J. B. Bury
John Bagnell Bury, FBA, known as J. B. Bury, was an Irish historian, classical scholar, Medieval Roman historian and he objected to the label Byzantinist explicitly in the preface to the 1889 edition of his Later Roman Empire. He held the position of Erasmus Smiths Professor of Modern History at Trinity College Dublin, Bury was born and raised in Clontibret, County Monaghan, where his father was Rector of the Anglican Church of Ireland. In 1893 he gained a chair in Modern History at Trinity College, in 1898 he was appointed Regius Professor of Greek, at Trinity, a post he held simultaneously with his history professorship. In 1902 he became Regius Professor of Modern History at Cambridge University, at Cambridge, Bury became mentor to the medievalist Sir Steven Runciman, who commented that he had been Burys first, and only, student. At first the reclusive Bury tried to brush him off, when Runciman mentioned that he could read Russian, Bury gave him a stack of Bulgarian articles to edit, Bury was the author of the first truly authoritative biography of Saint Patrick.
Bury remained at Cambridge until his death at the age of 65 in Rome and he is buried in the Protestant Cemetery in Rome. He received the honorary Doctor of Laws from the University of Glasgow in June 1901, Burys writings, on subjects ranging from ancient Greece to the 19th-century papacy, are at once scholarly and accessible to the layman. His two works on the philosophy of history elucidated the Victorian ideals of progress and rationality which undergirded his more specific histories and he led a revival of Byzantine history, which English-speaking historians, following Edward Gibbon, had largely neglected. He contributed to, and was himself the subject of an article in, with Frank Adcock and S. A. Cook he edited The Cambridge Ancient History, launched in 1919. John Bagnell Burys career shows his evolving thought process and his consideration of the discipline of history as a science, from his inaugural lecture as Regius Professor of Modern History at Cambridge in 1902 comes his public proclamation of history as a science and not as a branch of literature.
He stated, I may remind you that history is not a branch of literature, Burys final thoughts during his lecture reiterate his previous statement with a cementing sentence that claims. she is herself simply a science, no less and no more. In his book, History of Freedom of Thought he said the following, some people speak as if we were not justified in rejecting a theological doctrine unless we can prove it false. But the burden of proof does not lie upon the rejecter, some minds would be prepared to accept it, if it were reiterated often enough, through the potent force of suggestion. A. Bury at Project Gutenberg Works by or about J. B, Bury at Internet Archive Works by J. B
Saint Peter, known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simōn pronunciation, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Great Church. Hippolytus of Rome, a 3rd-century theologian, gave him the title of Apostle of the Apostles, according to Catholic teaching, Peter was ordained by Jesus in the Rock of My Church dialogue in Matthew 16,18. He is traditionally counted as the first Bishop of Rome and by Eastern Christian tradition as the first Patriarch of Antioch. The ancient Christian churches all venerate Peter as a saint and as founder of the Church of Antioch. The New Testament indicates that Peter was the son of John and was from the village of Bethsaida in the province of Galilee or Gaulanitis and his brother Andrew was an apostle. According to New Testament accounts, Peter was one of twelve apostles chosen by Jesus from his first disciples, originally a fisherman, he played a leadership role and was with Jesus during events witnessed by only a few apostles, such as the Transfiguration.
According to the gospels, Peter confessed Jesus as the Messiah, was part of Jesuss inner circle, thrice denied Jesus and wept bitterly once he realised his deed, according to Christian tradition, Peter was crucified in Rome under Emperor Nero Augustus Caesar. It is traditionally held that he was crucified upside down at his own request, Tradition holds that he was crucified at the site of the Clementine Chapel. His remains are said to be contained in the underground Confessio of St. Peters Basilica. According to Catholic doctrine, the direct successor to Saint Peter is the incumbent pope. Two general epistles in the New Testament are ascribed to Peter, the Gospel of Mark was traditionally thought to show the influence of Peters preaching and eyewitness memories. Peters original name was Shimon or Simeon and he was given the name Peter, New Testament Greek Πέτρος derived from πέτρα, which means rock. In the Latin translation of the Bible this became Petrus, a form of the feminine petra. Another version of this name is Aramaic, , after his name in Hellenised Aramaic.
