Lighthouses mark dangerous coastlines, hazardous shoals and safe entries to harbors, and can assist in aerial navigation. Once widely used, the number of operational lighthouses has declined due to the expense of maintenance, before the development of clearly defined ports, mariners were guided by fires built on hilltops. Since raising the fire would improve the visibility, placing the fire on a platform became a practice that led to the development of the lighthouse. In antiquity, the lighthouse functioned more as a marker to ports than as a warning signal for reefs and promontories. The most famous lighthouse structure from antiquity was the Pharos of Alexandria, coins from Alexandria and Laodicea in Syria exist. The modern era of lighthouses began at the turn of the 18th century, advances in structural engineering and new and efficient lighting equipment allowed for the creation of larger and more powerful lighthouses, including ones exposed to the sea. The function of lighthouses shifted toward the provision of a warning against shipping hazards.
The Eddystone Rocks were a major hazard for mariners sailing through the English Channel. The first lighthouse built there was a wooden structure, anchored by 12 iron stanchions secured in the rock. His lighthouse was the first tower in the world to have been exposed to the open sea. The civil engineer, John Smeaton, rebuilt the lighthouse from 1756–59, his tower marked a step forward in the design of lighthouses. He modelled the shape of his lighthouse on that of an oak tree and he pioneered the use of hydraulic lime, a form of concrete that will set under water, and developed a technique of securing the granite blocks together using dovetail joints and marble dowels. This profile had the advantage of allowing some of the energy of the waves to dissipate on impact with the walls. His lighthouse was the prototype for the lighthouse and influenced all subsequent engineers. One such influence was Robert Stevenson, himself a figure in the development of lighthouse design. His greatest achievement was the construction of the Bell Rock Lighthouse in 1810 and this structure was based upon Smeatons design, but with several improved features, such as the incorporation of rotating lights, alternating between red and white.
Stevenson worked for the Northern Lighthouse Board for nearly fifty years during which time he designed and oversaw the construction and he invented the movable jib and the balance crane as a necessary part for lighthouse construction. Alexander Mitchell designed the first screw-pile lighthouse – his lighthouse was built on piles that were screwed into the sandy or muddy seabed, construction of his design began in 1838 at the mouth of the Thames and was known as the Maplin Sands lighthouse, and first lit in 1841
A wildflower is a flower that grows in the wild, meaning it was not intentionally seeded or planted. Yet wildflower meadows of a few mixed species are sold in seed packets, the term can refer to the flowering plant as a whole, even when not in bloom, and not just the flower. Wildflower is not an exact term, terms like native species, exotic or, introduced species, of which some are labelled invasive species and naturalized are much more accurate. The aim was to spread awareness of the heritage of native species and about the need for conservation, for example, Somerset has adopted the Cheddar Pink, London the Rosebay Willowherb and Denbighshire/Sir Ddinbych in Wales the rare Limestone Woundwort. Formerly published by the North American Native Plant Society Plantlife, UK organisation Wildflower in Cyprus Information on 1250 native plant species to North Cyprus
Hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, and private rooms may be available, in a few countries, such as the UK, Ireland and Australia, the word hostel sometimes refers to establishments providing longer-term accommodation. In India and South Africa, hostel refers to boarding schools or student dormitories in resident colleges and universities, in other parts of the world, the word hostel mainly refers to properties offering shared accommodation to travellers or backpackers. Backpackers Hostels began in Australia and New Zealand and differ from Hostels by being open during the day time, in 1912, in Altena Castle in Germany, Richard Schirrmann created the first permanent Jugendherberge or Youth Hostel. These first youth hostels were an exponent of the vision of the German Youth Movement to let poor city youngsters breathe fresh air outdoors.
