Goddard College is a low-residency college with three locations in the United States: Plainfield, Vermont. The college offers undergraduate and graduate degree programs. With predecessor institutions dating to 1863, Goddard College was founded in 1938 as an experimental and non-traditional educational institution based on the ideas of John Dewey: that experience and education are intricately linked. Goddard College uses an intensive low-residency model. First developed for Goddard's MFA in Creative Writing Program, Goddard College operated a mix of residential, low-residency, distance-learning programs starting in 1963 before switching to a system of 100% low-residency programs with the closure of its Residential Undergraduate Program in 2002. In most programs, each student designs their own curriculum and the college uses a student self-directed, mentored system in which faculty issue narrative evaluations of students' progress as they fulfill their program's degree criteria. Goddard offers a Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Fine Arts, Master of Arts, Master of Fine Arts, along with several concentrations and Licensures.
It enrolls 700 students, 30% of whom are undergraduates. It employs 90 staff. Goddard College began in 1863 in Vermont, as the Green Mountain Central Institute. In 1870, it was renamed Goddard Seminary in honor of his wife Mary. Goddard was a prominent merchant in Boston, was one of the school's earliest and most generous benefactors. Founded by Universalists, Goddard Seminary was a four-year preparatory high school for Tufts College. For many years the Seminary prospered, but the opening of many good public high schools in the 20th century made many of the New England academies obsolete. To attempt to save it, the trustees added a Junior College to the Seminary in 1935, with a Seminary graduate, Royce S. "Tim" Pitkin, as President. Royce S. "Tim" Pitkin was a progressive educator and follower of John Dewey, William Heard Kilpatrick and other, similar proponents of educational democracy. In 1936, under his leadership, the Seminary concluded that in order for Goddard to survive, an new institution would need to be created.
A number of prominent educators and laymen agreed with him. Pitkin was supported by Stanley C. Wilson, ex-governor of Vermont and chairman of the Goddard Seminary Board of Trustees. Pitkin was able to persuade the Board of Trustees to embrace a new style of education, one that substituted individual attention and informality for the traditionally austere and autocratic educational model. On March 13, 1938, Goddard College was chartered. In July 1938 the newly formed Goddard College moved to Greatwood Farm in Vermont; the new Goddard was an progressive college. For its first 21 years of operation, Goddard was unaccredited and small, but built a reputation as one of the most innovative colleges in the country. Noteworthy were Goddard's use of discussion as the basic method in classroom teaching. In 1959 Goddard College became accredited; as of 2015 it is accredited by the New England Association of Colleges. One of the founding principles of Goddard was that it should provide educational opportunities for adults.
There was a great need for a program for adults who had not completed college, to obtain degrees without disrupting their family lives or careers. The Adult Degree Program, created by Evalyn Bates, was established in 1963, it was the first low-residency adult education program in the country. Over the years many experimental programs were designed at Goddard; these programs included the Goddard Experimental Program for Further Education, Design Build Program, Goddard Cambridge Program for Social Change, Third World Studies Program, Institute for Social Ecology, Single Parent Program and many others. Having narrative transcripts instead of traditional letter grades, as well as learner-designed curricula, Goddard was one of the founding members of the Union for Experimenting Colleges and Universities, which included Franconia, Nasson and others. In 2002, after 54 years, the college terminated its residential undergraduate degree program and became an low-residency college. Three years the college expanded to the West Coast and established a residency site in Port Townsend, Washington.
In July 2011 Goddard began to offer their education program in Washington. The campus in Plainfield was founded in 1938 on the grounds of a late 19th-century model farm: The Greatwood Farm & Estate consists of shingle style buildings and gardens designed by Arthur Shurcliff; the Village of Learning, consisting of eleven dormitory buildings, was constructed adjacent to the ensemble of renovated farm buildings in 1963 to accommodate an increasing student population. The Pratt Center & Library, sited to be at the heart of a larger campus, was constructed in 1968. No other significant new construction has been added to the campus since that time. On March 7, 1996 the Greatwood campus was recognized for its historic and architectural significance with its inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places. A US Army post from 1902 to 1953, much of the fort has been renovated and turned into a year-round, multi-use facility dedicated to lifelong learning which houses several organizations that comprise Fort Worden State Park.
