Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Montparnasse Cemetery is a cemetery in the Montparnasse quarter of Paris, part of the city's 14th arrondissement. Created from three farms in 1824, the cemetery at Montparnasse was known as Le Cimetière du Sud. Cemeteries had been banned from Paris since the closure, owing to health concerns, of the Cimetière des Innocents in 1786. Several new cemeteries outside the precincts of the capital replaced all the internal Parisian ones in the early 19th century: Montmartre Cemetery in the north, Père Lachaise Cemetery in the east, Montparnasse Cemetery in the south. At the heart of the city, today sitting in the shadow of the Eiffel Tower, is Passy Cemetery. Montparnasse Cemetery is the resting place of many of France's intellectual and artistic elite as well as publishers and others who promoted the works of authors and artists. There are many graves of foreigners who made France their home, as well as monuments to police and firefighters killed in the line of duty in the city of Paris; the cemetery is divided by Rue Émile Richard.
The small section is referred to as the small cemetery and the large section as the big cemetery. Although Baudelaire is buried in this cemetery, there is a cenotaph to him; because of the many notable people buried there, it is a popular tourist attraction. Divisions 5 and 30 were Jewish enclosures and contain many Jewish graves; the main entrance to the cemetery is on Boulevard Edgar Quinet. There are smaller entrances to both the small cemeteries on Rue Émile Richard. List of burials at Montparnasse Cemetery A list of many buried at the cemetery Montparnasse Cemetery at Find a Grave Information and help in touring Montparnasse cemetery in English
A poète maudit is a poet living a life outside or against society. Abuse of drugs and alcohol, crime, in general any societal sin resulting in an early death are typical elements of the biography of a poète maudit; the phrase "poète maudit" was coined in the beginning of the 19th century by Alfred de Vigny in his 1832 novel Stello, in which he calls the poet "la race toujours maudite par les puissants de la terre". Charles Baudelaire, Paul Verlaine and Arthur Rimbaud are considered typical examples. Lautréamont or Alice de Chambrier are considered as poètes maudits, as outside of French culture is the American 20th century poet Hart Crane; the term came into wider usage since Verlaine's anthology. It was used just for the writers in his book, but it became a name for writers whose lives and art are outside or against their society. For example, the poet and publisher Pierre Seghers published an anthology "Poètes maudits d'aujourd'hui: 1946-1970" in Paris in 1972, collecting authors such as Antonin Artaud, Jean-Pierre Duprey and 10 others, some of which became famous posthumously.
The term is used outside France. Examples include American poet Delmore Schwartz, whom Mark Ford called ‘America’s most genuine claimant to the title’, Anglo-Canadian poet Paul Potts, Czech poet Karel Hynek Mácha, the Polish poet Rafał Wojaczek and the Italian poet Salvatore Toma. Les Poètes maudits is a work by Paul Verlaine, published in 1884; the work is a homage to Tristan Corbière, Arthur Rimbaud, Stéphane Mallarmé, Marceline Desbordes-Valmore, Villiers de l'Isle-Adam and Pauvre Lélian. Verlaine's work in French Poètes maudits des littératures
Elsa Triolet, born Ella Yurievna Kagan, was a Russian-French writer. Ella Kagan was born into a music teacher in Moscow, she and her sister Lilya Brik received excellent educations. Ella graduated from the Moscow Institute of Architecture. Ella enjoyed poetry and in 1915 befriended and fell in love with the aspiring futurist poet and graphic artist Vladimir Mayakovsky; when she invited him home, the poet fell madly in love with her older sister Lilya, married to Osip Brik. Ella was the first to translate Mayakovsky's poetry to French. In 1918, at the outset of the Russian Civil War, Ella married the French cavalry officer André Triolet and emigrated to France, where she changed her name to Elsa, but for years admitted in her letters to Lilya to being heartbroken, she divorced Triolet. In the early 1920s, Elsa described her visit to Tahiti in her letters to Victor Shklovsky, who subsequently showed them to Maxim Gorky. Gorky suggested; the 1925 book In Tahiti, written in Russian and published in Leningrad, was based on these letters.