The English and German Peter, French Pierre, the Italian Pietro, the Spanish and Portuguese Pedro, the Syriac or Aramaic word for rock is kepa, which in Greek became Πέτρος, meaning rock. He is known as Simon Peter and Kepha, both Cephas and Kepha mean rock. In the New Testament, he is among the first of the disciples called during Jesus ministry, Peter became the first listed apostle ordained by Jesus in the early church. Peter was a fisherman in Bethsaida and he was named Simon, son of Jonah or John
Sultan Cem or Cem Sultan, referred to as Jem Sultan or Prince Jem, or Zizim by the French, was a pretender to the Ottoman throne in the 15th century. Cem was the favorite and third son of Sultan Mehmed II and younger half-brother of Sultan Bayezid II, and thus a half-uncle of Sultan Selim I of Ottoman Empire. After being defeated by Bayezid, Cem went on exile in Egypt and Europe, under the protection of the Mamluks, the Knights Hospitaller of St. John on the island of Rhodes, Cem was born on 22 December 1459 in Edirne. His mother, Çiçek Hatun, was probably of Turkish origin, in accordance with the custom for an Ottoman prince, Cem was appointed to a provincial governorship of Kastamonu in 1469. In December 1474, Cem replaced his deceased brother Mustafa as governor of Karaman in Konya, at the death of Mehmed the Conqueror, on May 3,1481, Bayezid was the governor of Sivas and Amasya, and Cem ruled the provinces of Karaman and Konya. With no designated heir after Mehmed, conflict over succession to the throne erupted between Cem and Bayezid, contrary to Islamic law, which prohibits any unnecessary delay in burial, Mehmed IIs body was transported to Constantinople, where it lay three days.
However, Bayezid had already established a network of influential pashas, the janissaries, and those opposed to the policies of Mehmed II. As a result, the Janissary corps rebelled, entering the capital, after the death of Karamanlı Mehmet Pasha, there was widespread rioting among the janisseries in Constantinople as there was neither a sultan nor a grand vizier to control the developments. Understanding the danger of the situation, former grand vizier Ishak Pasha took the initiative of beseeching Bayezid to arrive with all due haste. In the meantime, Ishak Pasha took the measure of proclaiming Bayezids 11-year-old son, Sehzade Korkut. Prince Bayezid arrived at Constantinople on May 21,1481 and was declared Sultan Bayezid II, only six days later, Cem captured the city of Inegöl with an army of 4,000. Sultan Bayezid sent his army under the command of vizier Ayas Pasha to kill his brother, on May 28, Cem had defeated Bayezids army and declared himself Sultan of Anatolia, establishing his capital at Bursa.
He proposed to divide the empire between him and his brother, leaving Bayezid the European side, Bayezid furiously rejected the proposal, declared that between rulers there is no kinship, and marched on to Bursa. The decisive battle between the two contenders to the Ottoman throne took place on June 19,1481, near the town of Yenişehir, Cem lost and fled with his family to the Mamluk Cairo. The Mamlūk sultan Qāʾit Bāy received Cem with honour in Cairo, in Cairo, Cem received a letter from his brother, offering Cem one million akçes to stop competing for the throne. Cem rejected the offer, and in the year he launched a campaign in Anatolia under the support of Kasım Bey, heir of the ruling house of Karaman. On May 27,1482, Cem besieged Konya but was defeated and forced to withdraw to Ankara. He intended to give it all up and return to Cairo, Cem tried to renegotiate with his brother
The bombard is a cannon or mortar used in medieval times. This weapon was a caliber, muzzle-loading artillery piece mainly used during sieges to throw stone balls at opponents’ walls. The primary use was to break down the walls of the enemy so the army could get to them, most bombards were made of iron and used gunpowder to launch the projectile through the air. There are many examples of bombards, including Mons Meg, the Dardanelles Gun, larger bombards are sometimes included in the family of superguns. They were used throughout the Middle Ages and the modern period. The weapon provided the name to the Royal Artillery rank of Bombardier, the oldest representation of a bombard can be found in the Chinese town of Ta-tsu. In 1985, Robin Yates was visiting Buddhist cave temples when he saw a sculpture on the wall depicting a demon holding a hand-held bombard, the muzzle seems to have a blast and flames coming from it which some believe is proof of some type of super gun. Yates examined the cave and believed the drawings dated back to the late 12th century, the Vaso shown by Walter de Milamete is usually dated to 1327 and shows a mailed knight firing a brass fire pot.
