Gala Dalí, Marquis of Dalí de Púbol known as Gala, was the Russian wife of poet Paul Éluard and of artist Salvador Dalí, who were both prominent in surrealism. She inspired many other writers and artists. Gala was born as Elena Ivanovna Diakonova in Kazan, Kazan Governorate, Russian Empire, to a family of intellectuals. Among her childhood friends was the poet Marina Tsvetaeva, she began working as a schoolteacher in 1915. In 1912, she was sent to a sanatorium at Clavadel, near Davos in Switzerland for the treatment of tuberculosis, she fell in love with him. They were both seventeen. In 1916, during World War I, she traveled from Russia to Paris to reunite with him, their daughter, Cécile, was born in 1918. Gala detested motherhood and ignoring her child. With Éluard, Gala became involved in the Surrealist movement, she was an inspiration for many artists including Éluard, Louis Aragon, Max Ernst, André Breton. Breton despised her, claiming she was a destructive influence on the artists she befriended.
She, Éluard, Ernst spent three years in a ménage à trois, from 1924 to 1927. In early August 1929, Éluard and Gala visited a young Surrealist painter in Spain, the emerging Salvador Dalí. An affair developed between Gala and Dalí, about 10 years younger than she. After the breakup of their marriage, Éluard and Gala continued to be close. After living together since 1929, Dalí and Gala married in a civil ceremony in 1934, remarried in a Catholic ceremony in 1958 in the Pyrenean hamlet of Montrejic, they needed to receive a special dispensation by the Pope because Gala had been married and she was a believer. Due to his purported phobia of female genitalia, Dalí was said to have been a virgin when they met on the Costa Brava in 1929. Around that time she was found to have uterine fibroids, for which she underwent a hysterectomy in 1936, she was Dalí's muse, directly inspiring and appearing in many of his works. In the early 1930s, Dalí started to sign his paintings with his and her name as "t is with your blood, that I paint my pictures".
He stated that Gala acted as his agent, aided in redirecting his focus. According to most accounts, Gala had a strong libido and throughout her life had numerous extramarital affairs, which Dalí encouraged, since he was a practitioner of candaulism, she had a fondness for young artists, in her old age she gave expensive gifts to those who associated with her. In 1968, Dalí bought Gala the Castle of Púbol, where she would spend time every summer from 1971 to 1980, he agreed not to visit there without getting advance permission from her in writing. In her late seventies, Gala had a relationship with millionaire multi-platinum rock singer Jeff Fenholt, former lead vocalist of Jesus Christ Superstar. Fenholt acted as a business representative for the Dalís in the United States, arranging sales of Dalí's work to Alice Cooper and The Grateful Dead, he sold the short film Journey Through Upper Mongolia, the short film Blood Is Thicker Than Honey, others. Fenholt has stated that Gala told him from her hospital bed in Spain that Dali had assaulted her, knocking her down and breaking her hip, which resulted in her death.
Gala died in Port Lligat in Catalonia, early in the morning of 10 June 1982, at the age of 87. In the months before her death, Gala had battled a severe case of influenza, after which she began to exhibit signs of dementia, she was interred in the Castle of Púbol, which her husband had purchased for her in 1968, in a crypt with a chessboard style pattern. Gala is a frequent model in Dalí's work in religious roles such as the Blessed Virgin Mary in the painting The Madonna of Port Lligat, his paintings of her show his great love for her, some are the most affectionate and sensual depictions of a middle-aged woman in Western art. Among the paintings she served as a model for are: Imperial Monument to Gala. In Portrait of Galarina, Gala's face is shown severe and confrontational, her bared breast meant to depict bread, the snake on the arm a gift of Dalí's sponsor Edward James
Marxism is a theory and method of working class self-emancipation. As a theory, it relies on a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation, it originates from the works of 19th-century German philosophers Friedrich Engels. Marxism uses a methodology, now known as historical materialism, to analyze and critique the development of class society and of capitalism as well as the role of class struggles in systemic economic and political change. According to Marxist theory, in capitalist societies, class conflict arises due to contradictions between the material interests of the oppressed and exploited proletariat—a class of wage labourers employed to produce goods and services—and the bourgeoisie—the ruling class that owns the means of production and extracts its wealth through appropriation of the surplus product produced by the proletariat in the form of profit.
