A vineyard is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown for winemaking, but raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice. The science and study of vineyard production is known as viticulture. A vineyard is characterised by its terroir, a French term loosely translating as "a sense of place" that refers to the specific geographical and geological characteristics of grapevine plantations, which may be imparted in the wine; the earliest evidence of wine production dates from between 6000 and 5000 BC. Wine making technology improved with the ancient Greeks but it wasn't until the end of the Roman Empire that cultivation techniques as we know them were common throughout Europe. In medieval Europe the Church was a staunch supporter of wine, necessary for the celebration of the Mass. During the lengthy instability of the Middle Ages, the monasteries maintained and developed viticultural practices, having the resources, security and interest in improving the quality of their vines, they owned and tended the best vineyards in Europe and vinum theologium was considered superior to all others.
European vineyards were planted with a wide variety of the Vitis vinifera grape. However, in the late 19th century, the entire species was nearly destroyed by the plant louse phylloxera accidentally introduced to Europe from North America. Native American grapevines include varieties such as Vitis labrusca, resistant to the bug. Vitis vinifera varieties were saved by being grafted onto the rootstock of Native American varieties, although there is still no remedy for phylloxera, which remains a danger to any vineyard not planted with grafted rootstock; the quest for vineyard efficiency has produced a bewildering range of systems and techniques in recent years. Due to the much more fertile New World growing conditions, attention has focussed on managing the vine's more vigorous growth. Innovation in palissage and pruning and thinning methods have replaced more general, traditional concepts like "yield per unit area" in favor of "maximizing yield of desired quality". Many of these new techniques have since been adopted in place of traditional practice in the more progressive of the so-called "Old World" vineyards.
Other recent practices include spraying water on vines to protect them from sub-zero temperatures, new grafting techniques, soil slotting, mechanical harvesting. Such techniques have made possible the development of wine industries in New World countries such as Canada. Today there is increasing interest in developing organic, ecologically sensitive and sustainable vineyards. Biodynamics has become popular in viticulture; the use of drip irrigation in recent years has expanded vineyards into areas which were unplantable. For well over half a century, Cornell University, the University of California and California State University, among others, have been conducting scientific experiments to improve viticulture and educate practitioners; the research includes investigating pest control. The International Grape Genome Program is a multi-national effort to discover a genetic means to improving quality, increasing yield and providing a "natural" resistance to pests; the implementation of mechanical harvesting is stimulated by changes in labor laws, labor shortages, bureaucratic complications.
It can be expensive to hire labor for short periods of time, which does not square well with the need to reduce production costs and harvest often at night. However small vineyards, incompatible widths between rows of grape vines and steep terrain hinder the employment of machine harvesting more than the resistance of traditional views which reject such harvesting. Numbers of New World vineyard plantings have been increasing as fast as European vineyards are being uprooted. Between 1990 and 2003, the number of U. S. vineyards increased from 1,180 to 3,860 km2 or 292,000 to 954,000 acres, while Australian vineyard numbers more than doubled from 590 to 1,440 km2 and Chilean vineyards grew from 654 to 1,679 km2. The size of individual vineyards in the New World is significant. Europe's 1.6 million vineyards are an average of 0.2 km2 each, while the average Australian vineyard is 0.5 km2, providing considerable economies of scale. Exports to Europe from New World growers increased by 54% in the six years up to 2006.