However the armour shown appears anachronistic for 1327 and the image may actually be a copy of a lost 12th century image, England certainly began using cannons in the early 14th century. Inverted keyhole gun loops at Bodiam Castle, Cooling Castle and Westgate Canterbury have all identified as for firing heavy handguns. Initially used as defensive weapons primitive bombards began to be used as weapons in the 14th century. Henry IV, Henry V, and James II won battles with the use of bombards, Henry V captured Harfleur with bombards in 1415. King Henrys army came under fire at the Battle of Agincourt. James II destroyed many castles with his one and a half ton cannon named The Lion, the French re-conquest of their kingdom from English control saw the use of considerable French artillery in the siege role. The French in this period preferred to avoid attacking English longbowmen in open battle and relied on siege, the French camp had been laid out by ordnance officer Jean Bureau to maximise the French artillery arm.
The Anglo-Gascons were shot to pieces and Talbot was eventually killed, most bombards started with the construction of a wooden core surrounded by iron bars. Then, iron hoops were driven over these bars in order to surround, the whole structure was welded with a hammer while it was still hot at about 1300 °C. The rings subsequently cooled and formed over the bars to secure them, the last step was to incinerate the wooden core and to attach a one-piece cast
Pope Alexander VI
Pope Alexander VI, born Rodrigo de Borja, was Pope from 11 August 1492 until his death. He is one of the most controversial of the Renaissance popes, therefore his Italianized Valencian surname, became a byword for libertinism and nepotism, which are traditionally considered as characterizing his pontificate. However, two of Alexanders successors, the controversial pontiffs Sixtus V and Urban VIII, described him as one of the most outstanding popes since St. Peter. Rodrigo de Borja was born on 1 January 1431, in the town of Xativa near Valencia, one of the component realms of the Crown of Aragon and his parents were Jofré Llançol i Escrivà, and his Aragonese wife and distant cousin Isabel de Borja y Cavanilles. His family name is written Llançol in Valencian and Lanzol in Castillian, Rodrigo adopted his mothers family name of Borja in 1455 following the elevation to the papacy of maternal uncle Alonso de Borja as Calixtus III. Alternatively, it has argued that Rodrigos father was Jofré de Borja y Escrivà, making Rodrigo a Borja from his mother.
However, his children were known to be of Llançol paternal lineage, some revisionists suggest that the confusion is attributed by attempts to connect Rodrigo as the father of Giovanni and Lucrezia, who were surnamed Llançol i Borja. Rodrigo Borgia studied law at Bologna where he graduated, not simply as Doctor of Law, after the election of his uncle as Pope Callixtus III, he was ordained deacon and created Cardinal-Deacon of San Nicola in Carcere at the age of twenty-five in 1456. The following year, he was appointed vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, both nepotistic appointments were characteristic of the age. Each pope during this period inevitably found himself surrounded by the servants, in 1468, he was ordained to the priesthood and, in 1471, he was consecrated bishop and appointed Cardinal-Bishop of Albano. Contemporary accounts suggest that Rodrigo was handsome, with a cheerful countenance. He was gifted with the quality of being a smooth talker, beautiful women were attracted to him and excited by him in quite a remarkable way, more strongly than how iron is drawn to a magnet.
