Art Moderne
The Musée National d'Art Moderne is the national museum for modern art of France. It is housed in the Centre Pompidou in the 4th arrondissement of the city, it is among the most visited art museums in the world and one of the largest for modern and contemporary art. In 1937, the Musée National d'Art Moderne succeeded the Musée du Luxembourg, established in 1818 by King Louis XVIII as the first museum of contemporary art created in Europe, devoted to living artists whose work was due to join the Louvre 10 years after their death. Imagined as early as 1929 by Auguste Perret to replace the old Palais du Trocadero, the construction of a museum of modern art was decided in 1934 in the western wing of the Palais de Tokyo. Completed in 1937 for that year's International Exhibition of Arts and Technology, it was temporarily used for another purpose, since the exhibition of national and foreign art indépendant was preferably held in the Petit Palais and the Musée du Jeu de Paume. Although due to open in 1939, construction was interrupted by the war.
But its real inauguration didn't take place until 1947, after World War II and the addition of the foreign schools collection of the Musée du Luxembourg, held at the Musée du Jeu de Paume since 1922. In 1947 housed in the Palais de Tokyo, its collection was increased by its first director, Jean Cassou, thanks to his special relationship with many prominent artists or their families, such as Picasso and Braque. With the creation of the Centre Pompidou, the museum moved to its current location in 1977; the museum has the second largest collection of modern and contemporary art in the world, after the Museum of Modern Art in New York, with more than 100,000 works of art by 6,400 artists from 90 countries since Fauvism in 1905. These works include painting, drawing, photography, new media and design. A part of the collection is exhibited every two years alternately in an 18,500-square-metre space divided between two floors, one for modern art, the other for contemporary art, 5 exhibition halls, on a total of 28,000 m2 within the Centre Pompidou.
The Atelier Brancusi is located in its own building adjacent to the museum. The works displayed in the museum change in order to show to the public the variety and depth of the collection. Many major temporary exhibitions of modern and contemporary art have taken place on a separate floor over the years, among them many one-person exhibitions. Since 2010, the museum has displayed unique, temporary exhibitions in its provincial branch, the Centre Pompidou-Metz, in a 10,000-square-metre space divided between 3 galleries and since 2015, in Málaga, 2018, in Brussels, Belgium. Many styles of modern art, including Fauvism, Cubism, Abstract art, Surrealism are represented with works by Matisse, André Derain, Maurice de Vlaminck, Raoul Dufy, Albert Marquet, Le Douanier Rousseau, Paul Signac, Georges Braque, Pablo Picasso, Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Fernand Léger, Juan Gris, Frida Kahlo, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, August Macke, Alexej von Jawlensky, Emil Nolde, Oskar Kokoschka, Otto Dix, George Grosz, Kurt Schwitters, Marcel Duchamp, Francis Picabia, Carlo Carrà, Umberto Boccioni, Giacomo Balla, Gino Severini, Marc Chagall, Natalia Goncharova, Mikhail Larionov, Alexander Rodchenko, František Kupka, Piet Mondrian, Theo van Doesburg, Paul Klee, Wassily Kandinsky, Kasimir Malevich, Jacques Villon, Robert Delaunay, Sonia Delaunay, Georges Rouault, Max Beckmann, Constantin Brâncuși, Alexander Calder, Chaïm Soutine, Amedeo Modigliani, Kees van Dongen, Jean Arp, Giorgio de Chirico, André Breton, Max Ernst, Joan Miró, Man Ray, Alberto Giacometti, René Iché, Nicolas de Staël, André Masson, Yves Tanguy, Jean Tinguely, Simon Hantaï, Yves Klein, Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko, Barnett Newman, Willem de Kooning, Francis Bacon.
