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In molecular biology, STRING is a biological database and web resource of known and predicted protein–protein interactions. The STRING database contains information from numerous sources, including experimental data, computational prediction methods and public text collections, it is accessible and it is updated. The resource serves to highlight functional enrichments in user-provided lists of proteins, using a number of functional classification systems such as GO, Pfam and KEGG; the latest version 10.5 contains information on about 9.6 million proteins from more than 2000 organisms. STRING has been developed by a consortium of academic institutions including CPR, EMBL, KU, SIB, TUD and UZH. Protein–protein interaction networks are an important ingredient for the system-level understanding of cellular processes; such networks can be used for filtering and assessing functional genomics data and for providing an intuitive platform for annotating structural and evolutionary properties of proteins.

Exploring the predicted interaction networks can suggest new directions for future experimental research and provide cross-species predictions for efficient interaction mapping. The data is weighted and integrated and a confidence score is calculated for all protein interactions. Results of the various computational predictions can be inspected from different designated views. There are two modes of STRING: COG-mode. Predicted interactions are propagated to proteins in other organisms for which interaction has been described by inference of orthology. A web interface is available to access the data and to give a fast overview of the proteins and their interactions. A plug-in for cytoscape to use STRING data is available. Another possibility to access data STRING is to use the application programming interface by constructing a URL that contain the request. Like many other databases that store protein association knowledge, STRING imports data from experimentally derived protein–protein interactions through literature curation.

Furthermore, STRING store computationally predicted interactions from: text mining of scientific texts, interactions computed from genomic features, interactions transferred from model organisms based on orthology. All predicted or imported interactions are benchmarked against a common reference of functional partnership as annotated by KEGG. STRING imports protein association knowledge from databases of physical interaction and databases of curated biological pathway knowledge. Links are supplied to the originating data of the respective experimental repositories and database resources. A large body of scientific texts are parsed to search for statistically relevant co-occurrences of gene names. Neighborhood: Similar genomic context in different species suggest a similar function of the proteins. Fusion-fission events: Proteins that are fused in some genomes are likely to be functionally linked. Occurrence: Proteins that have a similar function or an occurrence in the same metabolic pathway, must be expressed together and have similar phylogenetic profile.

Coexpression: Predicted association between genes based on observed patterns of simultaneous expression of genes. STRING site STITCH website, related database on interactions of proteins with small molecules


The carau is a myth known in northeastern Argentine fables. The carau is further referred to an old and sorrowful legend from the northeast of Argentina, fable about a young man whose mother suffers from a deadly disease, he is sent to go for medicine. Her son, an innocent young boy, while on the way to the village, heard an accordion in the distance, he followed its sound, ran into a concurrence he forgot his mission. He began dancing with the prettiest girl of the zone. Amidst dancing, a carau's comrade hindered him about a notice, telling: "I beg your pardon Carau, my friend, my condolences... your mother just died..." Carau responded "It doesn't matter my friend, mum died, I'll have time to cry later..." In the night when the dawn was coming, he asked the lady to go with her to her house, she coldly responded: "My house is far away from here, I won't be visited by one who doesn't care for his own mother…" Afterwards, saying goodbye, with his heart utterly broke, moving to home imbibed in tears, the young carau was transformed into a bird and tupa condemned him to bear mourning black feathers and cry forever, just like the bird lament: caráu.

This legend was embedded in a song, written by Emilio Chamorro, a regional folk writer, had been sung in chamamé style. Argentine culture Limpkin Leyendas y creencias de la Argentina Lyrics: “El Carau” by Mario Boffil Aves de tu Zona, Nordelta, Argentina Carau: Aramus guarauna C. I. L. Centro de Investigaciones Lingüísticas Mis Aves: Un paseo ornitológico por la Argentina

Julie Battilana

Julie Battilana is a scholar and advisor in the areas of social innovation and social change at Harvard University. She is the Joseph C. Wilson Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School and the Alan L. Gleitsman Professor of Social Innovation at the Harvard Kennedy School, she is the founder and faculty chair of the Social Innovation and Change Initiative at the Harvard Kennedy School. Battilana earned a BA in sociology and economics, an MA in political sociology, an MSc in organizational sociology and public policy from École Normale Supérieure de Cachan in France, she holds a degree from HEC School of Management, a joint PhD in organizational behavior from INSEAD and in management and economics from École Normale Supérieure de Cachan. Her dissertation was about “The role of individuals in institutional change: When individuals act as institutional entrepreneurs” Battilana's recent body of research focuses on social change and hybrid organizations that pursue a social mission while engaging in commercial activities to sustain their operations.