Rodrigo Borgia was an intelligent man with an appreciation for the arts and sciences and he was capable and cautious, considered a political priest by some. He was a speaker and great at conversation. Additionally, he was so familiar with Holy Writ, that his speeches were fairly sparkling with well-chosen texts of the Sacred Books, when his uncle Alonso de Borja was elected Pope Callixtus III, he inherited the post of bishop of Valencia. Sixteen days before the death of Pope Innocent VIII, he proposed Valencia as a metropolitan see and became the first archbishop of Valencia. When Rodrigo de Borgia was elected pope as Alexander VI following the death of Innocent VIII, the third and the fourth archbishops of Valencia were Juan de Borja and Pedro Luis de Borja, grand-nephews of Alexander VI. The connection began in 1470, and she had four children whom he acknowledged as his own, Giovanni, afterwards duke of Gandia, Lucrezia
After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror, at the beginning of the 17th century the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states. Some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries. With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, while the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians. The empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy, however, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian Empires. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent.
Starting before World War I, but growing increasingly common and violent during it, major atrocities were committed by the Ottoman government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks. The word Ottoman is an anglicisation of the name of Osman I. Osmans name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān, in Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti, the Turkish word for Ottoman originally referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, and subsequently came to be used to refer to the empires military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term Turk was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond. In Western Europe, the two names Ottoman Empire and Turkey were often used interchangeably, with Turkey being increasingly favored both in formal and informal situations and this dichotomy was officially ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name.
Most scholarly historians avoid the terms Turkey and Turkish when referring to the Ottomans, as the power of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman, osmans early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River and it is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their neighbours, due to the scarcity of the sources which survive from this period. One school of thought which was popular during the twentieth century argued that the Ottomans achieved success by rallying religious warriors to fight for them in the name of Islam, in the century after the death of Osman I, Ottoman rule began to extend over Anatolia and the Balkans.
Osmans son, captured the northwestern Anatolian city of Bursa in 1326 and this conquest meant the loss of Byzantine control over northwestern Anatolia. The important city of Thessaloniki was captured from the Venetians in 1387, the Ottoman victory at Kosovo in 1389 effectively marked the end of Serbian power in the region, paving the way for Ottoman expansion into Europe
Guy de Blanchefort
Guy de Blanchefort was the 42nd Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller from 1512 to 1513. When Grandmaster Emery dAmboise died in 1512, Guy de Blanchefort was elected the new Grand Master, Guy was in Nice, and he sailed to Rhodes when he heard the news. He died during the journey and never made it to Rhodes, when news of his death reached Rhodes, Fabrizio del Carretto was elected the new Grand Master
The First Crusade arose after a call to arms in a 1095 sermon by Pope Urban II. Urban urged military support for the Byzantine Empire and its Emperor, Alexios I, the response to Urbans preaching by people of many different classes across Western Europe established the precedent for Crusades. Volunteers became Crusaders by taking a vow and receiving plenary indulgences from the church. Some were hoping for apotheosis at Jerusalem, or forgiveness from God for all their sins, others participated to satisfy feudal obligations, gain glory and honour, or find opportunities for economic and political gain. Many modern Historians have polarised opinions of the Crusaders behaviour under Papal sanction, to some it was incongruous with the stated aims and implied moral authority of the papacy and the Crusades, to the extent that on occasions that the Pope excommunicated Crusaders. Crusaders often pillaged as they travelled, while their leaders retained control of captured territory rather than returning it to the Byzantines.
During the Peoples Crusade thousands of Jews were murdered in what is now called the Rhineland massacres, Constantinople was sacked during the Fourth Crusade rendering the reunification of Christendom impossible. These tales consequently galvanised medieval romance and literature, but the Crusades reinforced the connection between Western Christendom and militarism. Crusade is not a term, instead the terms iter for journey or peregrinatio for pilgrimage were used. Not until the word crucesignatus for one who was signed with the cross was adopted at the close of the century was specific terminology developed. The Middle English equivalents were derived from old French, croiserie in the 13th–15th centuries, croisade appeared in English c1575, and continued to be the leading form till c1760. By convention historians adopt the term for the Christian holy wars from 1095, the Crusades in the Holy Land are traditionally counted as nine distinct campaigns, numbered from the First Crusade of 1095–99 to the Ninth Crusade of 1271/2.