The fort sits on
A novelist is an author or writer of novels, though novelists write in other genres of both fiction and non-fiction. Some novelists are professional novelists, thus make a living writing novels and other fiction, while others aspire to support themselves in this way or write as an avocation. Most novelists struggle to get their debut novel published, but once published they continue to be published, although few become literary celebrities, thus gaining prestige or a considerable income from their work. Novelists come from a variety of backgrounds and social classes, this shapes the content of their works. Public reception of a novelist's work, the literary criticism commenting on it, the novelists' incorporation of their own experiences into works and characters can lead to the author's personal life and identity being associated with a novel's fictional content. For this reason, the environment within which a novelist works and the reception of their novels by both the public and publishers can be influenced by their demographics or identity.
Some novelists have creative identities derived from their focus on different genres of fiction, such as crime, romance or historical novels. While many novelists compose fiction to satisfy personal desires and commentators ascribe a particular social responsibility or role to novel writers. Many authors use such moral imperatives to justify different approaches to novel writing, including activism or different approaches to representing reality "truthfully". Novelist is a term derivative from the term "novel" describing the "writer of novels"; the Oxford English Dictionary recognizes other definitions of novelist, first appearing in the 16th and 17th centuries to refer to either "An innovator. However, the OED attributes the primary contemporary meaning of "a writer of novels" as first appearing in the 1633 book "East-India Colation" by C. Farewell citing the passage "It beeing a pleasant observation to note the order of their Coaches and Carriages.. As if it had bin the spoyles of a Tryumph leading Captive, or a preparation to some sad Execution" According to the Google Ngrams, the term novelist first appears in the Google Books database in 1521.
The difference between professional and amateur novelists is the author's ability to publish. Many people take up novel writing as a hobby, but the difficulties of completing large scale fictional works of quality prevent the completion of novels. Once authors have completed a novel, they will try to get it published; the publishing industry requires novels to have accessible profitable markets, thus many novelists will self-publish to circumvent the editorial control of publishers. Self-publishing has long been an option for writers, with vanity presses printing bound books for a fee paid by the writer. In these settings, unlike the more traditional publishing industry, activities reserved for a publishing house, like the distribution and promotion of the book, become the author's responsibility; the rise of the Internet and electronic books has made self publishing far less expensive and a realistic way for authors to realize income. Novelists apply a number of different methods to writing their novels, relying on a variety of approaches to inspire creativity.
Some communities encourage amateurs to practice writing novels to develop these unique practices, that vary from author to author. For example, the internet-based group, National Novel Writing Month, encourages people to write 50,000-word novels in the month of November, to give novelists practice completing such works. In the 2010 event, over 200,000 people took part – writing a total of over 2.8 billion words. Novelists don't publish their first novels until in life. However, many novelists begin writing at a young age. For example, Iain Banks began writing at eleven, at sixteen completed his first novel, "The Hungarian Lift-Jet", about international arms dealers, "in pencil in a larger-than-foolscap log book". However, he was thirty before he published his first novel, the controversial The Wasp Factory in 1984; the success of this novel enabled Banks to become a full-time novelist. An important writers' juvenilia if not published, is prized by scholars because it provides insight into an author's biography and approach to writing.
Novelists publish as early as their teens. For example, Patrick O'Brian published his first novel, Caesar: The Life Story of a Panda-Leopard, at the age of 15, which brought him considerable critical attention. Barbara Newhall Follett's The House Without Windows, was accepted and published in 1927 when she was 13 by the Knopf publishing house and earned critical acclaim from the New York Times, the Saturday Review, H. L. Mencken; these works will achieve popular success as well. For example, though Christopher Paolini's Eragon, was not a great critical success, but its popularity among readers placed it on the New York Times Children's Books Best Seller list for 121 weeks. First-time novelists of any age find themselves unable to get works published, because of a number of reasons reflecting the inexperience of the author and the economic realities of publishers. Authors mus
This American Life
This American Life is an American weekly hour-long radio program produced in collaboration with Chicago Public Media and hosted by Ira Glass. It is broadcast on numerous public radio stations in the United States and internationally, is available as a free weekly podcast. A journalistic non-fiction program, it has featured essays, field recordings, short fiction, found footage; the first episode aired on November 1995, under the show's original title, Your Radio Playhouse. The series was distributed by Public Radio International until June 2014, when the program became self-distributed with Public Radio Exchange delivering new episodes to public radio stations. A television program of the same name ran for two seasons on the Showtime cable network between June 2007 and May 2008; each week's show has a theme, explored in several "acts." On occasion, an entire program will consist of a single act. Each act is produced by a combination of freelance contributors. Programs begin with a short station identification by Glass who introduces a segment related to the theme which precedes act one.