This class struggle, expressed as the revolt of a society's productive forces against its relations of production, results in a period of short-term crises as the bourgeoisie struggle to manage the intensifying alienation of labor experienced by the proletariat, albeit with varying degrees of class consciousness. In periods of deep crisis, the resistance of the oppressed can culminate in a proletarian revolution which, if victorious, leads to the establishment of socialism—a socioeconomic system based on social ownership of the means of production, distribution based on one's contribution and production organized directly for use; as the productive forces continued to advance, Marx hypothesized that socialism would be transformed into a communist society: a classless, humane society based on common ownership and the underlying principle: "From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs". Marxism has developed into many different branches and schools of thought, with the result that there is now no single definitive Marxist theory.
Different Marxian schools place a greater emphasis on certain aspects of classical Marxism while rejecting or modifying other aspects. Many schools of thought have sought to combine Marxian concepts and non-Marxian concepts, which has led to contradicting conclusions; however there is movement toward the recognition that historical materialism and dialectical materialism remains the fundamental aspect of all Marxist schools of thought. Marxism has had a profound impact on global academia and has influenced many fields such as archaeology, media studies, political science, history, art history and theory, cultural studies, economics, criminology, literary criticism, film theory, critical psychology and philosophy; the term "Marxism" was popularized by Karl Kautsky, who considered himself an "orthodox" Marxist during the dispute between the orthodox and revisionist followers of Marx. Kautsky's revisionist rival Eduard Bernstein later adopted use of the term. Engels did not support the use of the term "Marxism" to describe either his views.
Engels claimed that the term was being abusively used as a rhetorical qualifier by those attempting to cast themselves as "real" followers of Marx while casting others in different terms, such as "Lassallians". In 1882, Engels claimed that Marx had criticized self-proclaimed "Marxist" Paul Lafargue, by saying that if Lafargue's views were considered "Marxist" "one thing is certain and, that I am not a Marxist". Marxism analyzes the material conditions and the economic activities required to fulfill human material needs to explain social phenomena within any given society, it assumes that the form of economic organization, or mode of production, influences all other social phenomena—including wider social relations, political institutions, legal systems, cultural systems and ideologies. The economic system and these social relations form a superstructure; as forces of production, i.e. technology, existing forms of organizing production become obsolete and hinder further progress. As Karl Marx observed: "At a certain stage of development, the material productive forces of society come into conflict with the existing relations of production or—this expresses the same thing in legal terms—with the property relations within the framework of which they have operated hitherto.
From forms of development of the productive forces these relations turn into their fetters. Begins an era of social revolution"; these inefficiencies manifest themselves as social contradictions in society which are, in turn, fought out at the level of the class struggle. Under the capitalist mode of production, this struggle materializes between the minority who own the means of production and the vast majority of the population who produce goods and services. Starting with the conjectural premise that social change occurs because of the struggle between different classes within society who are under contradiction against each other, a Marxist would conclude that capitalism exploits and oppresses the proletariat, therefore capitalism will lead to a proletarian revolution. Marxian economics and its proponents view capitalism as economically unsustainable and incapable of improving the living standards of the population due to its need to compensate for falling rates of profit by cutting employee's wages, social benefits and pursuing military aggression.
The socialist system would succeed capitalism as humanity's mode of production through workers' revolution. According to Marxian crisis theory, socialism is not an economic necessity. In a sociali
Existentialism is the philosophical study that begins with the human subject—not the thinking subject, but the acting, living human individual. It is associated with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences, shared the belief in that beginning of philosophical thinking. While the predominant value of existentialist thought is acknowledged to be freedom, its primary virtue is authenticity. In the view of the existentialist, the individual's starting point is characterized by what has been called "the existential attitude", or a sense of disorientation, confusion, or dread in the face of an meaningless or absurd world. Many existentialists have regarded traditional systematic or academic philosophies, in both style and content, as too abstract and remote from concrete human experience. Søren Kierkegaard is considered to have been the first existentialist philosopher, though he did not use the term existentialism, he proposed that each individual—not society or religion—is responsible for giving meaning to life and living it passionately and sincerely, or "authentically".