Usage of the term Crusade may differ depending on the author, pluralists use the term Crusade of any campaign explicitly sanctioned by the reigning Pope. This reflects the view of the Roman Catholic Church that every military campaign given Papal sanction is equally valid as a Crusade, regardless of its cause, generalists see Crusades as any and all holy wars connected with the Latin Church and fought in defence of their faith. Popularists limit the Crusades to only those that were characterised by popular groundswells of religious fervour – that is, only the First Crusade, Medieval Muslim historiographers such as Ali ibn al-Athir refer to the Crusades as the Frankish Wars. The term used in modern Arabic, ḥamalāt ṣalībiyya حملات صليبية, campaigns of the cross, is a loan translation of the term Crusade as used in Western historiography. The Islamic prophet Muhammad founded Islam in the Arabian Peninsula, the resulting unified polity in the seventh and eighth centuries led to a rapid expansion of Arab power.
This influence stretched from the northwest Indian subcontinent, across Central Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, southern Italy, tolerance and political relationships between the Arabs and the Christian states of Europe waxed and waned
Rhodes is the largest of the Dodecanese islands in terms of land area and the island groups historical capital. Administratively the island forms a municipality within the Rhodes regional unit. The principal town of the island and seat of the municipality is Rhodes, the city of Rhodes had 50,636 inhabitants in 2011. It is located northeast of Crete, southeast of Athens and just off the Anatolian coast of Turkey, Rhodes nickname is The island of the Knights, named after the Knights of Saint John of Jerusalem, who once conquered the land. Historically, Rhodes was famous worldwide for the Colossus of Rhodes, the Medieval Old Town of the City of Rhodes has been declared a World Heritage Site. Today, it is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Europe, the island has been known as Ρόδος in Greek throughout its history. In addition, the island has been called Rodi in Italian, Rodos in Turkish, and Rodi or Rodes in Ladino. The island of Rhodes is shaped like a spearhead,79.7 km long and 38 km wide, with an area of approximately 1,400 square kilometres.
The city of Rhodes is located at the tip of the island, as well as the site of the ancient. The main air gateway is located 14 km to the southwest of the city in Paradisi, the road network radiates from the city along the east and west coasts. There are mineral-rich spring water used to give medicinal baths and the spa resorts offer various health treatments, Rhodes is situated 363 km east-south-east from the Greek mainland, and 18 km from the southern shore of Turkey. The interior of the island is mountainous, sparsely inhabited and covered with forests of pine, while the shores are rocky, the island has arable strips of land where citrus fruit, wine grapes, vegetables and other crops are grown. The Rhodian population of deer was found to be genetically distinct in 2005. In Petaloudes Valley, large numbers of tiger moths gather during the summer months, mount Attavyros, at 1,216 metres, is the islands highest point of elevation. Earthquakes include the 226 BC earthquake that destroyed the Colossus of Rhodes, one on 3 May 1481 which destroyed much of the city of Rhodes, and one on 26 June 1926.
On 15 July 2008, Rhodes was struck by a 6.3 magnitude earthquake causing minor damage to a few old buildings, Rhodes has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate. The island was inhabited in the Neolithic period, although remains of this culture. In the 16th century BC, the Minoans came to Rhodes, Greek mythology recalled a Rhodian race called the Telchines and associated the island of Rhodes with Danaus, it was sometimes nicknamed Telchinis
Chemnitz, known from 1953 to 1990 as Karl-Marx-Stadt, is the third-largest city in the Free State of Saxony, Germany. Chemnitz is an independent city which is not part of any county, located in the northern foothills of the Ore Mountains, it is part of the Central German Metropolitan Region. The citys economy is based on the sector and manufacturing industry. Chemnitz University of Technology has around 10,000 students, Chemnitz is named after the river Chemnitz, a small tributary of the Zwickau Mulde. The word Chemnitz is from the Sorbian language, and means stony, the word is composed of the Slavic word kamen meaning stone and the feminine suffix -ica. It is known in Czech as Saská Kamenice and in Polish as Kamienica Saska, there are many other towns named Kamenica or Kamenice in areas with past or present Slavic settlement. An early Slavic tribes settlement was located at Kamienica, and the first documented use of the name Chemnitz was the 1143 site of a Benedictine monastery around which a settlement grew, circa 1170 Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor granted it the rights of an imperial city.