Pop Art, Nouveau Réalisme, Conceptual art and other tendencies or groups are represented with works by Andy Warhol, Richard Hamilton, Dan Flavin, Eduardo Arroyo, Dan Graham, Daniel Buren, George Brecht, Arman, César, Bill Viola, Anish Kapoor, Wim Delvoye, Yves Klein, Niki de Saint-Phalle, Yaacov Agam, John Cage, Cindy Sherman, Dieter Roth, Roy Lichtenstein, Burhan Dogancay, Nam June Paik, Wolf Vostell, Gilbert & George, David Hockney, Louise Bourgeois, Art & Language. Works of architecture and design include Philippe Starck, Jean Nouvel, Dominique Perrault. Since 2013: Bernard Blistène 2000 – 2013: Alfred Pacquement 1997 – 2000: Werner Spies 1992 – 1997: Germain Viatte 1991 – 1992: Dominique Bozo 1987 – 1991: Jean-Hubert Martin 1986 – 1987: Bernard Ceysson 1981 – 1986: Dominique Bozo 1973 – 1981: Pontus Hultén 1968 – 1973: Jean Leymarie 1965 – 1968: Bernard Dorival 1945 – 1965: Jean Cassou 1941 – 1944: Pierre Ladoué 1940: Jean Cassou Collection online Official website of the Museum Official website of the Centre Pompidou Official website of the Centre Pompidou-Metz provincial branch
Au Hasard Balthazar
Au hasard Balthazar known as Balthazar, is a 1966 French tragedy film directed by Robert Bresson. Believed to be inspired by a passage from Fyodor Dostoyevsky's novel The Idiot, the film follows a donkey as he is given to various owners, most of whom treat him callously. Noted for Bresson's ascetic directorial style and regarded as a work of profound emotional effect, it is listed as one of the greatest films of all time; the film follows Marie, a shy farm girl, her beloved donkey Balthazar over many years. As Marie grows up, the pair becomes separated, but the film traces both their fates as they live parallel lives, continually taking abuse of all forms from the people they encounter; the donkey has several owners, most of whom exploit him with more cruelty than kindness. Balthazar and Marie suffer at the hands of the same people. Anne Wiazemsky as Marie Walter Green as Jacques François Lafarge as Gérard Philippe Asselin as Marie's father Nathalie Joyaut as Marie's mother Jean-Claude Guilbert as Arnold Pierre Klossowski as the grain dealer Jean-Joel Barbier as the priest François Sullerot as the baker Marie-Claire Fremont as the baker's wife Jacques Sorbets as the gendarme Jean Rémignard as the attorney After making several prison-themed films using his theory of "pure cinematography", Bresson stated that he wanted to move onto a different style of filmmaking.
The story was inspired by Fyodor Dostoyevsky's The Idiot and each episode in Balthazar's life represents one of the seven deadly sins. Bresson stated that the film was "made up of many lines that intersect one another" and that Balthazar was meant to be a symbol of Christian faith. Bresson produced the film with help from the Swedish Film Institute. According to Wiazemsky's 2007 novel Jeune Fille and Bresson developed a close relationship during the shooting of the film, although it was not consummated. On location they stayed in adjoining rooms and Wiazemsky said that "at first, he would content himself by holding my arm, or stroking my cheek, but came the disagreeable moment when he would try to kiss me... I would push him away and he wouldn't insist, but he looked so unhappy that I always felt guilty." Wiazemsky lost her virginity to a member of the film's crew, which she says gave her the courage to reject Bresson as a lover. Bresson was known to cast nonprofessional actors and use their inexperience to create a specific type of realism in his films.
Wiazemsky states: "It was not his intention to teach me how to be an actress. Against the grain, I felt the emotion the role provoked in me, in other films, I learned how to use that emotion."Ghislain Cloquet was the cinematographer for Au Hasard Balthazar. Bresson's long collaboration with Léonce-Henri Burel had ended with Bresson's previous film, The Trial of Joan of Arc; as described by Daryl Chin and Cloquet "would evolve a cinematic style of subtle, sun-dappled radiance. From 1956 through 1971, Lamy edited all of Bresson's films excepting The Trial of Joan of Arc; when Au hasard Balthazar first played in New York at the 1966 Film Festival, "it received unfavorable notices". Reviews in Europe, were glowing; the noted filmmaker and Cahiers du Cinema critic Jean-Luc Godard said, "Everyone who sees this film will be astonished because this film is the world in an hour and a half." Godard married Anne Wiazemsky, who played Marie in the film, in 1967. Film critic Tom Milne called it "perhaps greatest film to date his most complex."The theatrical release in the United States came four years later.