Existentialism became popular in the years following World War II, thanks to Sartre who read Heidegger while in a POW camp, influenced many disciplines besides philosophy, including theology, art and psychology. The term "existentialism" was coined by the French Catholic philosopher Gabriel Marcel in the mid-1940s. At first, when Marcel applied the term to him at a colloquium in 1945, Jean-Paul Sartre rejected it. Sartre subsequently changed his mind and, on October 29, 1945, publicly adopted the existentialist label in a lecture to the Club Maintenant in Paris; the lecture was published as L'existentialisme est un humanisme, a short book that did much to popularize existentialist thought. Marcel came to reject the label himself in favour of the term Neo-Socratic, in honor of Kierkegaard's essay "On The Concept of Irony"; some scholars argue that the term should be used only to refer to the cultural movement in Europe in the 1940s and 1950s associated with the works of the philosophers Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Albert Camus.
Other scholars extend the term to Kierkegaard, yet others extend it as far back as Socrates. However, the term is identified with the philosophical views of Sartre; the labels existentialism and existentialist are seen as historical conveniences in as far as they were first applied to many philosophers in hindsight, long after they had died. In fact, while existentialism is considered to have originated with Kierkegaard, the first prominent existentialist philosopher to adopt the term as a self-description was Jean-Paul Sartre. Sartre posits the idea that "what all existentialists have in common is the fundamental doctrine that existence precedes essence", as scholar Frederick Copleston explains. According to philosopher Steven Crowell, defining existentialism has been difficult, he argues that it is better understood as a general approach used to reject certain systematic philosophies rather than as a systematic philosophy itself. Sartre himself, in a lecture delivered in 1945, described existentialism as "the attempt to draw all the consequences from a position of consistent atheism".
Although many outside Scandinavia consider the term existentialism to have originated from Kierkegaard himself, it is more that Kierkegaard adopted this term from the Norwegian poet and literary critic Johan Sebastian Cammermeyer Welhaven. This assertion comes from two sources; the Norwegian philosopher Erik Lundestad refers to the Danish philosopher Fredrik Christian Sibbern. Sibbern is supposed to have had two conversations in 1841, the first with Welhaven and the second with Kierkegaard, it is in the first conversation that it is believed that Welhaven came up with "a word that he said covered a certain thinking, which had a close and positive attitude to life, a relationship he described as existential". This was brought to Kierkegaard by Sibbern; the second claim comes from the Norwegian historian Rune Slagstad, who claims to prove that Kierkegaard himself said the term "existential" was borrowed from the poet. He believes that it was Kierkegaard himself who said that "Hegelians do not study philosophy'existentially'.
Sartre argued that a central proposition of Existentialism is that existence precedes essence, which means that the most important consideration for individuals is that they are individuals—independently acting and responsible, conscious beings —rather than what labels, stereotypes, definitions, or other preconceived categories the individuals fit. The actual life of the individuals is what constitutes what could be called their "true essence" instead of there being an arbitrarily attributed essence others use to define them. Thus, human beings, through their own consciousness, create their own values and determine a meaning to their life. Although it was Sartre who explicitly coined the phrase, similar notions can be found in the thought of existentialist philosophers such as Heidegger, Kierkegaard: The subjective thinker’s form, the form of his communication, is his style, his form must be just as manifold as are the opposites. The systematic eins, drei is an abstract form that must run into trouble whenever it is to be applied to the concrete.
To the same degree as the subjective thinker is concrete, to the same degree his form must be concretely dialectica
Ithell Colquhoun was a British painter and author. Stylistically her artwork was surrealist in content and for a brief time she was part of the organised British surrealist movement, she was born in British India. From the 1930s to her death, her work was exhibited in Britain and Germany. Margaret Ithell Colquhoun was born in British India, her parents were Henry Colquhoun, an assistant to the ambassador in Manipur, his wife Georgia. Colquhoun was educated in Rodwell, near Weymouth, Dorset before attending Cheltenham Ladies' College. There she studied topics such as the occult. Colquhoun did take some art courses, but she was self-taught. Colquhoun studied for a period at the Slade School of Art in London, under Henry Tonks and Randolph Schwabe, before travelling to France in 1931, it was in Paris that she discovered surrealism and was influenced by the works of Salvador Dalí. Another influence on Colquhoun was the psychomorphological works of Onslow Ford, her first one-woman exhibition of works was at Cheltenham Art Gallery in 1936.