In 1307, the town became subordinate to the Margraviate of Meissen, in medieval times, Chemnitz became a centre of textile production and trade. More than one third of the worked in textile production. By the early 19th century Chemnitz had become an industrial centre, in 1913, Chemnitz had a population of 320,000 and, like Leipzig and Dresden, was larger at that time than today. After losing inhabitants due to the first World War Chemnitz grew rapidly again, before the world economic crises, it was supposed that the city would keep on growing and would become a Millionenstadt by incorporating fast growing smaller towns and municipalities around it. During World War II, Chemnitz contained factories that produced military hardware, 2/3–5 March, USAAF bombers attacked the marshalling yards. 5 March,760 RAF bombers attacked, the headquarters of the auto manufacturer Auto Union were based in Chemnitz since 1932 and its buildings were badly damaged. At the end of the war, the companys executives fled and relocated the company in Ingolstadt, the World War II bombings left most of the city in ruins, and post-war, the East German reconstruction included large low rise housing.
Some tourist sites were reconstructed during the East German era and after German reunification and it was occupied by Soviet troops on 8 May 1945. After dissolution of the states in the GDR in 1952, Chemnitz became seat of a district, on 10 May 1953, the city was renamed by decision of the East German government to Karl-Marx-Stadt after Karl Marx. GDR Prime Minister Otto Grotewohl said, The people who live here, do not look back and they look with love and devotion to the founder of the socialist doctrine, the greatest son of the German people, to Karl Marx. I hereby fulfill about the governments decision, I carry out the solemn act of renaming the city and declare, From now on, this city bears the proud name and mandatory Karl-Marx-Stadt
Mytilene is an ancient city founded in the 11th century BC. Mytilene is the capital and port of the island of Lesbos, the seat of governor of the North Aegean Region is Mytilene. Mytilene is one of 13 municipalities on the island of Lesbos, Mytilene is built on the southeast edge of the island. It is the seat of a bishop of the Orthodox church. As an ancient city, lying off the east coast, Mytilene was initially confined to an island just offshore that was joined to Lesbos. According to the writings of Homer, the island of Lesvos has been a city since 1054 B. C. The early harbor of Mytilene was united during ancient times with a channel 700 meters long and 30 meters wide, the Roman writer Longus speaks of white stone bridges linking the two sides. The Greek word Εύριπο or Euripus is a commonly used term referring to a strait. The strait allowed ancient sail boats called Triremes, with 3 tiers of rowers or more, the boats that passed were ca.6 metres wide plus oars and had depth of 2 meters. The areas of the city that were densely populated connected the two bodies of land with marble bridges and they usually followed a curved line.
The strait begin at the old market called Apano Skala and it was close to Metropolis Street and ended at the Southern Harbor. One could argue that the channel transversed what is now called Ermoy Street, over time the strait began to collect silt and earth. There was human intervention for the protection of the Castle of Mytilene, the strait eventually filled with earth. Mytilene contested successfully with Methymna in the north of the island for the leadership of the island in the 7th century BC and her most famous citizens were the poets Sappho and Alcaeus and the statesman Pittacus. The city was famed for its output of electrum coins struck from the late 6th through mid-4th centuries BC. Mytilene revolted against Athens in 428 BC but was overcome by an Athenian expeditionary force, the Athenian public assembly voted to massacre all the men of the city and to sell the women and children into slavery but changed its mind the next day. A fast trireme sailed the 186 nautical miles in less than a day, Aristotle lived on Mytilene for two years, 337-335 BC, with his friend and successor, after becoming the tutor to Alexander, son of King Philip II of Macedon.
The Romans, among whom was a young Julius Caesar, successfully defeated Mytilene in 80 BC, in AD56, Luke the Evangelist, Paul the Apostle and their companions stopped there briefly on the return trip of Pauls third missionary journey, having sailed from Assos