The youths were supposed to manage the hostel themselves as much as possible, doing chores to keep the costs down and build character, because of this, many youth hostels closed during the middle part of the day. While most hostels still close during the day no longer require chores beyond washing up after self-catered meals. The words hotel and hostal are etymologically related, coming into the English language from Old French hostel, itself from Late Latin hospitale, however, they each refer to distinct types of accommodation. In particular, hostal is used in Spanish either with the sense as hostel. For those who prefer an environment, hostels do not usually have the same level of formality as hotels. For those who prefer to socialise with their guests, hostels usually have more common areas. The dormitory aspect of hostels increases the social factor, Hostels normally close during the day to keep down cost. There is less privacy in a hostel than in a hotel, sharing sleeping accommodation in a dormitory is very different from staying in a private room in a hotel or bed and breakfast, and might not be comfortable for those requiring more privacy.
Hostels encourage more interaction between guests due to the shared sleeping areas and communal areas such as lounges, kitchens. Care should be taken with personal belongings, as guests may share a living space. Noise can make sleeping difficult on occasions, whether from snoring, sexual activity, someone either returning late or leaving early, to mitigate this, some wear earplugs and/or sleeping masks. Some hostels may include a hot meal in the price, the traditional hostel format involved dormitory style accommodation. Some newer hostels include en-suite accommodation with single, double or quad occupancy rooms, in recent years, the numbers of independent and backpackers hostels have increased greatly to cater for the greater numbers of overland, multi-destination travellers
Tide pools, or rock pools, are rocky pools on the sea shore which are filled with seawater. Many of these pools exist as separate pools only at low tide, Tidal pools exist in the intertidal zones. These zones are submerged by the sea at high tides and during storms, at other times the rocks may undergo other extreme conditions, baking in the sun or exposed to cold winds. Few organisms can survive harsh conditions. Lichens and barnacles live in this region, in this zone, different barnacle species live at very tightly constrained elevations. Tidal conditions precisely determine the height of an assemblage relative to sea level. The intertidal zone is exposed to sun and wind, which desiccate barnacles. Their calcite shells are impermeable, and they possess two plates which they slide across their mouth opening when not feeding and these plates protect against predation. The high tide zone is flooded during high tide. Organisms must survive wave action and exposure to the sun and this zone is predominantly inhabited by seaweed and invertebrates, such as sea anemones, chitons, green algae, and mussels.
Marine algae provide shelter for nudibranches and hermit crabs, the same waves and currents that make life in the high tide zone difficult bring food to filter feeders and other intertidal organisms. Also called the Lower Littoral Zone and this area is usually under water - it is only exposed when the tide is unusually low. This sub region is mostly submerged, but it is exposed only during low tide, often it teems with life and has much more marine vegetation, especially seaweeds. Organisms in this zone do not have to be as well adapted to drying out, low tide zone organisms include abalone, brown seaweed, crabs, green algae, isopods, limpets and sometimes even small vertebrates such as fish. This area is relatively protected from large predators because of the wave action. Tide pools provide a home for hardy organisms such as starfish, inhabitants must be able to deal with a frequently changing environment — fluctuations in water temperature and oxygen content. Hazards include waves, strong currents, exposure to midday sun, waves can dislodge mussels and draw them out to sea.
Gulls pick up and drop sea urchins to break them open, starfish prey on mussels and are eaten by gulls themselves
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
United Kingdom Hydrographic Office
The United Kingdom Hydrographic Office is located in Taunton, Somerset on Admiralty Way and has a workforce of approximately 1,000 staff. The UKHO is the UKs agency providing hydrographic and geospatial data to mariners and they are a trading arm of the Ministry of Defence. They are responsible for support to the Royal Navy and other defence customers. Supplying defence and the shipping industry, they help ensure Safety of Lives at Sea, protect the marine environment. Together with other national hydrographic offices and the International Hydrographic Organisation, they work to set and raise standards of hydrography, cartography. Their market-leading portfolio of ADMIRALTY Maritime Products & Services is found on over 90% of the ships trading internationally. Relied upon by mariners for over 200 years, their portfolio provides the most comprehensive range of SOLAS-compliant charts and digital services to crews, cargo. The Admiraltys first Hydrographer was Alexander Dalrymple, appointed in 1795 on the order of King George III, the first chart Dalrymple published as Hydrographer to the ADMIRALTY brand did not appear until 1800.