Soon after, she joined Artists' International Association. She took part in the 1939 exhibition Living Art in England on an independent basis, but that same year she met Breton in Paris and joined the English surrealist group. By 1939, Colquhoun had joined the English Surrealist Group and in June she and Roland Penrose showed their works in a joint exhibition at Mayor Gallery. There they created a scandal by asking a vagrant to sit in the window. In 1940, E. L. T. Mesens, head of the English Surrealist Group, expelled her from the group for carrying on with occult research, she became the Order of the Stella Matutina, both occult groups. After the 1950s, she was regarded as a'fantamagiste', an unorthodox surrealist who focused on the occult. Colquhoun lived with Antonio Romanov del Renzio in London during World War II, marrying him in July 1943 and divorcing him a few years later. From 1946, Colquhoun kept a studio near Penzance, while living in London, she moved to Cornwall in 1957, where she lived until her death on 11 April 1988.
Colquhoun's early works included a series of enlarged images of flora, occupying the full canvas and painted photographically. By the late 1930s, she had painted two significant pieces. In the 1940s, Colquhoun's works were experiments to explore the subconscious, she did this by using recognised methods such as decalcomania, fumage and collage. Colquhoun went further, developing new techniques such as superautomatism, stillomanay and entoptic graphomania writing about them in her article The mantic stain. Three works which stand out during the 1940s are The Pine Family, which deals with dismemberment and castration, A Visitation which shows a flat heart shape with multicoloured beams of light and Dreaming Leaps, a homage to Sonia Araquistain. Colquhoun did not define herself as a Surrealist artist, as she only took part in a single Surrealist exhibit. Instead she considered herself "independent"She has published poetry and tales of her travels in Ireland and Cornwall. Colquhoun gained an early reputation within the British Surrealist movement yet became better known as an occultist.
In 2012, the scholar Amy Hale noted that Colquhoun "is becoming recognized as one of the most interesting and prolific esoteric thinkers and artists of the twentieth century". Hale noted that through Colquhoun's work "we can see an interplay of themes and movements which characterizes the trajectory of certain British subcultures ranging from Surrealism to the Earth Mysteries movement and gives us a rare insight into the thoughts and processes of a working magician." Salvo for Russia, 1942 The Fortune Anthology, 1942 The Crying of the Wind: Ireland, 1955 The Living Stones: Cornwall, 1957 Goose of Hermogenes, 1961 Grimoire Of The Entangled Thicket Sword Of Wisdom - MacGregor Mathers and the Golden Dawn, 1975 The Rosie Crucian Secrets: Their Excellent Method of Making Medicines of Metals Also Their Lawes and Mysteries, 1985 The Magical Writings of Ithell Colquhoun, 2007 Ithell Colquhoun: Magician Born of Nature, 2009/2011 Decad of Intelligence, 2016 Taro As Colour, 2018 Official site Entry on Ithell Colquhoun at the World Religions and Spirituality Project Ithell Colquhoun at the Tate Gallery Archive
Emma Frith Bridgwater, known as Emmy Bridgwater, was an English artist and poet associated with the Surrealist movement. Based at times in both Birmingham and London, she was a significant member of the Birmingham Surrealists and of the London-based British Surrealist Group, was an important link between the surrealists of the two cities. Michel Remy, professor of art history at the University of Nice and author of Surrealism in Britain, describes her influence as "of the same importance to British surrealism as the arrival of Dalí in the ranks of the French surrealists". Emmy Bridgwater was born in the upmarket Edgbaston district of Birmingham, the third daughter of a chartered accountant and Methodist. Showing an early interest in painting and drawing, she studied under Bernard Fleetwood-Walker at the Birmingham School of Art for three years from 1922 before further study at a local art school in Oxford paid for by work as a secretary. Bridgwater's aesthetic direction was transformed by attending the London International Surrealist Exhibition in 1936, where she met Conroy Maddox, John Melville and Robert Melville - the key figures of the Birmingham Surrealists.