There have been significant changes in the kinds of grapes that are grown. For example, in Chile, large areas of low-quality grapes have been replaced with such grapes as Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon. In Argentina, due to an economic down-turn, acreage of Malbec was reduced in the 1980s, but in the 1990s, during the quality revolution incited by Malbec Pioneer Nicolás Catena Zapata, growers started planting more Malbec, most notably in higher altitudes where cooler temperatures and more intense sunlight yields more concentrated yet smoother and more complex malbecs. Grape changes are in response to changing consumer demand but sometimes result from vine pull schemes designed to promote vineyard change. Alternatively, the development of "T" budding now permits the grafting of a different grape variety onto existing rootstock in the vineyard, making it possible to switch varieties within a two-year period. Local legislation dictates which varieties are selected, how they are grown, whether vineyards can be irrigated and when grapes can be harvested, all of which in serves to rein
The city of Buzău is the county seat of Buzău County, Romania, in the historical region of Muntenia. It lies near the right bank of the Buzău River, between the south-eastern curvature of the Carpathian Mountains and the lowlands of Bărăgan Plain. Buzău is a railway hub in south-eastern Romania, where railways that link Bucharest to Moldavia and Transylvania to the Black Sea coast meet. DN2, a segment of European route E85 crosses the city. Buzău's proximity to trade routes helped it develop its role as a commerce hub in older days, as an industrial centre during the 20th century. During the Middle Ages, Buzău was a market town and Eastern Orthodox episcopal see in Wallachia, it faced a period of repeated destruction during the 17th and 18th centuries, nowadays symbolized on the city seal by the Phoenix bird. In the 19th century, after the end of that era, the city began to recover; the economy underwent industrialization, Buzău became a railway hub, public education became available. At this time, the Communal Palace, the city's landmark building, Crâng Park, the main recreational area, were built.
The communist regime after World War II brought forced industrialization and the tripling of the city's population. Some of the factories open at the time are still functioning within the framework of market economy. There are no universities based in Buzău, only a few universities from other cities have remote learning facilities here; the main educational institutions here are B. P. Hasdeu high-school and Mihai Eminescu high-school; the city has a number of other secondary schools, in addition to elementary schools. The Vasile Voiculescu County Library and Buzău County Museum are based in the city; the latter manages an ethnography exhibit in the city, as well as the Vasile Voiculescu memorial house in Pârscov and the amber exhibit at Colți. The city is named after the nearby river. In turn, the river is mentioned under the name Μουσεος in a document written in Greek and dated 376 AD, recounting the martyrdom of Sabbas the Goth. Historian Vasile Pârvan thought, he suggested that the name comes from the Thracian root Buzes, with the addition of the -eu suffix, a form of the Greek-Latin suffix -aios.
The written history of the city begins with that of Wallachia. It was certified as a market town and customs point during the reign of Dan II. Archeological sites belonging to Gumelnița and Monteoru cultures prove the presence of human inhabitants before the Christian era. During the Middle Ages, there was a fortress of Buzău, but only a few passing mentions in foreign documents are kept; the market, flourishing in 1431, has become an Orthodox episcopal see in the early 16th century. In the 17th century, an era of war and foreign invasions began, that affected the town and its surroundings, they began with Michael the Brave's participation in the Long Turkish War and ended with the Wallachian uprising of 1821. Natural disasters took their toll, leading to destruction and depopulation of Buzău. However, the inhabitants always returned and rebuilt the city, which led early 18th century local authorities to use the Phoenix bird on the city seal, as a symbol of rebirth; the 19th century brought a time of economical development.
The Communal Palace, the city's main landmark, was built at the time, after the city developed its industry and became a railway hub in the 1870s. Schools were open, such as the Theological Seminary în 1836, the B. P. Hasdeu high school in 1867, theatre plays were produced: the "Moldavia" theatre house was built in 1898 and used throughout the first half of the 20th century as the main concert and theatre hall, where artists such as George Enescu, C. I. Nottara and Nae Leonard performed. For short periods of time, Ion Luca Caragiale and Constantin Brâncuși have worked here. During World War I, Buzău came under German occupation after mid-December 1916, many inhabitants took refuge in the nearby villages or in Western Moldavia; the city resumed its development after the war. The interbellum brought about the first sport matches and the "Metalurgica" factory, a private business, to be confiscated by the communists, continues to this day as part of a joined venture. After World War II, the industrialization of Buzău was forcefully accelerated, its population tripled in less than 50 years.
Buzău has profoundly changed its appearance, working class quarters being built instead of the old commercial streets, some historical buildings, such as the Moldavia Theatre, were demolished. Their cultural role was taken over by the Labor Unions' Cultural Center and by "Dacia" Cinema. Eight historical monuments classified as having national importance exist in Buzău: the church of the Birth of Christ along with its belfry.