She examines the factors that enable these organizations to achieve high levels of social and environmental performance alongside financial performance. Her research has been featured in publications like Businessweek, Huffington Post, Harvard Business Review, Stanford Social Innovation Review, she has been a regular contributor to Le Monde. Battilana has published many academic articles in the Academy of Management Annals, Academy of Management Journal, Harvard Business Review, Journal of Business Ethics, Leadership Quarterly, Management Science, Organization Science, Organization Studies, Research in Organizational Behavior, Stanford Social Innovation Review, Strategic Organization. Battilana has produced multiple articles for practitioners in outlets such as the Harvard Business Review and the Stanford Social Innovation Review. In "Should you agitate, innovate or orchestrate?" Battilana develops a framework for understanding the roles you can play in a movement for social change. In "The Network Secrets of Great Change Agents" Battilana highlights the key factors of success in implementing change.

In the Dual Purpose Playbook she aims to help managers understand how companies can sustainably pursue both financial and social objectives. Battilana has received multiple mentoring and academic awards. In 2019, Battilana was the recipient of the Decade Award from the Academy of Management Annals for her article “How Actors Change Institutions: Towards a Theory of Institutional Entrepreneurship”, she was made Chevalier dans l’Ordre des Palmes Académiques in 2019. Battilana was named as a 2019 social innovation thought leader by the Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship; this awards recognizes experts shaping the evolution of social innovation Battilana has been teaching, since 2010, the Power and Influence course at the Harvard Business School. She taught the Leadership and Organisational Behavior course from 2006 to 2010. In addition, since joining Harvard University, Battilana has elaborated an important number of teaching cases that are used in colleges and universities

Nightmare Sisters

Nightmare Sisters is a 1988 direct-to-video, low-budget, erotic comedy. It is notable as one of only two films in which 1980s scream queens Linnea Quigley, Brinke Stevens, Michelle Bauer appear together, excluding reunion films such as 1313:Cougar Cult. Buck-toothed Melody, bespectacled Marci, chubby Mickey are awkward sorority sisters. Desperate for some fun, they invite a trio of nerdy fraternity pledges over for a party; the party fizzles and the guys are on the verge of leaving when the girls try to liven things up by holding a séance. The crystal ball they use at the séance is cursed and causes the girls to become possessed by a succubus; the sexy girls share some pie and a bath and set out to seduce and murder their guests. The girls take on new personas to help them trap their prey. Mickey becomes a bikini-clad jungle girl, Marci transforms herself into a pigtail-sporting naughty girl, Melody changes into a wild rock chick; the boys try to find help for the girls. The situation gets more complicated when the boys’ loutish fraternity brothers show up looking to score.

Linnea Quigley as Melody Brinke Stevens as Marci Michelle Bauer as Mickey Richard Gabai as Kevin, Melody's date William Dristas as Duane, Marci's date Marcus Vaughter as Freddy, Mickey's date Timothy Kauffman as Phil, an obnoxious frat guy Matthew Phelps as J. J. an obnoxious frat guy C. Jay Cox as Bud, an obnoxious frat guy Michael Sonye aka Dukey Flyswatter as Omar Jim Culver as The Exorcist Music for the film was performed by the Los Angeles punk/metal band Haunted Garage, whose frontman Dukey Flyswatter appears in the film as Omar. Songs include "Sorority Sister Succubus" and "Brain in a Jar". A recording of "Brain in a Jar" appeared on the band’s 1991 CD Possession Park. Linnea Quigley sings “Santa Monica Blvd. Boys,” a song she performed with her band The Skirts. Nightmare Sisters was filmed over four days in September 1987 for about $40,000 using left-over film and crew from the just completed Sorority Babes in the Slimeball Bowl-O-Rama; the film was shot in the producer’s rented home. Set decoration consisted of different colored lighting and covering the walls with posters.

The actresses provided their own costumes. The film was intended for the video rental market and showings on late night cable television. Nightmare Sisters disappeared from sight shortly after being released; the company distributing the film abruptly went out of business with the result that less than 2,000 copies of the tape were distributed. The film became an instant obscurity. Over the next decade, the popularity of the three actresses, word of mouth about the famous bathtub scene, the scarcity of the film caused it to develop a cult reputation. A segment from Nightmare Sisters featuring Linnea Quigley singing was included in Linnea Quigley’s Horror Workout. Footage appeared in Scream Queen Hot Tub Party. In the early 1990s, a censored version of Nightmare Sisters aired on USA Up All Night on USA Network; the famous scene in which the girls share a bath was excised and replaced with newly shot footage of the actresses in lingerie, jumping on a bed, bouncing balloons. Nightmare Sisters was released on DVD in 2003 with commentary tracks from the director.

Nightmare Sisters on IMDb

Maly Volkhovets River

The Maly Volkhovets is a right armlet of the Volkhov River in Novgorodsky District of Novgorod Oblast in Russia. It splits from the Volkhov 2 kilometres below its outflow from the Lake Ilmen, bypasses the city of Veliky Novgorod, rejoins the Volkhov north of the Khutyn Monastery, it is 17 kilometres long. The Vishera River, one of the Volkhov's principal tributaries, is a tributary of the Maly Volkhovets; the name of the armlet, which means "The Minor Volkhov", originates from the name of the Volkhov River. The village of Volotovo with the Assumption Church in Volotovo is located on the right bank of Maly Volkhovets. Media related to Maly Volkhovets at Wikimedia Commons