In 1970, Roger Greenspun of The New York Times lauded the film's final scene as "surely one of the most affecting passages in the history of film." Andrew Sarris, one of cinema's most influential critics, wrote in his 1970 review: "No film I have seen has come so close to convulsing my entire being... It stands by itself as one of the loftiest pinnacles of artistically realized emotional experience." The New Yorker film critic Pauline Kael, wrote that although some consider the work a masterpiece, "others may find it painstakingly tedious and offensively holy". Ingmar Bergman said of the movie, "this Balthazar, I didn't understand a word of it, it was so boring... A donkey, to me, is uninteresting, but a human being is always interesting."The film's religious imagery, spiritual allegories and naturalistic, minimalist aesthetic style have since been praised by film reviewers. In 2005, James Quandt referred to it as a "brief, elliptical tale about the life and death of a donkey" that has "exquisite renderings of pain and abasement" and "compendiums of cruelty" that tell a powerful spiritual message.
In 2003, J. Hoberman stated, "Robert Bresson's heart-breaking and magnificent Au Hasard Balthazar — the story of a donkey's life and death in rural France — is the supreme masterpiece by one of the greatest of 20th-century filmmakers." Manohla Dargis views Au hasard Balthazar as "one of the greatest films in history", writing that it "stirs the heart and soul as much as the mind." Roger Ebert argued, "The genius of Bresson's approach is that he never gives us a single moment that could be described as one of Balthazar's'reaction shots.' Other movie animals may roll their eyes or stomp their hooves, but Balthazar walks or waits, regarding everything with the clarity of a donkey who knows it is
André Paul Guillaume Gide was a French author and winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature. Gide's career ranged from its beginnings in the symbolist movement, to the advent of anticolonialism between the two World Wars; the author of more than fifty books, at the time of his death his obituary in The New York Times described him as "France's greatest contemporary man of letters" and "judged the greatest French writer of this century by the literary cognoscenti."Known for his fiction as well as his autobiographical works, Gide exposes to public view the conflict and eventual reconciliation of the two sides of his personality, which a strict and moralistic education had helped set at odds. Gide's work can be seen as an investigation of freedom and empowerment in the face of moralistic and puritanical constraints, centres on his continuous effort to achieve intellectual honesty, his self-exploratory texts reflect his search of how to be oneself, including owning one's sexual nature, without at the same time betraying one's values.
His political activity is shaped by the same ethos, as indicated by his repudiation of communism after his 1936 voyage to the USSR. Gide was born in Paris on 22 November 1869, into a middle-class Protestant family, his father was a Paris University professor of law who died in 1880. His uncle was the political economist Charles Gide, his paternal family traced its roots back to Italy, with his ancestors, the Guido's, moving to France and other western and northern European countries after converting to Protestantism during the 16th century, due to persecution. Gide was brought up in isolated conditions in Normandy and became a prolific writer at an early age, publishing his first novel, The Notebooks of André Walter, in 1891, at the age of twenty-one. In 1893 and 1894, Gide travelled in Northern Africa, it was there that he came to accept his attraction to boys, he befriended Oscar Wilde in Paris, in 1895 Gide and Wilde met in Algiers. Wilde had the impression that he had introduced Gide to homosexuality, but, in fact, Gide had discovered this on his own.
In 1895, after his mother's death, he married his cousin Madeleine Rondeaux, but the marriage remained unconsummated. In 1896, he became mayor of a commune in Normandy. In 1901, Gide rented the property Maderia in St. Brélade's Bay and lived there while residing in Jersey; this period, 1901–07, is seen as a time of apathy and turmoil for him. In 1908, Gide helped found the literary magazine Nouvelle Revue Française. In 1916, Marc Allégret, only 15 years old, became his lover. Marc was the son – one of five children – of Elie Allégret, who years before had been hired by Gide's mother to tutor her son in light of his weak grades in school, after which he and Gide became fast friends. Gide and Marc fled to London, in retribution for which his wife burned all his correspondence – "the best part of myself," he commented. In 1918, he met Dorothy Bussy, his friend for over thirty years and translated many of his works into English. In the 1920s, Gide became an inspiration for writers such as Jean-Paul Sartre.