The Moesian Limes or Limes Moesiae is the modern term given to a collection of Roman fortifications between the Black Sea shore and Pannonia, present-day Hungary, consisting of forts along the Danube to protect the Roman provinces of Upper and Lower Moesia south of the river. In addition the term Limes Moesiae may be used to include many other linked lines of defence were established in the region in different periods and abandoned in favour of others depending on the military situation; the Limes Moesiae includes the linked forts and stations along the Danube from Singidunum to the mouth of the Danube on the Black Sea. It was not fortified with palisades or a boundary wall but the forts were linked by a road and included eight legionary fortresses, many forts for auxiliary troops and watch/signal towers; the legionary fortresses included: Singidunum Viminatium Aquae Ratiaria Oescus Novae Dorostorum TroesmisOther forts included: Augustae Valeriana Variana Almus Regianum Sexaginta Prista The frontier was divided into two major sections by the river Iskar at Oescus which marked the border between the provinces of Moesia Superior and Inferior.
The narrowness of the river at Djerdap formed a barrier between north-west and north-east Moesia, difficult to overcome making communication between the Pannonian and the Moesian armies difficult. This problem was solved only by the construction of a 3m wide road under Trajan, who had the Legio VII Claudia chisel into the rock walls replacing a wooden towpath construction, susceptible to damage by drift ice. Other improvements for shipping included the construction of a canal near Novi Sip to avoid the dangerous rapids and shoals there; the two ends of the canal were secured with forts. The best-known building on the Moesian Limes was Trajan's Bridge at Drobeta/ Turnu Severin from the early 2nd century AD, the first permanent bridge connection across the lower Danube, guarded on both banks by forts; the Limes Moesiae may include, depending on authors: two lines of defense in Wallachia: the Constantine Wall and the Limes Transalutanus. The Constantine Wall, or Brazda lui Novac de Nord in Walachia from around 330 A.
D. and 300 km long. The Limes Transalutanus built by Hadrian to defend Roman Dacia, between the southern Carpathian mountains and the Danube. Possibly the so-called Trajan's Walls between Constanta and the Danube, Lower Trajan's Wall or Athanaric's Wall just north of the Danube delta in Moldova and Upper Trajan's Wall or Greuthungi Wall in central Moldova from the Prut to the Dniester rivers, although they may not have been Roman. Many of these walls consisted of earth ditches, 3m high and 2m wide, similar to the Antonine Wall; the Limes was used by non-Roman kingdoms after the 5th/6th century and rebuilt and increased During 29 and 28 BC shortly after the battle of Actium Marcus Licinius Crassus, proconsul of Macedonia and grandson of the triumvir, conquered the territory, to become Moesia. Augustus formally proclaimed this event in 27 BC in Rome. Two legions were stationed in Moesia to counter threats from neighbouring Thrace and aggressive peoples north of the Danube. Auxiliary and smaller forts for vexillations of these legions were built along the Danube.
At this stage forts on the frontier consisted of earth walls with wooden palisades. The wood and earth constructions were replaced by stone walls just before Domitian's Dacian War in 87 AD. In the winter of 98/99 AD Trajan arrived on the Danube, quartered at the Diana fort near Kladovo, started Dacian war preparations on the Iron Gates gorges, he extended the road in the gorge for 30 miles, as he stated on the well-known inscription of 100 AD. In 101 AD he cut a canal nearby, as he recorded on a marble plaque which reads: “that because of the dangerous cataracts he diverted the river and made the whole Danube navigable”:. Trajan rebuilt all earthworks in stone. Just below the Pontes fort a large port and massive horrea were built. Between the first and second Dacian wars, from 103 to 105, the imperial architect Apollodorus of Damascus constructed Trajan's Bridge one of the greatest achievements in Roman architecture. Full military occupation of the plain between the Carpathian foothills and the Danube may have occurred by the end of Trajan’s First Dacian War.