He issued sailing directions and Notices to Mariners, Dalrymple was succeeded on his death in 1808 by Captain Thomas Hurd, under whose stewardship the department was given permission to sell charts to the public in 1821. In 1819 Captain Hurd entered into an agreement with Denmark to exchange charts. This is thought to be the earliest formal arrangement for the supply of information between the British and any foreign Hydrographic Office. Hurd developed the specialism of Royal Navy hydrographic surveyors, Rear-Admiral Sir W. Edward Parry was appointed Hydrographer in 1823 after his second expedition to discover a Northwest Passage. In 1825 some 736 charts and coastal views were being offered for sale by the Hydrographic Office, in 1828 Captain Parry and the Royal Society organised a scientific voyage to the South Atlantic, in collaboration with the Hydrographers of France and Spain, using HMS Chanticleer. In 1829, at the age of 55, Rear-Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort became Hydrographer, during his time as Hydrographer, he developed the eponymous Scale, saw the introduction of official tide tables in 1833 and instigated various surveys and expeditions.
Several of these were by the HMS Beagle, including one to Tierra del Fuego, in 1831 Captain Beaufort informed Captain FitzRoy that he had found a savant for the latters surveying voyage to South America, Charles Darwin. After completing extensive surveys in South America she returned to Falmouth, Cornwall via New Zealand, by the time of Beauforts retirement in 1855, the Chart Catalogue listed 1,981 charts and 64,000 copies of them had been issued to the Royal Navy. In the 1870s the Hydrographic Service supported the Challenger expedition, an exercise that made many discoveries. The cruise was named after the vessel, HMS Challenger
A Fresnel lens is a type of compact lens originally developed by French physicist Augustin-Jean Fresnel for lighthouses. The design allows the construction of lenses of large aperture and short focal length without the mass, a Fresnel lens can be made much thinner than a comparable conventional lens, in some cases taking the form of a flat sheet. A Fresnel lens can capture more light from a light source. The idea of creating a thinner, lighter lens by making it with separate sections mounted in a frame is attributed to Georges-Louis Leclerc. The Marquis de Condorcet proposed grinding such a lens from a thin piece of glass. French physicist and engineer Augustin-Jean Fresnel is most often given credit for the development of the lens for use in lighthouses. According to Smithsonian magazine, the first Fresnel lens was used in 1823 in the Cordouan lighthouse at the mouth of the Gironde estuary, scottish physicist Sir David Brewster is credited with convincing the United Kingdom to adopt these lenses in their lighthouses.
The Fresnel lens reduces the amount of material required compared to a lens by dividing the lens into a set of concentric annular sections. An ideal Fresnel lens would have many such sections. In each section, the thickness is decreased compared to an equivalent simple lens. This effectively divides the surface of a standard lens into a set of surfaces of the same curvature. In some lenses, the surfaces are replaced with flat surfaces. Such a lens can be regarded as an array of prisms arranged in a fashion, with steeper prisms on the edges. In the first Fresnel lenses, each section was actually a separate prism, single-piece Fresnel lenses were produced, being used for automobile headlamps, brake and turn signal lenses, and so on. In modern times, computer-controlled milling equipment might be used to more complex lenses. Fresnel lenses are made of glass or plastic, their size varies from large to medium to small. In many cases they are thin and flat, almost flexible. Modern Fresnel lenses usually consist of all refractive elements, however many of the lighthouses have both refracting and reflecting elements, as shown in the photographs and diagram
E. W. Scripps Company
The E. W. Scripps Company is an American broadcasting company founded in 1878 as a chain of daily newspapers by Edward Willis Scripps. It was formerly a media conglomerate, the company is headquartered inside the Scripps Center in Cincinnati, Ohio. Its corporate motto is Give light and the people find their own way. The E. W. Scripps Company was incorporated on December 1,1987, but it traces its history to November 2,1878, when Edward Willis Scripps published the first issue of the Cleveland Penny Press. In 1894, E. W. Scripps and his half-brother, George H. Scripps, in July 1895, it was named the Scripps-McRae League with the addition of Cincinnati Post general manager Milton A. McRae as a partner. On November 29,1921, it was renamed Scripps-Howard Newspapers, on November 23,1922, the company was placed in trust for E. W. Scripps children and grandchildren. In 1990, the company completed a new downtown Cincinnati headquarters, on October 16,2007, the company announced that it would separate into two publicly traded companies, The E. W.