The segment will lead into the presentation of the theme for that week's show. Content varies by episode. Stories are told as first-person narratives; the mood of the show ranges from gloomy from thought-provoking to humorous. The show addresses current events, such as Hurricane Katrina in "After the Flood." This American Life features stories which explore aspects of human nature, such as "Kid Logic," which presented pieces on the reasoning of children. The end credits of each show are read by Glass, include a sound clip extracted out of context from some portion of that show, which Glass humorously attributes to previous WBEZ general manager Torey Malatia, who co-founded the show with Ira Glass in 1995. Glass has stated he is contractually obligated to mention both station WBEZ three times in the course of the show. In the early 1990s, Glass co-hosted, with Gary Covino, a Friday-night show in Chicago called The Wild Room. However, he was looking for new opportunities in radio, had been sending grant proposals to the Corporation for Public Broadcasting for two years when, in 1995, the MacArthur Foundation approached Torey Malatia, general manager of Chicago Public Radio.
They offered him US$150,000 to make a show featuring performance artists. Malatia approached Glass with the idea, who countered that he wanted to do a weekly program, but with a different premise, a budget of US$300,000, sights on taking it national. In a 1998 article in the Chicago Reader, Michael Miner quoted Covino as saying, "The show proposed was The Wild Room, he just didn't call it The Wild Room." Glass, didn't include his co-host in his plans and assured him that the deal was unlikely to happen. When the show went on without him, Covino says he felt "betrayed." While Glass admits he wasn't transparent about his plans, in that same article, he explained, ""Every week on The Wild Room we came to the show with two independent sensibilities. I love Gary. I loved Gary, but I didn't want to keep doing that show...and the notion that everything I brought to The Wild Room I got from him I find infuriating... I didn't want to do free-form radio anymore. I have no interest in improvisation, it might have been possible to design a show with him that he would have felt comfortable with and I would have felt comfortable with.
But at that point—I was in my late 30s—I just wanted to do the thing I wanted to do."Glass, the program's creator, has served as executive producer and host since its November 17, 1995 debut. Chicago Public Media produced; the program's first year was produced on a budget, tight by US public-radio standards. A budget of $243,000 covered an outfitted studio, marketing costs, purchased satellite time, paid for four full-time staffers and various freelance writers and reporters. National syndication began in June 1996 when Public Radio International formed a distribution partnership with the program; the show is carried on Sirius XM Satellite Radio over the Public Radio International block on the XM Public Radio channel. The program rates as the first- or second-most downloaded podcast on iTunes for each week. Titled Your Radio Playhouse, a local show on WBEZ, the program's name was changed beginning with the March 21, 1996 episode, it was picked up nationally by PRI in June 1996. The reference to each segment of the show as an "act" is a holdover from its original "playhouse theme".