In 1923, he published a book on Fyodor Dostoyevsky. He considered this his most important work. In 1923, he sired a daughter, Catherine, by Elisabeth van Rysselberghe, a woman, much younger than he, he had known her for a long time, as she was the daughter of his closest female friend, Maria Monnom, the wife of his friend the Belgian neo-impressionist painter Théo van Rysselberghe. This caused the only crisis in the long-standing relationship between Allégret and Gide and damaged the relation with van Rysselberghe; this was Gide's only sexual liaison with a woman, it was brief in the extreme. Catherine became his only descendant by blood, he liked to call Elisabeth "La Dame Blanche". Elisabeth left her husband to move to Paris and manage the practical aspects of Gide's life, she worshiped him, but evidently they no longer had a sexual relationship. Gide's legal wife, died in 1938, he explored their unconsummated marriage in his memoir of Madeleine, Et Nunc Manet in Te. In 1924, he published an autobiography, If it Die....
In the same year, he produced the first French language editions of Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness and Lord Jim. After 1925, he began to campaign for more humane conditions for convicted criminals. From July 1926 to May 1927, he travelled through the French Equatorial Africa colony with his lover Marc Allégret. Gide went successively to Middle Congo, Ubangi-Shari to Chad and to Cameroon before returning to France, he related his peregrinations in a journal called Travels in the Return from Chad. In this published journal, he criticized the behavior of French business interests in the Congo and inspired reform. In particular, he criticized the Large Concessions regime, i.e. a regime according to which part of the colony was conceded to French companies and where these companies could exploit all of the area's natural resources, in particular rubber. He related, for instance, how natives were forced to leave their village for several weeks to collect rubber in the forest
Seuil is a commune in the Ardennes department in northern France. Communes of the Ardennes department INSEE
Publius Vergilius Maro called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period. He wrote three of the most famous poems in Latin literature: the Eclogues, the Georgics, the epic Aeneid. A number of minor poems, collected in the Appendix Vergiliana, are sometimes attributed to him. Virgil is traditionally ranked as one of Rome's greatest poets, his Aeneid has been considered the national epic of ancient Rome since the time of its composition. Modeled after Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, the Aeneid follows the Trojan refugee Aeneas as he struggles to fulfill his destiny and reach Italy, where his descendants Romulus and Remus were to found the city of Rome. Virgil's work has had wide and deep influence on Western literature, most notably Dante's Divine Comedy, in which Virgil appears as Dante's guide through Hell and Purgatory. Virgil's biographical tradition is thought to depend on a lost biography by Varius, Virgil's editor, incorporated into the biography by Suetonius and the commentaries of Servius and Donatus, the two great commentators on Virgil's poetry.
Although the commentaries no doubt record much factual information about Virgil, some of their evidence can be shown to rely on inferences made from his poetry and allegorizing. The tradition holds that Virgil was born in the village near Mantua in Cisalpine Gaul. Analysis of his name has led to beliefs. Modern speculation is not supported by narrative evidence either from his own writings or his biographers. Macrobius says, he attended schools in Cremona, Mediolanum and Naples. After considering a career in rhetoric and law, the young Virgil turned his talents to poetry. According to Robert Seymour Conway, the only ancient source which reports the actual distance between Andes and Mantua is a surviving fragment from the works of Marcus Valerius Probus. Probus flourished during the reign of Nero. Probus reports. Conway translated this to a distance of 28 English miles. Little is known about the family of Virgil, his father belonged to gens Vergilia, his mother belonged to gens Magia. According to Conway, gens Vergilia is poorly attested in inscriptions from the entire Northern Italy, where Mantua is located.
Among thousands of surviving ancient inscriptions from this region, there are only 8 or 9 mentions of individuals called "Vergilius" or "Vergilia". Out of these mentions, three appear in inscriptions from Verona, one in an inscription from Calvisano. Conway theorized. Calvisano is located 30 Roman miles from Mantua, would fit with Probus' description of Andes; the inscription in this case is a votive offering to the Matronae by a woman called Vergilia, asking the goddesses to deliver from danger another woman, called Munatia. Conway notes that the offering belongs to a common type for this era, where women made requests for deities to preserve the lives of female loved ones who were pregnant and were about to give birth. In most cases, the woman making the request was the mother of a woman, pregnant or otherwise in danger. Though there is another inscription from Calvisano, where a woman asks the deities to preserve the life of her sister. Munatia, the woman who Vergilia wished to protect, was a close relative of Vergilia or Vergilia's daughter.