Scripps Company and Scripps Networks Interactive. The transaction was completed on July 1,2008, on October 3,2011, The E. W. Scripps Company announced it was purchasing the television arm of McGraw-Hill for $212 million. This purchase nearly doubles the number of Scripps stations to 19 with a reach of 13% of U. S. households. Upon the 2012 death of E. W. Scripps grandson, Robert Scripps, the E. W. Scripps Company and Journal Communications announced on July 30,2014, that the two companies would merge and spin-off their newspaper assets. The FCC approved the deal on December 12,2014, the merger and spinoff were completed on April 1,2015. Journal Media Group merged with the all-newspaper Gannett Company on April 8,2016, Gannett had shed their television and broadcast operations into a spin-off, months after the Scripps-Journal merger. The purchase price was to be between $605 and $775 million, depending on a federal ruling, United Feature Syndicate syndicated many notable comic strips including Peanuts, Lil Abner, Dilbert and Marmaduke.
The distribution rights to properties syndicated by United Media was outsourced to Universal Uclick in February 2011, while United Media effectively ceased to exist, Scripps still maintains copyrights and intellectual property rights. Scripps operated United Press International until selling it off in 1982 and it previously owned the Scripps Howard News Service, which shut down in 2013. E. W. Scripps previously owned the Shop at Home Network from 2000 until 2006, Shop at Home in turn owned five television stations, all as a division of its cable network division. In October 1995, Comcast announced the purchase of E. W. Scripps cable provider operation, attempts to use Shop at Home as a complementary service to Food Network and HGTV by selling products connected to personalities of those networks were middling compared to competitors QVC and HSN. On May 22,2006, Scripps announced that it was to cease operations of the network, jewelry Television eventually acquired Shop at Home, but Scripps still intended to sell its affiliated stations
Santa Cruz, California
Santa Cruz is the county seat and largest city of Santa Cruz County, California. As of 2013 the U. S. Census Bureau estimated Santa Cruzs population at 62,864, Santa Cruz is known for its moderate climate, the natural beauty of its coastline, redwood forests, alternative community lifestyles, and socially liberal leanings. The present-day site of Santa Cruz was the location of Spanish settlement beginning in 1791, including Mission Santa Cruz, following the Mexican–American War of 1846–48, California became the 31st state in 1850. The City of Santa Cruz was incorporated in 1866 and chartered in April 1876, important early industries included lumber, gunpowder and agriculture. Late in the 19th century, Santa Cruz established itself as a resort community. Prior to the arrival of Spanish soldiers and colonists in the late 18th century, the diverse and numerous tribes of this region were earlier referred to by the Spanish as Coastanoan. The term Ohlone has been used in place of Costanoan since the 1970s by some descendant groups and by most ethnographers and writers of popular literature.
Awaswa was one of the eight Coastanoan languages and made up a tribe of Native Americas living in Western Santa Cruz County, the Awaswas tribe was made up of no more than one thousand people and their language is now extinct. The only remnants of their language are three local place names, Aptos and Zayante, and the name of a native shellfish - abalone. The majority of Ohlone or Coastanoan tribes had no written language, within fifty years of the Spaniards arrival, the Ohlone or Coastanoan culture and way of life had virtually disappeared in the Bay area. The party forded the river and camped nearby on October 17,1769, franciscan missionary Juan Crespi, traveling with the expedition, noted in his diary that, This river was named San Lorenzo. Next morning, the set out again, and Crespi noted that. Santa Cruz was the mission to be founded in California. The creek, lost the name, and is today as Laurel Creek because it parallels Laurel Street. It is the feeder of Neary Lagoon. One of only three towns established in California during the Spanish colonial period, the Villa was located across the San Lorenzo River.