She published two further novels in Russian, Wild Strawberry and Camouflage, both published in Moscow. In 1928 Elsa met French writer Louis Aragon, they stayed together for 42 years. She influenced Aragon to join the French Communist Party. Triolet and Aragon fought in the French Resistance. In 1944 Triolet was the first woman to be awarded the Prix Goncourt, she died, aged 73, in Saint-Arnoult-en-Yvelines, France of a heart attack. In 2010, La Poste, the French post office, issued three stamps honoring Triolet. На Таити Земляничка Защитный цвет Bonsoir Thérèse Maïakovski translation by N. Semoniff Mille regrets Le Cheval blanc Qui est cet étranger qui n'est pas d'ici? ou le mythe de la Baronne Mélanie Le Premier accroc coûte deux cents francs Personne ne m'aime Les Fantômes armés L'Inspecteur des ruines Le Cheval roux ou les intentions humaines L'Histoire d'Anton Tchekov Le Rendez-vous des étrangers Le Monument Roses à crédit, the 2010 movie Roses à crédit is based on the story Luna-Park Les Manigances L'Âme Le Grand jamais Écoutez-voir La Mise en mots Le Rossignol se tait à l'aube Elsa Triolet on IMDb
Télévision Suisse Romande
Télévision suisse romande was a TV network with two channels: TSR 1 and TSR 2. They were the main French language channels in Switzerland, part of SRG SSR, they provided content for TV5MONDE. Radio suisse romande and Télévision suisse romande merged in 2010 to create Radio Télévision Suisse; the first evening programme in colour of Télévision suisse romande was broadcast in 1968. 1968 is the first year where more than one million of Swiss households had a television. Some of the popular programmes on TSR are: le 12:45, le 19:00, le 19:30 - news À Bon Entendeur - a consumer magazine programme Temps Présent -a recent events programme Passe-moi les jumelles Nouvo - a newsmagazine about new technologies and communications Infrarouge - a debating programme TTC Mise Au Point The station can be received throughout Switzerland, in some neighboring countries. Television in Switzerland Pierre-Alain Donnier Sibylle Blanc Official website
Editing is the process of selecting and preparing written, visual and film media used to convey information. The editing process can involve correction, condensation and many other modifications performed with an intention of producing a correct, consistent and complete work; the editing process begins with the author's idea for the work itself, continuing as a collaboration between the author and the editor as the work is created. Editing can involve human relations and a precise set of methods. There are various editorial positions in publishing. One finds editorial assistants reporting to the senior-level editorial staff and directors who report to senior executive editors. Senior executive editors are responsible for developing a product for its final release; the smaller the publication, the more these roles overlap. The top editor at many publications may be known as the chief editor, executive editor, or the editor. A frequent and regarded contributor to a magazine may acquire the title of editor-at-large or contributing editor.
Mid-level newspaper editors manage or help to manage sections, such as business and features. In U. S. newspapers, the level below the top editor is the managing editor. In the book publishing industry, editors may organize anthologies and other compilations, produce definitive editions of a classic author's works, organize and manage contributions to a multi-author book. Obtaining manuscripts or recruiting authors is the role of an acquisitions editor or a commissioning editor in a publishing house. Finding marketable ideas and presenting them to appropriate authors are the responsibilities of a sponsoring editor. Copy editors correct spelling and align writings to house style. Changes to the publishing industry since the 1980s have resulted in nearly all copy editing of book manuscripts being outsourced to freelance copy editors. At newspapers and wire services, copy editors write headlines and work on more substantive issues, such as ensuring accuracy and taste. In some positions, they select news stories for inclusion.
At U. K. and Australian newspapers, the term is sub-editor. They may communicate with the printer; these editors may have the title of makeup editor. Within the publishing environment, editors of scholarly books are of three main types, each with particular responsibilities: Acquisitions editor, who contracts with the author to produce the copy Project editor or production editor, who sees the copy through its stages from manuscript to bound book and assumes most of the budget and schedule responsibilities Copy editor or manuscript editor, who prepares the copy for conversion into printed form. In the case of multi-author edited volumes, before the manuscript is delivered to the publisher it has undergone substantive and linguistic editing by the volume's editor, who works independently of the publisher; as for scholarly journals, where spontaneous submissions are more common than commissioned works, the position of journal editor or editor-in-chief replaces the acquisitions editor of the book publishing environment, while the roles of production editor and copy editor remain.
However, another editor is sometimes involved in the creation of scholarly research articles. Called the authors' editor, this editor works with authors to get a manuscript fit for purpose before it is submitted to a scholarly journal for publication; the primary difference between copy editing scholarly books and journals and other sorts of copy editing lies in applying the standards of the publisher to the copy. Most scholarly publishers have a preferred style that specifies a particular dictionary and style manual—for example, the Chicago Manual of Style, the MLA Style Manual or the APA Publication Manual in the US, or the New Hart's Rules in the U. K. Technical editing involves reviewing text written on a technical topic, identifying usage errors and ensuring adherence to a style guide. Technical editing may include the correction of grammatical mistakes, mistyping, incorrect punctuation, inconsistencies in usage, poorly structured sentences, wrong scientific terms, wrong units and dimensions, inconsistency in significant figures, technical ambivalence, technical disambiguation, statements conflicting with general scientific knowledge, correction of synopsis, index and subheadings, correcting data and chart presentation in a research paper or report, correcting errors in citations.
Large companies dedicate experienced writers to the technical editing function. Organizations that cannot afford dedicated editors have experienced writers peer-edit text produced by less experienced colleagues, it helps. The "technical" knowledge that an editor gains over time while working on a particular product or technology does give the editor an edge over another who has just started editing content related to that product or technology, but essential general skills are attention to detail, the ability to sustain focus while working through lengthy pieces of text on complex topics, tact in dealing with writers, excellent communication skills. Editing is a growing field of work in the service industry. Paid editing services may be provided by self-employed editors. Editing firms may employ a team of in-house editors, rely on a network of individual contractors or both; such firms are able to handle editing in a wide range of topics and genres, depending on the skills of individual editors