The name "Munatia" indicates that this woman was a member of gens Munatia, makes it that Vergilia married into this family. According to the commentators, Virgil received his first education when he was five years old and he went to Cremona and Rome to study rhetoric and astronomy, which he soon abandoned for philosophy. From Virgil's admiring references to the neoteric writers Pollio and Cinna, it has been inferred that he was, for a time, associated with Catullus' neoteric circle. According to Servius, schoolmates considered Virgil shy and reserved, he was nicknamed "Parthenias" or "maiden" because of his social aloofness. Virgil seems to have suffered bad health throughout his life and in some ways lived the life of an invalid. According to the Catalepton, he began to write poetry while in the Epicurean school of Siro the Epicurean at Naples. A group of small works attributed to the youthful Virgil by the commentators survive collected under the title Appendix Vergiliana, but are considered spurious by scholars.
One, the Catalepton, consists of fourteen short poems, some of which may be Virgil's, another, a short narrative poem titled the Culex, was attributed to Virgil as early as the 1st century AD. The biographical tradition asserts that Virgil began the hexameter Eclogues in 42 BC and it is thought that the collection was published around 39–38 BC, although this is controversial; the Eclogues are a group of ten poems modeled on the bucolic hexameter poetry of the Hellenistic poet Theocritus. After his victory in the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC, fought against the army led by the assassins of Julius Caesar, Octavian tried to pay off his veterans with land expropriated from towns in northern Italy including, according to the traditi
Anne Wiazemsky was a French actress and novelist. Through her mother, she was the granddaughter of novelist and dramatist François Mauriac, she made her cinema debut at the age of 18, playing Marie, the lead character in Robert Bresson's Au Hasard Balthazar, went on to appear in several of Jean-Luc Godard's films, among them La Chinoise, Week End, One Plus One. She and Godard were married from 1967 to 1979. Wiazemsky was born in 1947 in Berlin, Germany, her father Yvan Wiazemsky, a French diplomat, was a Russian prince who had emigrated to France following the Russian Revolution. Her mother Claire Mauriac was daughter of François Mauriac, a winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature. Wiazemsky spent her early years abroad following her father's postings around the world, before returning to Paris in 1962, she graduated from the high school Ecole Sainte Marie de Passy in Paris. Wiazemsky made her on screen acting debut at the age of 18, playing Marie, the lead character in Robert Bresson's Au Hasard Balthazar.
The film premièred at the 1966 Venice Film Festival where it won the OCIC Award, the San Giorgio Prize, the New Cinema Award. It has since been listed by critics as one of the greatest films of all time. Filmmaker and Cahiers du Cinema critic Jean-Luc Godard wrote a glowing review for the film, writing that "everyone who sees this film will be astonished because this film is the world in an hour and a half."Wiazemsky subsequently developed a relationship with Godard, married him one year in 1967. She starred in several of his films, including La Chinoise, Week End, One Plus One. In addition to acting, Wiazemsky wrote several novels, including Canines, Une Poignée de Gens, Aux Quatre Coins du Monde. Hymnes à l'Amour was filmed in 2003 as Toutes ces belles promesses, directed by Jean-Paul Civeyrac and starring Valérie Crunchant and Bulle Ogier, her novel Jeune Fille was based on her experience of starring in Au Hasard Balthazar. In 2017, her novel Un An Après, which chronicled her time shooting Godard's film La Chinoise, was developed into a feature film by The Artist director Michel Hazanavicius.
The film was released as Redoubtable in 2017. During the 1966 filming of Au Hasard Balthazar, director Robert Bresson proposed to her several times, though she refused. In 1967, she married Jean-Luc Godard, subsequently starred in several of his films. Wiazemsky died of breast cancer on 5 October 2017, aged 70. Novels1989: Mon beau navire 1991: Marimé 1993: Canines 1996: Hymnes à l'amour 1998: Une poignée de gens ISBN 2-07-074676-3 2001: Aux quatre coins du monde 2002: Sept garçons 2004: Je m'appelle Elizabeth 2007: Jeune Fille ISBN 2-07-077409-0 2009: Mon Enfant de Berlin 2012: Une Année studieuse ISBN 978-2-07-045387-0 2015: Un an après ISBN 978-2-07-013543-1 2017: Un saint homme ISBN 978-2-07-010712-4Short stories1988: Des filles bien élevéesJuvenile2003: Les Visiteurs du soir Biography1992: Album de famille 2000: Il était une fois... les cafés 2000: Tableaux de chats 2001: Venise Preface1994: En habillant Anne Wiazemsky on IMDb
Georges Albert Maurice Victor Bataille was a French intellectual and literary figure working in literature, anthropology, economics and history of art. His writing, which included essays and poetry, explored such subjects as erotism, mysticism and transgression, his work would prove influential on subsequent schools of philosophy and social theory, including poststructuralism. Georges Bataille was the son of Joseph-Aristide Bataille, a tax collector, Antoinette-Aglaë Tournarde. Born on 10 September 1897 in Billom in the region of Auvergne, his family moved to Reims in 1898, where he was baptized, he went to school in Reims and Épernay. Although brought up without religious observance, he converted to Catholicism in 1914, became a devout Catholic for about nine years, he attended a Catholic seminary briefly. However, he quit in part in order to pursue an occupation where he could support his mother, he renounced Christianity in the early 1920s. Bataille attended the École Nationale des Chartes in Paris, graduating in February 1922.