Its original main street is now North Branciforte Avenue, Villa de Branciforte lost its civic status, and in 1905 the area was annexed into the City of Santa Cruz. In the 1820s, newly independent Mexico assumed control of the area, following the secularization of the Mission in 1834, the community that had grown up around the Mission was renamed Pueblo de Figueroa
United States Coast Guard
The United States Coast Guard is a branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the countrys seven uniformed services. This has happened twice, in 1917, during World War I, created by Congress on 4 August 1790 at the request of Alexander Hamilton as the Revenue Marine, it is the oldest continuous seagoing service of the United States. As Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton headed the Revenue Marine, by the 1860s, the service was known as the U. S. Revenue Cutter Service and the term Revenue Marine gradually fell into disuse, the modern Coast Guard was formed by a merger of the Revenue Cutter Service and the U. S. Life-Saving Service on 28 January 1915, under the U. S. Department of the Treasury. As one of the five armed services, the Coast Guard has been involved in every U. S. war from 1790 to the Iraq War. As of 2014 the Coast Guard had over 36,000 men and women on duty,7,350 reservists,29,620 auxiliarists. In terms of size, the U. S. Coast Guard by itself is the worlds 12th largest naval force.
Because of its authority, the Coast Guard can conduct military operations under the U. S. Department of Defense or directly for the President in accordance with Title 14 USC 1–3. The Coast Guards enduring roles are maritime safety, security, to carry out those roles, it has 11 statutory missions as defined in 6 U. S. C. §468, which include enforcing U. S. law in the worlds largest exclusive economic zone of 3.4 million square miles, the Coast Guards motto is the Latin phrase, Semper Paratus. In a 2005 article in Time magazine following Hurricane Katrina, the author wrote, the Coast Guards most valuable contribution to may be as a model of flexibility, and most of all, spirit. Wil Milam, a swimmer from Alaska told the magazine, In the Navy. Practicing for war, training for war, in the Coast Guard, it was, take care of our people and the mission will take care of itself. The Coast Guard carries out three basic roles, which are subdivided into eleven statutory missions. Both agencies maintain rescue coordination centers to coordinate this effort, and have responsibility for military and civilian search and rescue.
The two services jointly provide instructor staff for the National Search and Rescue School that trains SAR mission planners and coordinators, previously located on Governors Island, New York, the school is now located at Coast Guard Training Center Yorktown at Yorktown, Virginia. The NRC takes Maritime Suspicious Activity and Security Breach Reports, details on the NRC organization and specific responsibilities can be found in the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan. The Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement database system is managed and used by the Coast Guard for tracking pollution, the five uniformed services that make up the U. S
An aerobeacon is a light assembly used to create a fixed or flashing signal visible over long distances. It consists of a high intensity electric lamp mounted with a device in a cylindrical housing. The sweep of the beam thus produced gives the flashing effect. Aerobeacons were originally developed for use, most familiarly as aerodrome beacons. They were far cheaper to manufacture and maintain than classic glass Fresnel lenses, and more rugged, and they could be mounted exposed to the weather. Historic models include the DCB-24, which used a parabolic reflector, the DCB-224, a double-beamed version of the DCB-24, and the DCB-36. Manufacturers included Carlisle & Finch and the Crouse-Hinds Company and they are still in widespread use. Aerial lighthouse Aerodrome beacon Pepper, Terry, DCB-36 Beacon, Fading Away and All but Forgotten by History. Photos of a DCB-36 installation at the Massey Air Museum