From this point on her work began to explore the more fearful sides of the subconscious using automatist techniques. Studying for periods at the Grosvenor School of Modern Art in London during 1936 and 1937 she retained a base in Birmingham and exhibited as a member of the Birmingham Group throughout the late 1930s exhibiting at the London Gallery after being introduced to owner E. L. T. Mesens by Robert Melville. In early 1940, she joined the British Surrealist Group when Conroy Maddox and Robert Melville introduced her to them, she was to attend their meetings for much of the following decade. Forming a close friendship with Edith Rimmington and having a brief but intense affair with Toni del Renzio, she contributed to numerous international surrealist publications and held her first solo exhibition at Jack Bilbo's Modern Gallery in 1942. In 1947, Bridgwater was one of six English artists chosen by André Breton to exhibit at the Exposition Internationale du Surrealisme at the Galerie Maeght in Paris - the last major international surrealist group exhibition.
By the late 1940s, Bridgwater was having to spend increasing amounts of time caring for her ageing mother and disabled sister. In 1953, she moved to Stratford-upon-Avon to take on this responsibility full-time and suspended her artistic career. During the 1970s Bridgwater resumed work in collage, her earlier work featured in numerous surrealist retrospective exhibitions over the following decades. Ceasing work in the mid-1980s, she died in Solihull in 1999. Emmy Bridgwater's work in the 1930s and 1940s consisted of paintings and pen and ink drawings, her personal iconography featured organic imagery such as birds, leaves and tendril-like automatist lines depicted with a sense of "surrealist black humour and violence" within a dreamlike landscape. From the 1970s onwards she worked in collage. In Arson: an ardent review Toni del Renzio wrote of Bridgwater's paintings: "We do not see these pictures. We are moved by them. Our own entrails are drawn painfully from us and twisted into the pictures whose significance we did not want to realise."Robert Melville described Bridgwater's paintings as depicting "the saddening, half-seen'presences' encountered by the artist on her journey through the labyrinths of good and evil... although they are dreamlike in their ambiguity they are realistic documents from a region of phantasmal hopes and murky desires where few stay to observe and fewer still remain clear-sighted."Her obituary in The Independent said "Her paintings show an ability to enter a personal dream world and transform the visions she experienced there into bold, unselfconscious charged landscapes which more than not strike into the depths of one's mind.
Using a limited palette and painting thickly, she was able to bring together unrelated objects which she used to fill desolate landscapes, giving the paintings a narrative quality of her own making." 1937 - The Birmingham Group, Lucy Wertheim Gallery, London 1938 - The Birmingham Group, Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery, Birmingham 193? - London Gallery, London 1939 - As We See Ourselves, Chapman Galleries, Birmingham 1942 - Emmy Bridgwater, Modern Gallery, London 1947 - Coventry Art Circle Exhibition, Coventry 1947 - Exposition Internationale du Surrealisme, Galerie Maeght, Paris 1948 - Coventry Art Circle Exhibition, Coventry 1949 - Birmingham Artists Committee Invitation Exhibition, Royal Birmingham Society of Artists, Birmingham 1951 - Coventry Art Circle Exhibition, Coventry 1971 - Britain's Contribution to Surrealism of the 30s and 40s, Hamet Gallery, London 1982 - Peinture Surrealiste en Angleterre 1930-1960: Les Enfants d'Alice, Galerie 1900-2000, Paris 1985 - A Salute to British Surrealism 1930-1950, The Minories, Colchester.
Eileen Forrester Agar was a British painter and photographer associated with the Surrealist movement. Born in Buenos Aires to a Scottish father and American mother, Agar moved with her family to London in 1911. At a young age, Agar became fascinated by pictures by Arthur Rackham. Before attending school, Agar grew up in her family villa Quinta la Lila learning from her nanny and a French governess. Agar describes her childhood as being “full of balloons, hoops and St Bernard dogs’. Aged six Agar was sent to England to a private school in Canford Cliffs. At her second school, Heathfield School, Agar’s teacher Lucy Kemp-Welch encouraged her to continue to develop her art. In 1914 at the onset of World War I Agar was sent away to Tudor Hall from her home in London to avoid the hardships of war. In Kent the music master Horace Kesteven began introducing her to various artists. Through Kesteven, Agar met Charles Sims. Agar describes her time with Sims as "I found myself in a milieu of art where art was a valued part of daily life".
