Moto Guzzi is an Italian motorcycle manufacturer and the oldest European manufacturer in continuous motorcycle production. Established in 1921 in Mandello del Lario, the company is noted for its historic role in Italy's motorcycling manufacture, its prominence worldwide in motorcycle racing, industry innovations—including the first motorcycle centre stand, wind tunnel and eight-cylinder engine. Since 2004, Moto Guzzi has been an unico azionista, a wholly owned subsidiary, one of seven brands owned by Piaggio & C. SpA, Europe's largest motorcycle manufacturer and the world's fourth largest motorcycle manufacturer by unit sales; the company's motorcycles are noted for their air-cooled 90° V-twin engines with a longitudinal crankshaft orientation where the engines' transverse cylinder heads project prominently on either side of the motorcycle. Similar to other storied motorcycle manufacturers that have survived for decades, Moto Guzzi has experienced a series of business cycles and a series of ownership arrangements—some complex, some brief, some that have endured.
Moto Guzzi was conceived by two aircraft pilots and their mechanic serving in the Corpo Aeronautico Militare during World War I: Carlo Guzzi, Giovanni Ravelli and Giorgio Parodi. Assigned to the same Miraglia Squadron based outside Venice, the three became close, despite coming from different socio-economic backgrounds; the trio envisioned creating a motorcycle company after the war. Guzzi would engineer the motor bikes, Parodi would finance the venture, Ravelli would promote the bikes with his racing prowess. Guzzi and Parodi formed Moto Guzzi in 1921. Ravelli had died just days after the war's end in an aircraft crash and is commemorated by the eagle's wings that form the Moto Guzzi logo. Carlo Guzzi and Giorgio Parodi, along with Giorgio's brother Angelo, created a held silent partnership "Società Anonima Moto Guzzi" on 15 March 1921, for the purpose of "the manufacture and the sale of motor cycles and any other activity in relation to or connected to metallurgical and mechanical industry".
The company was based in Genoa, with its headquarters in Mandello. The earliest motorcycles bore the name G. P. though the marque changed to Moto Guzzi. As the only actual shareholders, the Parodi's wanted to shield their shipping fortunes by avoiding confusion of name G. P. with Giorgio Parodi's initials. Carlo Guzzi received royalties for each motorcycle produced, holding no ownership in the company that bore his name. In 1946 Moto Guzzi formally incorporated as Moto Guzzi S.p. A. with Giorgio Parodi as chairman. Carlo Guzzi's first engine design was a horizontal single-cylinder engine that dominated the first 45 years of the company's history in various configurations. Through 1934, each engine bore the signature of the mechanic; as envisioned, the company used racing to promote the brand. In the 1935 Isle of Man TT, Moto Guzzi factory rider Stanley Woods performed an impressive double victory with wins in the Lightweight TT as well as the Senior TT; until the mid-1940s, the traditional horizontal four-stroke single-cylinder 500 cc engines were fitted with one overhead and one side valve but contrary to the usual practice of having inlet over exhaust, this employed the side valve for induction and the overhead valve for exhaust.
Unusual was the adoption of only one hairspring to close the exhaust valve. These were the highest performance engines. By contrast, the company supplied the official racing team and private racers with higher performance racing machines with varying overhead cam, multi-valve configurations and cylinder designs. In the 1950s, Moto Guzzi, along with the Italian factories of Gilera and Mondial, led the world of Grand Prix motorcycle racing. With durable and lightweight 250 cc and 350 cc bikes designed by Giulio Carcano, the firm dominated the middleweight classes; the factory won five consecutive 350 cc world championships between 1953 and 1957. In realizing that low weight alone might not continue to win races for the company, Carcano designed the V8 500 cc GP race bike—whose engine was to become one of the most complex engines of its time. Despite the bike's having led many races and posted the fastest lap time, it failed to complete races because of mechanical problems; the V8 was not developed further as Moto Guzzi withdrew from racing after the 1957 season citing escalating costs and diminishing motorcycle sales.