The majority of forts here, were established after the final conquest of the Dacian kingdom in 106 AD. The abandonment of Moldova and the creation of the Limes Transalutanus can both be tentatively dated to the reign of Hadrian. After a long period of peace Septimius Severus reconstructed the Moesia Superior defences and under Caracalla more reconstruction was done as can be seen at Pontes where, as with many other Iron Gates forts, the original layout was supplemented with the gates and towers. A new fort was built on an island at the Porečka river; the Roman abandonment of Dacia occurred during the reign of Gallienus, before the traditional date of around 275 when Aurelian established the new province of Dacia south of the Danube. In the Late Roman period, the extent of control and military occupation over territory north of the Danube remains controversial. One Roman fort, well beyond the Danubian Limes a
Roman Dacia was a province of the Roman Empire from 106 to 274–275 AD. Its territory consisted of the Banat and Oltenia, it was from the beginning organized as an imperial province, fitting a border area, remained so throughout the Roman occupation. Historians' estimates of the population of Roman Dacia range from 650,000 to 1,200,000; the conquest of Dacia was completed by Emperor Trajan after two major campaigns against Decebalus' Dacian Kingdom. The Romans did not occupy the entirety of the old Dacian kingdom, as the greater part of Moldavia, together with Maramureș and Crișana, was ruled by Free Dacians after the Roman conquest. In 119, the Roman province was divided into two departments: Dacia Inferior. In 124, Dacia Superior was divided into two provinces: Dacia Porolissensis. During the Marcomannic Wars the military and judicial administration was unified under the command of one governor, with another two senators as his subordinates; the Roman authorities undertook a organized colonization of Dacia.
New mines were opened and ore extraction intensified, while agriculture, stock breeding, commerce flourished in the province. Dacia began to supply grain not only to the military personnel stationed in the province but to the rest of the Balkan area, it became an urban province, with about ten cities known, eight of which held the highest rank of colonia, though the number of cities was fewer than in the region's other provinces. All the cities developed from old military camps. Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa, the seat of the imperial procurator for all the three subdivisions, was the financial and legislative center of the province. Apulum, where the military governor of the three subdivisions had his headquarters, was not the greatest city within the province, but one of the biggest across the whole Danubian frontier. There were political threats from the beginning of Roman Dacia's existence. Free Dacians who bordered the province were the first adversary, after allying themselves with the Sarmatians, hammered the province during the reign of Marcus Aurelius.
Following a calmer period covering the reigns of Commodus through to Caracalla, the province was once again beset by invaders, this time the Carpi, a Dacian tribe in league with the newly arrived Goths, who in time became a serious difficulty for the empire. Finding it difficult to retain Dacia, the emperors were forced to abandon the province by the 270s, making it the first of Rome's long-term possessions to be abandoned. Dacia was devastated by the Germanic tribes together with the Carpi in 248–250, by the Carpi and Goths in 258 and 263, by the Goths and Heruli in 267 and 269. Ancient sources implied that Dacia was lost during the reign of Gallienus, but they report that it was Aurelian who relinquished Dacia Traiana, he evacuated his troops and civilian administration from Dacia, founded Dacia Aureliana with its capital at Serdica in Lower Moesia. The fate of the Romanized population of the former province of Dacia Traiana has become subject of spirited controversy. One theory holds that the Latin language spoken in ancient Dacia, where Romania was to be formed in the future turned into Romanian.
The opposing theory argues that the Romanians descended from the Romanized population of the Roman provinces of the Balkan Peninsula. The Dacians and the Getae interacted with the Romans prior to Dacia's incorporation into the Roman Empire. However, Roman attention on the area around the lower Danube was sharpened when Burebista unified the native tribes and began an aggressive campaign of expansion, his kingdom extended to Pannonia in the west and reached the Black Sea to the east, while to the south his authority extended into the Balkans. By 74 BC, the Roman legions under Gaius Scribonius Curio reached the lower Danube and proceeded to come into contact with the Dacians. Roman concern over the rising power and influence of Burebista was amplified when he began to play an active part in Roman politics, his last minute decision just before the Battle of Pharsalus to participate in the Roman Republic's civil war by supporting Pompey meant that once the Pompeians were dealt with, Julius Caesar would turn his eye towards Dacia.