Though he is referred to as an archivist and a librarian because of his employment at the Bibliothèque Nationale, his work there was with the medallion collections. His thesis at the École des Chartes was a critical edition of the medieval manuscript L’Ordre de chevalerie which he produced directly by classifying the eight manuscripts from which he reconstructed the poem. After graduating he moved to the School of Advanced Spanish Studies in Madrid; as a young man, he befriended, was much influenced by, the Russian existentialist, Lev Shestov. Founder of several journals and literary groups, Bataille is the author of a large and diverse body of work: readings, essays on innumerable subjects, he sometimes published under pseudonyms, some of his publications were banned. He was ignored during his lifetime and scorned by contemporaries such as Jean-Paul Sartre as an advocate of mysticism, but after his death had considerable influence on authors such as Michel Foucault, Philippe Sollers, Jacques Derrida, all of whom were affiliated with the journal Tel Quel.
His influence is felt most explicitly in the phenomenological work of Jean-Luc Nancy, but is significant for the work of Jean Baudrillard, the psychoanalytic theories of Jacques Lacan and Julia Kristeva, recent anthropological work from the likes of Michael Taussig. Attracted to Surrealism, Bataille fell out with its founder André Breton, although Bataille and the Surrealists resumed cautiously cordial relations after World War II. Bataille was a member of the influential College of Sociology which included several other renegade surrealists, he was influenced by Hegel, Marx, Marcel Mauss, the Marquis de Sade, Alexandre Kojève, Friedrich Nietzsche, the last of whom he defended in a notable essay against appropriation by the Nazis. Fascinated by human sacrifice, he founded a secret society, Acéphale, the symbol of, a headless man. According to legend and the other members of Acéphale each agreed to be the sacrificial victim as an inauguration. An indemnity was offered for an executioner, but none was found before the dissolution of Acéphale shortly before the war.
The group published an eponymous review of Nietzsche's philosophy which attempted to postulate what Derrida has called an "anti-sovereignty". Collaborators in these projects included André Masson, Pierre Klossowski, Roger Caillois, Jules Monnerot, Jean Rollin and Jean Wahl. Bataille used various modes of discourse to create his work, his novel Story of the Eye, published under the pseudonym Lord Auch, was read as pure pornography, while interpretation of the work has matured to reveal the same considerable philosophical and emotional depth, characteristic of other writers who have been categorized within "literature of transgression". The imagery of the novel is built upon a series of metaphors which in turn refer to philosophical constructs developed in his work: the eye, the egg, the sun, the earth, the testicle. Other famous novels include the posthumously published My Mother, The Impossible and Blue of Noon, with its incest, necrophilia and autobiographical undertones, is a much darker treatment of contemporary historical reality.
During World War II Bataille produced Summa Atheologica which comprises his works Inner Experience, On Nietzsche. After the war he composed The Accursed Share, which he said represented thirty years' work; the singular conception of "sovereignty" expounded there would become an important topic of discussion for Derrida, Giorgio Agamben, Jean-Luc Nancy and others. Bataille founded the influential journal Critique. Bataille's first marriage was to actress Silvia Maklès, in 1928. Bataille had an affair with Colette Peignot, who died in 1938. In 1946 Bataille married Diane de Beauharnais. In 1955 Bataille was diagnosed with cerebral arteriosclerosis, although he was not informed at the time of the t