Before the war ended, Agar attended the Demoiselles Ozanne to improve her French and while she was there she took weekly oil painting lessons at the Byam Shaw School of Art in Kensington. Agar found the Byam Shaw too academic and pleaded with her family to allow her to look elsewhere to continue her schooling; this infuriated her mother and after an argument with her parents Agar notes in her diary that she got up early, ate lunch with her sisters, packed her bags and departed from Paddington Station. She left a note for her parents stating that she was on her way to Truro and St Mawes where she would stay with a family friend the De Kays. In 1924, she studied under Leon Underwood at his school at Brook Green, she attended the Slade School of Fine Art in London from 1925 to 1926. She studied art in Paris from 1928 to 1930. In 1926, Agar met the Hungarian writer Joseph Bard and in 1928, they lived in Paris where she met the Surrealists André Breton and Paul Éluard with whom she had a friendly relationship.
In 1930 Agar painted her first surrealist piece ”The Flying Pillar” based off Andre Bretons surrealist manifesto. Agar describes her piece in her memoir as “her first attempt at an imaginative approach to painting and although the result was surreal, it was not done with that intention”. Agar continues on in her Diary to say that “Surrealism was in the air in France and poets in France in England, were kissing that sleeping beauty troubled by nightmares, it was the kiss of life that they gave”; the flying Pillar was renamed the Three Symbols and is described by Agar as a reference to Greek art and Gustave Eiffel and his famous tower, the symbol of modernity. The painting represented the classical world merging with the modern as a cross roads in time, she describes the various images in her painting in her 1928 Diary entry as Greece being the meeting place of Judaeo-Egyptian and Greco-Christian followed by the words’the Judaeo-Graeco pillar’ as if it were a note to bear in mind and to be developed”.
In 1931 Agar painted the Movement in Space, her cubist abstraction work. She was a member of the London Group from 1934 onwards, married Bard in 1940. Agar exhibited with the Surrealists in England and abroad. During the 1930s Agar's work focused on natural objects in a light-hearted manner such as Bum-Thumb Rock, a set of photographs of an unusual rock formation she noticed in Brittany, she started to experiment with automatic techniques and new materials, taking photographs and making collages and objects. The Angel of Anarchy, a plaster head covered in fabric and other media, is such an example from 1936–40 and is now in the Tate collection, she created 2 versions of The Angel of Anarchy after her first Angel of Anarchy got lost on its way back from a show In Amsterdam. She made her second version in 1940 using the same cast of Joseph Bards head and kept the original title The Angel of Anarchy; the bust was divided into two parts. One with white fur and one with black fur with most the head being covered in green osprey and ostrich feathers and dollies that she received from her mother who used to wear them as a head dress.
In the mid-1930s Agar and Bard began renting a house for the summer at Swanage in Dorset. Here she met the two began an intense relationship. In 1935 Nash introduced Agar to the concept of the found object. Together, they collaborated on a number such as Seashore Monster at Swanage. Nash recommended her work to Roland Penrose and Herbert Read, the organisers of the 1936 International Surrealist Exhibition at the New Burlington Galleries, in London and she became the only British woman to have work, three paintings and five objects, included in that exhibition. In 1936 she was the only woman to present works of art at the international exhibition in London, England. In 1937, Agar spent a holiday at Picasso and Dora Maar's home in Mougins, Alpes-Maritimes, along with Paul Éluard, Roland Penrose and Lee Miller, who photographed her. By 1940, works by Agar had appeared in surrealist exhibitions in Amsterdam, New York and Tokyo. "The war interrupted her artistic activity, she only began to paint again in 1946 and exhibited regularly from on until her death."After World War Two, Agar started a new productive phase of her life, holding 16 solo exhibitions between 1946 and 1985.