As part of Caesar's planned Parthian campaign of 44 BC, he planned to cross into Dacia and eliminate Burebista, thereby causing the breakup of his kingdom. Although the planned expedition into Dacia did not happen due to Caesar's assassination, Burebista failed to bring about any true unification of the tribes he ruled. Following a plot which saw him assassinated, his kingdom fractured into four distinct political entities becoming five, each ruled by minor kings. From the death of Burebista to the rise of Decebalus, Roman forces continued to clash against the Dacians and the Getae. Constant raiding by the tribes into the adjacent provinces of Moesia and Pannonia caused the local governors and the emperors to undertake a number of punitive actions against the Dacians, yet for all this, there existed a measure of social and political interaction between the Roman Empire and the Dacians during much of the late pre-Roman period. This saw the occasional granting of favoured status to the Dacians in the manner of b
A tumulus is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. Tumuli are known as barrows, burial mounds or kurgans, may be found throughout much of the world. A cairn, a mound of stones built for various purposes, may originally have been a tumulus. Tumuli are categorised according to their external apparent shape. In this respect, a long barrow is a long tumulus constructed on top of several burials, such as passage graves. A round barrow is a round tumulus commonly constructed on top of burials; the internal structure and architecture of both long and round barrows has a broad range, the categorization only refers to the external apparent shape. The method of inhumation may involve a dolmen, a cist, a mortuary enclosure, a mortuary house, or a chamber tomb. Examples of barrows include Duggleby Maeshowe; the word tumulus is Latin for'mound' or'small hill', derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *teuh2- with extended zero grade *tum-,'to bulge, swell' found in tumor, thumb and thousand.
The funeral of Patroclus is described in book 23 of the Iliad. Patroclus is burned on a pyre, his bones are collected into a golden urn in two layers of fat; the barrow is built on the location of the pyre. Achilles sponsors funeral games, consisting of a chariot race, wrestling, running, a duel between two champions to the first blood, discus throwing and spear throwing. Beowulf's body is taken to Hronesness. During cremation, the Geats lament the death of their lord, a widow's lament being mentioned in particular, singing dirges as they circumambulate the barrow. Afterwards, a mound is built on top of a hill, overlooking the sea, filled with treasure. A band of twelve of the best warriors ride around the barrow, singing dirges in praise of their lord. Parallels have been drawn to the account of Attila's burial in Jordanes' Getica. Jordanes tells that as Attila's body was lying in state, the best horsemen of the Huns circled it, as in circus games. An Old Irish Life of Columcille reports that every funeral procession "halted at a mound called Eala, whereupon the corpse was laid, the mourners marched thrice solemnly round the spot."
Archaeologists classify tumuli according to their location and date of construction. Some British types are listed below: Bank barrow Bell barrow Bowl barrow D-shaped barrow – round barrow with a purposely flat edge at one side defined by stone slabs. Disc barrow Fancy barrow – generic term for any Bronze Age barrows more elaborate than a simple hemispherical shape. Long barrow Oval barrow – a Neolithic long barrow consisting of an elliptical, rather than rectangular or trapezoidal mound. Platform barrow – The least common of the recognised types of round barrow, consisting of a flat, wide circular mound that may be surrounded by a ditch, they occur across southern England with a marked concentration in East and West Sussex. Pond barrow – a barrow consisting of a shallow circular depression, surrounded by a bank running around the rim of the depression, from the Bronze Age. Ring barrow – a bank that encircles a number of burials. Round barrow – a circular feature created by the Bronze Age peoples of Britain and the Romans and Saxons.
Divided into subclasses such as saucer and bell barrow—the Six Hills are a rare Roman example. Saucer barrow – a circular Bronze Age barrow that features a low, wide mound surrounded by a ditch that may have an external bank. Square barrow – burial site of Iron Age date, consisting of a small, ditched enclosure surrounding a central burial, which may have been covered by a mound. In 2015, the first long barrow in thousands of years, inspired by those built in the Neolithic Period, was built near All Cannings in England; the project was steward of Stonehenge. The barrow was designed to have a large number of private niches within the stone and earth structure to receive cremation urns; the structure received significant media attention, with national press writing extensively about the revival of the structures, various episodes of filming, for example by BBC Countryfile as it was being built. It was subscribed within eighteen months; this was followed soon after by a new barrow near St Neots. Further plans to revive barrows are at Soulton in Shropshire.