The program helped launch the literary careers of many, including contributing editor Sarah Vowell and essayists David Rakoff and David Sedaris. Early response to the program was positive. In 1998, Mother Jones magazine called it "hip – as well as intensely literary and irreverent." Glass used a unique strategy to promote the show to stations by giving way pledge drive ads he developed himself. In 1999, Rhino Records released a "greatest hits" CD of TAL episode. In January 2011, the series was picked up by CBC Radio One in Canada; the program is shortened for the Canadian broadcast to allow for a five-minute newscast at the top of the hour, although this is made up for by the removal of mid-program breaks, most of the production credits, underwriting announcements. In January 2012, This American Life presented excerpts from a one-man theatre show by Mike Daisey as an exposé of conditions at a Foxconn factory in China; the episode was entitled "Mr. Daisey and the Apple Factory" and became one
St. Petersburg, Florida
St. Petersburg is a city in Pinellas County, United States; as of the 2015 census estimate, the population was 257,083, making it the fifth-most populous city in Florida and the largest in the state, not a county seat. St. Petersburg is the second-largest city in the Tampa Bay Area, after Tampa. Together with Clearwater, these cities comprise the Tampa–St. Petersburg–Clearwater Metropolitan Statistical Area, the second-largest in Florida with a population of around 2.8 million. St. Petersburg is located on the Pinellas peninsula between Tampa Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, is connected to mainland Florida to the north. St. Petersburg was founded in 1888 by John C. Williams, who purchased the land, by Peter Demens, who brought the railroad industry into the area; as a part of a coin toss bet, the winner, Peter Demens, named the land after Saint Petersburg, while Williams opted to name the first hotel built, named the Detroit Hotel, both named after their home towns respectively. St. Petersburg was incorporated as a town on February 29, 1892 and re-incorporated as a city on June 6, 1903.
The city is referred to by locals as St. Pete. Neighboring St. Pete Beach formally shortened its name in 1994 after a vote by its residents. St. Petersburg is governed by a city council. With an average of some 361 days of sunshine each year, a Guinness World Record for logging the most consecutive days of sunshine, it is nicknamed "The Sunshine City". Due to its good weather and low cost of living, the city has long been a popular retirement destination, although in recent years the population has moved in a much more youthful direction. American Style magazine ranked St. Petersburg its top mid-size city in 2011, citing its "vibrant" arts scene; the city was co-founded by John C. Williams of Detroit, who purchased the land in 1875, by Peter Demens, instrumental in bringing the terminus of the Orange Belt Railway there in 1888; the first major newspaper to debut in Tampa Bay was the St. Petersburg Times which established in 1884. St. Petersburg was incorporated as a town on February 29, 1892, when it had a population of only some 300 people.
A local legend says that John C. Williams and Peter Demens flipped a coin to see who would have the honor of naming the city; when Demens won the coin toss the city was named after Saint Petersburg, where Peter Demens had spent half of his youth, while John C. Williams named the first hotel after his birthplace, Detroit; the Detroit Hotel still has been turned into a condominium. The oldest running hotels are the historic Pier Hotel, built in 1921, formally Hotel Cordova and The Heritage Hotel, built in 1926. Philadelphia publisher F. A. Davis turned on St. Petersburg's first electrical service in 1897; the city's first major industry was born in 1899 when Henry W. Hibbs, a native of Newport, North Carolina, established his wholesale fish business at the end of the railroad pier, which extended out to the shipping channel. Within a year, Hibbs Fish Company was shipping more than 1,000 pounds of fish each day. St. Petersburg was incorporated as a city in June 1903. With this transition, the development of the downtown waterfront had dredging of a deeper shipping channel from 1906 to 1908 which opened St. Petersburg to larger shipping.
Further dredging improved the port facilities through the 1910s. By the city's population had quadrupled to a population of 4,127 citizens. F. A. Davis was instrumental to bringing the first trolley service in 1904. In 1914, the Tampa Bay area was one of the first Floridian cities that fell in love with baseball tracing its roots from Tampa and St. Petersburg; the former mayor of St. Petersburg, Al Lang, had invited the St. Louis Browns to move their spring training into the city. St. Petersburg's first library opened on December 1, 1915 which still operates till this day as the Mirror Lake Library. In 1914 an airplane service across Tampa Bay from St. Petersburg to Tampa and back was initiated considered the first scheduled commercial airline flight; the company name was the St. Petersburg-Tampa Airboat Line, the pilot was Tony Jannus, flying a Benoist XIV flying boat; the Tony Jannus Award is presented annually for outstanding achievement in the airline industry. The 1920s in St. Petersburg was big due to its major growth brought by tourists.