By the 1960s she was producing Tachist paintings with Surrealist elements. In 1988 she published her autobiography A Look At My Life. In 1990, she was elected as a Royal Academy Associate, she died in London. Agar has paintings in the collection of several British institutions including Derby Art Gallery and the UK Government
Frédéric-Louis Sauser, better known as Blaise Cendrars, was a Swiss-born novelist and poet who became a naturalized French citizen in 1916. He was a writer of considerable influence in the European modernist movement, he was born in La Chaux-de-Fonds, Neuchâtel, rue de la Paix 27, into a bourgeois francophone family, to a Swiss father and a Scottish mother. They sent young Frédéric to a German boarding school. At the Realschule in Basel in 1902 he met his lifelong friend the sculptor August Suter. Next they enrolled him in a school in Neuchâtel. In 1904, he left school due to poor performance and began an apprenticeship with a Swiss watchmaker in Russia. While living in St. Petersburg, he began to write, thanks to the encouragement of R. R. a librarian at the National Library of Russia. There he wrote the poem, "La Légende de Novgorode", which R. R. translated into Russian. Fourteen copies were made, but Cendrars claimed to have no copies of it, none could be located during his lifetime. In 1995, the Bulgarian poet Kiril Kadiiski claimed to have found one of the Russian translations in Sofia, but the authenticity of the document remains contested on the grounds of factual, typographic and stylistic analysis.
In 1907, Sauser returned to Switzerland. During this period, he wrote his first verified poems, Séquences, influenced by Remy de Gourmont's Le Latin mystique. Cendrars was the first exponent of Modernism in European poetry with his works: The Legend of Novgorode, Les Pâques à New York, La Prose du Transsibérien et la Petite Jehanne de France, Séquences, La Guerre au Luxembourg, Le Panama ou les aventures de mes sept oncles, J'ai tué, Dix-neuf poèmes élastiques, he was the first modernist poet, not only in terms of expressing the fundamental values of Modernism but in terms of creating its first solid poetical synthesis, although this achievement did not grow out of a literary project or any theoretical considerations but from Cendrars' instinctive attraction to all, new in the age and alive for him in literature of the past. In many ways, he was a direct heir of Rimbaud, a visionary rather than what the French call un homme de lettres, a term that for him was predicated on a separation of intellect and life.
Like Rimbaud, who writes in "The Alchemy of the Word" in A Season in Hell, "I liked absurd paintings over door panels, stage sets, backdrops for acrobats, popular engravings, old-fashioned literature, church Latin, erotic books full of misspellings," Cendrars says of himself in Der Sturm, "I like legends, mistakes of language, detective novels, the flesh of girls, the sun, the Eiffel Tower."Spontaneity, boundless curiosity, a craving for travel, immersion in actualities were his hallmarks both in life and art. He was drawn to this same immersion in Balzac's flood of novels on 19th-century French society and in Casanova's travels and adventures through 18th-century Europe, which he set down in dozens of volumes of memoirs that Cendrars considered "the true Encyclopedia of the eighteenth century, filled with life as they are, unlike Diderot's, the work of a single man, neither an ideologue nor a theoretician". Cendrars regarded the early modernist movement from 1910 to the mid-1920s as a period of genuine discovery in the arts and in 1919 contrasted "theoretical cubism" with "the group's three antitheoreticians," Picasso, Léger, whom he described as "three personal painters who represent the three successive phases of cubism."
After a short stay in Paris, he traveled to New York, arriving on 11 December 1911. Between 6–8 April 1912, he wrote his long poem, Les Pâques à New York, his first important contribution to modern literature, he signed it for the first time with the name Blaise Cendrars. In the summer of 1912, Cendrars convinced that poetry was his vocation. With Emil Szittya, an anarchist writer, he started the journal Les hommes nouveaux the name of the press where he published Les Pâques à New York and Séquences, he became acquainted with the international array of artists and writers in Paris, such as Chagall, Léger, Suter, Csaky, Jean Hugo and Robert Delaunay. Most notably, he encountered Guillaume Apollinaire; the two poets influenced each other's work. Cendrars' poem Les Pâques à. Cendrars' style was based on photographic impressions, cinematic effects of montage and rapid changes of imagery, scenes of great emotional force with the power of a hallucination; these qualities, which inform his prose, are evident in Easter in New York and in his best known and longer poem The Transsiberian, with its scenes of revolution and the Far East in flames in the Russo-Japanese war.
The published work was printed within washes of color by the painter Sonia Delaunay-Terk as a fold-out two meters in length, together with her design of brilliant colors down the left-hand side, a small map of the Transsiberian railway in the upper right corner, a painted silhouette in orange of the Eiffel Tower in the lower left. Cendrars called the work first "simultaneous poem". Soon after, it was exhibited as a work of art in its own right and continues to be shown at exhibitions to this day; this intertwining of poetry and p