By the time of its pull out from Grand Prix racing, Moto Guzzi had won 3,329 official races, 8 World Championships, 6 Constructor's Championships and 11 Isle of Man TT victories. The period after World War II was as difficult in Mandello del Lario as it was elsewhere in post-war Europe; the solution was production of inexpensive, lighter cycles. The 1946 "Motoleggera", a 65 cc lightweight motorcycle became popular in post-war Italy. A four-stroke 175 cc scooter known as the "Galletto" sold well. Though modest cycles for the company, the lighter cycles continue to feature Guzzi's innovation and commitment to quality; the step-through Galletto featured a manual, foot-shifted three-speed configuration later a four-speed set-up by the end of 1952. The displacement was increased to 192 cc in 1954 and electric start was added in 1961. Moto Guzzi was limited in its endeavors to penetrate the important scooter market as motorcycle popularity waned after WWII. Italian scooter competitors would not tolerate
1932 French Grand Prix
The 1932 French Grand Prix was a Grand Prix motor race held at Reims-Gueux on 3 July 1932. The race lasted for 5 hours, was not run over a fixed distance
1931 French Grand Prix
The 1931 French Grand Prix was a Grand Prix motor race held at Autodrome de Linas-Montlhéry on 21 June 1931. As with the other two races in the 1931 AIACR European Championship, this race was held over 10 hours, not over a fixed distance; as a result, most cars had two drivers. The race was won by Louis Chiron and Achille Varzi driving a factory entered Bugatti T51, who after early race battles lead more than eight hours of the race
Alfa Romeo in motorsport
During its history, Alfa Romeo has competed in many different categories of motorsport, including Grand Prix motor racing, Formula One, sportscar racing, touring car racing and rallies. They have competed both as a constructor and an engine supplier, via works entries and private entries; the first racing car was made in 1913, three years after the foundation of A. L. F. A; the 40-60HP had 6 liter straight-4 engine. Alfa Romeo gained a good name in motorsport and gave a sporty image to the whole marque. Alfa Romeo started motor racing immediately after it was founded. A. L. F. A. Ventured into motor racing in 1911, with drivers Franchini and Ronzoni competing in the Targa Florio with two 24 HP models; the marque's first success came in 1913 when Nino Franchini finished second in Parma-Poggio Berceto race with a 40-60HP. Giuseppe Merosi built a advanced racing car in 1914, named "Grand Prix". In 1920 Giuseppe Campari won the race at Mugello with a 40-60HP, whilst Enzo Ferrari was second in Targa Florio in the same year.
A year Giuseppe Campari won at Mugello again. Ugo Sivocci won the 1923 Targa Florio with an Antonio Ascari took second. Sivocci's car was painted with the green cloverleaf on a white background, to become Alfa's good luck token. In 1923 Vittorio Jano was lured to Alfa from Fiat, designing the motors that gave Alfa racing success into the late 1930s. In 1925 Alfa Romeo won the first Automobile World Championship in the history of automobile racing. Over 4 rounds the Alfa Romeo P2 won the European Grand Prix at Spa and the Italian Grand Prix at Monza, hence incorporated the laurel wreath in their logo. For 1932 Jano produced the sensational P3 which won its first race driven by Tazio Nuvolari at the Italian Grand Prix, 5 more Grands Prix that year were shared by Nuvolari and Rudolf Caracciola. Alfa Corse closed for 1933 and locked the cars in the factory, but they transferred them to Enzo Ferrari's now privatised'factory' team Scuderia Ferrari. P3s won six of the final 11 events of the season including the final 2 major Grands Prix in Italy and Spain.
In 1934 Louis Chiron won the French Grand Prix in the P3 whilst the German Silver Arrows dominated the other 4 championship events. However the P3s won 18 of the 35 Grands Prix held throughout Europe. 1935 was tougher, the P3 was outclassed by the remorseless Silver Arrows, but Tazio Nuvolari gave the P3 one of the most legendary victories of all time by winning the 1935 German Grand Prix at the Nürburgring. The P3 managed 16 victories in 1935. In the 1930s Tazio Nuvolari won the Mille Miglia in a 6C 1750, crossing the finishing line after having overtaken Achille Varzi without lights. Alfa Romeos won the Targa Florio six times in row in the 1930s, and the Mille Miglia every year from 1928 to 1938 except for 1931. The 8C 2300 won the Le Mans 24 Hours from 1931 to 1934, with Alfa Romeo withdrawing from racing in 1933 when the Italian government took over, the racing of Alfas was taken up by Scuderia Ferrari as Alfa's outsourced team. In 1935 Alfa Romeo won the German Grand Prix with Nuvolari. In 1938 Biondetti won the Mille Miglia in an 8C 2900B Corto Spider, thereafter referred to as the "Mille Miglia" model.