Tourists came from all over by automobile and railroad. Travel time from across the bay was cut due to the Gandy Bridge's opening in 1924, helping St. Petersburg increase in tourist numbers and helped grow it into the largest city in Pinellas County; the city adopted the Mediterranean-style architecture brought by Snell Isles founder Perry Snell. An attraction that brought on a great number of tourists and citizens was the Million Dollar Pier, built in 1926. Tourism declined by early 1930s due to the Great Depression; the city recovered in the 1930s with the help of the Public Works Administration, including a $10 million investment plan in 1939 which helped build the St. Petersburg City Hall. By the 1940s the city received a large population growth due to World War II. St. Petersburg was a training ground area for the U. S. Coast Guard which had a training base and used the city's Bayboro Harbor, for the Army Air Force, selected by the War Department to use the city as their technical service training station.
With both stations occupying the city, more than 100,000 troops occupied all hotels in St. Petersburg. After the war, most troops who were stationed in St. Petersburg returned as tourists. In the 1950s, St. Petersburg experienced another population increase with residen
Winhall is a town in Bennington County, United States. The population was 769 at the 2010 census. In the southeastern corner of the town is the unincorporated village of Bondville. Winhall is located in northeastern Bennington County and is bordered by Windham County to the east and south; the town is located in the Green Mountains with the crest of the range running from north to south through the western part of the town. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 44.0 square miles, of which 43.6 square miles are land and 0.46 square miles, or 1.08%, is water. The majority of the town drains eastward via the Winhall River to the West River, a tributary of the Connecticut River; the western portion of the town drains to a tributary of the Hudson River. As of the census of 2000, there were 702 people, 310 households, 204 families residing in the town; the population density was 16.1 people per square mile. There were 1,717 housing units at an average density of 39.3 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the town was 98.29% White, 0.43% African American, 0.14% Asian, 1.14% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.71% of the population. There were 310 households out of which 24.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.5% were married couples living together, 5.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.9% were non-families. 24.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.66. In the town, the population was spread out with 17.2% under the age of 18, 5.8% from 18 to 24, 26.2% from 25 to 44, 30.9% from 45 to 64, 19.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.0 males. The median income for a household in the town was $57,750, the median income for a family was $65,000. Males had a median income of $35,096 versus $22,969 for females.
The per capita income for the town was $30,378. About 1.0% of families and 4.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.0% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over. Blackleach Burritt, clergyman in the American Revolution Helen Nearing, Scott Nearing, writers who lived in Winhall in the 1930’s and 40’s Town of Winhall official website
Buffalo, New York
Buffalo is the second largest city in the U. S. state of New York and the largest city in Western New York. As of 2017, the population was 258,612; the city is the county seat of Erie County and a major gateway for commerce and travel across the Canada–United States border, forming part of the bi-national Buffalo Niagara Region. The Buffalo area was inhabited before the 17th century by the Native American Iroquois tribe and by French settlers; the city grew in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of immigration, the construction of the Erie Canal and rail transportation, its close proximity to Lake Erie. This growth provided an abundance of fresh water and an ample trade route to the Midwestern United States while grooming its economy for the grain and automobile industries that dominated the city's economy in the 20th century. Since the city's economy relied on manufacturing, deindustrialization in the latter half of the 20th century led to a steady decline in population. While some manufacturing activity remains, Buffalo's economy has transitioned to service industries with a greater emphasis on healthcare and higher education, which emerged following the Great Recession.
Buffalo is on the eastern shore of Lake Erie, at the head of the Niagara River, 16 miles south of Niagara Falls. Its early embrace of electric power led to the nickname "The City of Light"; the city is famous for its urban planning and layout by Joseph Ellicott, an extensive system of parks designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, as well as significant architectural works. Its culture blends Northeastern and Midwestern traditions, with annual festivals including Taste of Buffalo and Allentown Art Festival, two professional sports teams, a music and arts scene; the city of Buffalo received its name from a nearby creek called Buffalo Creek. British military engineer Captain John Montresor made reference to "Buffalo Creek" in his 1764 journal, which may be the earliest recorded appearance of the name. There are several theories regarding. While it is possible its name originated from French fur traders and Native Americans calling the creek Beau Fleuve, it is possible Buffalo Creek was named after the American buffalo, whose historical range may have extended into western New York.