The word kurgan is of Turkic origin, derives from Proto-Turkic *Kur-. In Ukraine and Russia, there are royal kurgans of Varangian chieftains, such as the Black Grave in Ukrainian Chernihiv, Oleg's Grave in Russian Staraya Ladoga, vast, intricate Rurik's Hill near Russian Novgorod. Other important kurgans are found in Ukraine and South Russia and are associated with much more ancient steppe peoples, notably the Scythians and early Indo-Europeans The steppe cultures found in Ukraine and South Russia continue into Central Asia, in particular Kazakhstan. Salweyn in northern Somalia contains a large field of cairns, which stretches for a distance of around 8 km. An excavation of one of these tumuli by Georges Révoil in 1881 uncovered a tomb, beside which were artefacts pointing to an ancient, advanced civilization; the interred objects included pottery shards from Samos, some well-crafted enamels, a mask of Ancient Greek design. Tumuli are one of the most prominent types of prehistoric monuments spread throughout northern and southern Albania.
Some well-known local tumuli are: Kamenica Tumulus Lofkënd Tumulus Pazhok Tumulus More than 50 burial mounds were found in Kupres. Man from Kupres- the skeleton found
Sucidava is a Dacian and Daco-Roman historical site, situated in Corabia, Romania, on the north bank of the Danube. The first Christian Basilica established in Romania can be found there and the foot of a Roman bridge over the Danube built by Constantine the Great to link Sucidava with Oescus. There is a secret underground fountain which flows under the walls of the town to a water spring situated outside. From an archaeological point of view, the coins found at Sucidava show an uninterrupted series from Aurelian to Theodosius II; the archaeological evidence show that in AD 443 or 447 the city was sacked by the Huns, was restored under Justin I 518-527 or Justinian I 527-565. Around 600, it seems. List of castra Paul Lachlan MacKendrick, "The Dacian Stones Speak", Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1975. ISBN 0-8078-1226-9 Notitia Dignitatum cca 395-413 Sucidava on Tabula Peutingeriana: http://www.euratlas.net/cartogra/peutinger/7_thracia/thracia_4_1.html "Archaeological Excavation Report" Photo gallery Gabriel Vasile, "Analiza antropologică a unui schelet descoperit la Sucidava - Celei", Cercetări Arheologice, 13/2006, at National Museum of Romanian History http://www.threemonkeysonline.com/als/_sucidava_romania_eu_expansion.html Roman castra from Romania - Google Maps / Earth
In the material culture of classical antiquity, a phiale or patera is a shallow ceramic or metal libation bowl. It has a bulbous indentation in the center underside to facilitate holding it, in which case it is sometimes called a mesomphalic phiale, it has no handles, no feet. Although the two terms may be used interchangeably in the context of Etruscan culture, phiale is more common in reference to Greek forms, patera in Roman settings. Libation was a central and vital aspect of ancient Greek religion, one of the simplest and most common forms of religious practice, it is one of the basic religious acts that define piety in ancient Greece, dating back to the Bronze Age and prehistoric Greece. Libations were a part of daily life, the pious might perform them every day in the morning and evening, as well as to begin meals. A libation most consisted of mixed wine and water, but could be unmixed wine, oil, water, or milk; the form of libation called spondē is the ritualized pouring of wine from a jug or bowl held in the hand.
The most common ritual was to pour the liquid from an oinochoē into a phiale. Libation accompanied prayer; the Greeks stood when they prayed, either with their arms uplifted, or in the act of libation with the right arm extended to hold the phiale. After the wine offering was poured from the phiale, the remainder of the contents was drunk by the celebrant. In Roman art, the libation is shown performed at mensa, or tripod, it was the simplest form of sacrifice, could be a sufficient offering by itself. The introductory rite to an animal sacrifice included an incense and wine libation onto a burning altar. Both emperors and divinities are depicted on coins, pouring libations from a patera. Scenes of libation and the patera itself signify the quality of pietas, religious duty or reverence. In architecture, oval features on plaster friezes on buildings may be called paterae. Parabiago patera, a platter or plate