Alfa Romeo participated in Formula One, both as a constructor and engine supplier, from 1950 to 1987. The works Alfa Romeo team dominated the first two years of the Formula One World Championship, using the pre-war Alfetta, but withdrew from Formula One at the end of 1951. During the 1960s, several minor F1 teams used Alfa Romeo straight-4 engines and a V8 Alfa Romeo appeared in McLaren and March cars in the early 1970s; the Brabham team used Alfa Romeo engines from 1976 to 1979, foreshadowing a return by Alfa Romeo as a constructor from 1979 to 1985. For the 1987 season, Alfa Romeo made a deal to supply engines to Ligier, but the deal was cancelled when Fiat took control of Alfa Romeo. Alfa Romeo supplied engines to the tiny and unsuccessful Italian Osella team from 1983 to 1987. On 29 November 2017, Sauber announced that they have signed a multi-year technical and commercial partnership contract with Alfa Romeo, therefore the team will be renamed to Alfa Romeo Sauber F1 Team for the 2018 season onwards.
In January 2019 the decision was made to rename the Alfa Romeo Sauber Team to Alfa Romeo Racing for the upcoming 2019 season. Alfa Romeo has supplied engines to Formula Three cars. Piercarlo Ghinzani driving a Euroracing March 793 with 2 litre Alfa engine won straight away its first season in the Italian F3 series in 1979. Michele Alboreto won the European title in 1980 with a March-Alfa Romeo. Altogether Alfa Romeo engined cars took four consecutive Italian titles between 1980 and 1984. Alfa Romeo's new Twin Spark Formula Three engine arrived in 1987 and it continued the success. In all Alfa Romeo took five European titles, five European Cups and about twenty national championships in Italy, Germany and Scandinavia. Alfa Romeo delivers engines to new Formula 3 WSK F3 Regional EM series starting in 2019. Italian based Autotecnica Motori tuned Alfa Romeo 1.75 L 4-cyl turbocharged engine produces 270 metric horsepower. From 1989 to 1991, Alfa Romeo supplied engines to the IndyCar World Series; the 2648 cc, turbocharged V8 engine produced 720 bhp, was developed from the unraced Ferrari 637 Indy car.
The engine was mated to a chassis specially built by March and prepared by Alex Morales Motorsports in 1989, with Roberto Guerrero at the wheel. Guerrero only managed a best of
Luigi Arcangeli was an Italian motorcycle and car racer. Arcangeli was born at Forlì in 1894. A factory rider for Sarolea, Sunbeam and Moto Guzzi, he turned to four wheels in the wake of his friend Tazio Nuvolari, his first appearance was a win in 1928 at the Circuito di Senigallia with a 2-litre Bugatti. After Bugatti he drove Talbot-Darracqs, winning at Cremona in 1928, continuing with Maserati Tipo 8C-2500, with a first place at the Rome Grand Prix in 1930, he moved to Alfa Romeo and joined Enzo Ferrari's scuderia with Nuvolari as team mate. Arcangeli died the following year at Monza, during the tests for the Italian Grand Prix, while driving an Alfa Romeo Tipo A. Arcangeli was killed in Monza while driving Alfa Romeo Tipo A. A Scuderia Luigi Arcangeli was created to honor Luigi Arcangeli name; the Scuderia is active nowadays. Bio page at ruoteclassiche website
Genoa is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived within the city's administrative limits; as of the 2011 Italian census, the Province of Genoa, which in 2015 became the Metropolitan City of Genoa, counted 855,834 resident persons. Over 1.5 million people live in the wider metropolitan area stretching along the Italian Riviera. Located on the Gulf of Genoa in the Ligurian Sea, Genoa has been one of the most important ports on the Mediterranean: it is the busiest in Italy and in the Mediterranean Sea and twelfth-busiest in the European Union. Genoa has been nicknamed la Superba due to its glorious impressive landmarks. Part of the old town of Genoa was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2006 as Genoa: Le Strade Nuove and the system of the Palazzi dei Rolli; the city's rich cultural history in art and cuisine allowed it to become the 2004 European Capital of Culture. It is the birthplace of Christopher Columbus, Andrea Doria, Niccolò Paganini, Giuseppe Mazzini, Renzo Piano and Grimaldo Canella, founder of the House of Grimaldi, among others.
Genoa, which forms the southern corner of the Milan-Turin-Genoa industrial triangle of Northwest Italy, is one of the country's major economic centers. The city has hosted massive shipyards and steelworks since the 19th century, its solid financial sector dates back to the Middle Ages; the Bank of Saint George, founded in 1407, is among the oldest in the world and has played an important role in the city's prosperity since the middle of the 15th century. Today a number of leading Italian companies are based in the city, including Fincantieri, Selex ES, Ansaldo Energia, Ansaldo STS, Edoardo Raffinerie Garrone, Piaggio Aerospace, Mediterranean Shipping Company and Costa Cruises; the flag of Genoa is a red cross on a white field. The English Monarch paid an annual tribute to the Doge of Genoa for this privilege." The patron saint of Genoa was Saint Lawrence until at least 958, but the Genoese transferred their allegiance to Saint George at some point during the 11th or 12th century, most with the rising popularity of the military saint during the Crusades.