The first inhabitants of the State of New York are believed to have been nomadic Paleo-Indians, who migrated after the disappearance of Pleistocene glaciers during or before 7000 BCE. Around 1000 CE, 1,000 years ago, the Woodland period began, marked by the rise of the Iroquois Confederacy and its tribes throughout the state. During French exploration of the region in 1620, the region was occupied by the agrarian Erie people, a tribe outside of the Five Nations of the Iroquois southwest of Buffalo Creek, the Wenro people or Wenrohronon, an Iroquoian-speaking tribal offshoot of the large Neutral Nation who lived along the inland south shore of Lake Ontario and at the east end of Lake Erie and a bit of its northern shore. For trading, the Neutral people made a living by growing tobacco and hemp to trade with the Iroquois, utilizing animal paths or warpaths to travel and move goods across the state; these paths were paved, now function as major roads. During the Beaver Wars of the 1640s-1650s, the combined warriors of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy conquered the populous Neutrals and their peninsular territory, while the Senecas alone took out the Wenro and their territory, c.
1651–1653. Soon after, the Erie nation and territory was destroyed by the Iroquois over their assistance to Huron people during the Beaver Wars, it was Louis Hennepin and Sieur de La Salle who made the earliest European discoveries of the upper Niagara and Ontario regions in the late 1600s. On August 7, 1679, La Salle launched a vessel, Le Griffon, that became the first full-sized ship to sail across the Great Lakes disappearing in Green Bay, Wisconsin. After the American Revolution, the colony of New York—now a state—began westward expansion, looking for habitable land by following trends of the Iroquois. Land near fresh water was of considerable importance. New York and Massachusetts were fighting for the territory Buffalo lies on, Massachusetts had the right to purchase all but a one-mile wide portion of land; the rights to the Massachusetts' territories were sold to Robert Morris in 1791, two years to the Holland Land Company. As a result of the war, in which the Iroquois tribe sided with the British Army, Iroquois territory was whittled away in the mid-to-late-1700s by white settlers through successive treaties statewide, such as the Treaty of Fort Stanwix, the First Treaty of Buffalo Creek, the Treaty of Geneseo.
The Iroquois were corralled onto reservations, including Buffalo Creek. By the end of the 18th century, only 338 square miles of reservation territory remained. Early settlers along the mouth of Buffalo Creek were former slave Joseph "Black Joe" Hodges, Cornelius Winney, a Dutch trader from Albany who arrived in 1789; the first white settlers along the creek were prisoners captured during the Revolutionary War. The first resident and landowner of Buffalo with a permanent presence was Captain William Johnston, a white Iroquois interpreter, present in the area since the days after the Revolutionary War and was granted creekside land by the Senecas as a gift of appreciation, his house was built at present-day Seneca streets. On July 20, 1793, the Holland Land Purchase was completed, containing the land of present-day Buffalo, brokered by Dutch investors from Holland; the Treaty of Big Tree removed Iroquois title to lan
Companions of Xanth
Companions of Xanth is an adventure game published in 1993 by Legend Entertainment. The game is based on Piers Anthony's Xanth novels and loosely follows the plot of his novel Demons Don't Dream, in which a young man uses a computer game to enter and explore the world of Xanth. Typical of Piers Anthony's novels, the game is filled with puns and visual gags, some knowledge of the Xanth universe is helpful, it was available on both floppy disk and CD-ROM. The game uses 256 colour 2D graphics; the game was re-released in July 1997 in a bundle with Legend Entertainment's Death Gate and Shannara. Computer Gaming World stated in February 1994 that Companions of Xanth was "a funny game based on an interesting literary license", with "traditional adventure game puzzles"; the magazine's Scorpia was less positive in March 1994, criticizing the forced choice of Nada Naga as a Companion, puzzle quality, short playing time. She concluded that Companions of Xanth was "the weakest Legend game to date". In August 1994 the magazine said that Xanth "was somewhat weak as a game, but full of Piers Anthony-style humor".
The game was reviewed in 1994 in Dragon #204 by Sandy Petersen in the "Eye of the Monitor" column. Petersen gave the game 3 out of 5 stars. Companions of Xanth at MobyGames GameFAQs - Companions of Xanth: Includes information, walkthrough