Genoa had a banner displaying a cross since at latest 1218 as early as 1113. But the cross banner was not associated with the saint. A depiction of this flag is shown in the Genoese annals under the year 1227; the Genoese flag with the red cross was used alongside this "Saint George's flag", from at least 1218, known as the insignia cruxata comunis Janue. The saint's flag was the city's main war flag, but the cross flag was used alongside it in the 1240s; the Saint George's flag remained the main flag of Genoa at least until the 1280s. The flag now known as the "St. George's Cross" seems to have replaced it as Genoa's main flag at some point during the 14th century; the Book of Knowledge of All Kingdoms shows it, inscribed with the word iustiçia, described as: And the lord of this place has as his ensign a white pennant with a red cross. At the top it is inscribed in this manner; the city of Genoa covers an area of 243 square kilometres between the Ligurian Sea and the Apennine Mountains. The city stretches along the coast for about 30 kilometres from the neighbourhood of Voltri to Nervi, for 10 kilometres from the coast to the north along the valleys Polcevera and Bisagno.
The territory of Genoa is popularly divided into 5 main zones: the centre, the west, the east, the Polcevera and the Bisagno Valley. Genoa is adjacent to two popular Ligurian vacation spots: Portofino. In the metropolitan area of Genoa lies Aveto Natural Regional Park. Genoa has a humid subtropical climate in the Köppen climate classification, since only one summer month has less than 40 millimetres of rainfall, preventing it from being classified as oceanic or Mediterranean; the average yearly temperature is around 19 °C during 13 °C at night. In the coldest months: December and February, the average temperature is 12 °C during the day and 6 °C at night. In the warmest months – July and August – the average temperature is 27.5 °C during the day and 21 °C at night. The daily temperature range is limited, with an average range of about 6 °C between high and low temperatures. Genoa sees significant moderation from the sea, in stark contrast to areas behind the Ligurian mountains such as Parma, where summers are hotter and winters are quite cold.
Annually, the average 2.9 of nights recorded temperatures of ≤0 °C. The coldest temperature recorded was −8 °C on the night of February 2012. Average annual number of days with temperatures of ≥30 °C is about 8, average four days in July and August. Average annual temperature of the sea is 17.5 °C, from 13 °C in the period January–March to 25 °C in August. In the period from June to October, the average sea temperature exceeds
Spa 24 Hours
The Total 24 Hours of Spa is an endurance racing event for cars held annually in Belgium since 1923 at the Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps. It is sponsored by Total S. A.. The Spa 24 Hours was conceived by Jules de Their and Henri Langlois Van Ophem just one year after the inaugural 24 Hours of Le Mans was run, it debuted in 1924 over a 15 kilometres circuit on public roads between the towns of Francorchamps and Stavelot, under the auspices of the Royal Automobile Club Belgium. The present 7.004 kilometres circuit was inaugurated in 1979. The Spa 24 Hours was part of the European Touring Car Championship from 1966 to 1973, again in 1976 and from 1982 to 1988; the event counted towards the World Sportscar Championship in 1953 and the World Endurance Championship in 1981. As on the Nürburgring, both a 24h and a 1000 km race is held at Spa, as the 1000 km Spa for sports car racing were introduced in 1966. Cars entered have spanned from the Russian Moskvitch and models with sub-1 liter engines such as the NSU Prinz TT to the luxurious V8-powered Mercedes-Benz 300 SEL 6.3.
Tuned by Mercedes-AMG, the 6834 cc and 420 hp so-called "Red pig" finished as high as second in 1971. With the participation of Swiss Lilian Bryner on the victorious Ferrari 550 of the BMS Scuderia Italia team, the 2004 race marked the first time in history that a female driver was part of the winning team of a 24-hour endurance race in a Gran Turismo with more than 500 hp; the best manufacturer wins the Coupe du Roi, not the race winners. The cup is won by the manufacturer with the most points, accrued by cars that are made by the same manufacturer. For example, Australian car manufacturer Holden won the Coupe du Roi in 1986 despite their cars finishing the race in 18th, 22nd and 23rd positions outright; the current version of the Spa 24 Hours is an event under the Blancpain Endurance Series calendar, although it was run as part of the FIA GT Championship featuring GT1 and GT2 machinery, by various touring car series. The cars run fall under the FIA GT3 and GT3 Cup classifications. Motorcycle endurance racing series.
Total Spa 24 Hours website: Available in English and Dutch 1971 results 1972 results 1981 results FIA GT Website