Animal Farm is an allegorical novella by George Orwell, first published in England on 17 August 1945. According to Orwell, the fable reflects events leading up to the Russian Revolution of 1917 and on into the Stalinist era of the Soviet Union. Orwell, a democratic socialist, was a critic of Joseph Stalin and hostile to Moscow-directed Stalinism, an attitude, critically shaped by his experiences during the Spanish Civil War; the Soviet Union, he believed, had become a brutal dictatorship, built upon a cult of personality and enforced by a reign of terror. In a letter to Yvonne Davet, Orwell described Animal Farm as a satirical tale against Stalin, in his essay "Why I Write", wrote that Animal Farm was the first book in which he tried, with full consciousness of what he was doing, "to fuse political purpose and artistic purpose into one whole"; the original title was Animal Farm: A Fairy Story, but U. S. publishers dropped the subtitle when it was published in 1946, only one of the translations during Orwell's lifetime kept it.
Other titular variations include subtitles like "A Satire" and "A Contemporary Satire". Orwell suggested the title Union des républiques socialistes animales for the French translation, which abbreviates to URSA, the Latin word for "bear", a symbol of Russia, it played on the French name of the Soviet Union, Union des républiques socialistes soviétiques. Orwell wrote the book between November 1943 and February 1944, when the UK was in its wartime alliance with the Soviet Union against Nazi Germany and the British people and intelligentsia held Stalin in high esteem, a phenomenon Orwell hated; the manuscript was rejected by a number of British and American publishers, including one of Orwell's own, Victor Gollancz, which delayed its publication. It became a great commercial success when it did appear because international relations were transformed as the wartime alliance gave way to the Cold War. Time magazine chose the book as one of the 100 best English-language novels, it won a Retrospective Hugo Award in 1996 and is included in the Great Books of the Western World selection.
Old Major, the old boar on the Manor Farm, summons the animals on the farm together for a meeting, during which he refers to humans as "enemies" and teaches the animals a revolutionary song called "Beasts of England". When Major dies, two young pigs and Napoleon, assume command and consider it a duty to prepare for the Rebellion; the animals revolt, driving the drunken, irresponsible farmer Mr. Jones, as well as Mrs. Jones and the other human caretakers and employees, off the farm, renaming it "Animal Farm", they adopt the Seven Commandments of Animalism, the most important of which is, "All animals are equal". The decree is painted in large letters on one side of the barn. Snowball teaches the animals to read and write, while Napoleon educates young puppies on the principles of Animalism. Food is plentiful, the farm runs smoothly; the pigs elevate themselves to positions of leadership and set aside special food items, ostensibly for their personal health. Some time several men attack Animal Farm.
Jones and his men are making an attempt to recapture the farm, aided by several other farmers who are terrified of similar animal revolts. Snowball and the animals, who are hiding in ambush, defeat the men by launching a surprise attack as soon as they enter the farmyard. Snowball's popularity soars, this event is proclaimed "The Battle of the Cowshed", it is celebrated annually on the anniversary of the Rebellion. Napoleon and Snowball vie for pre-eminence; when Snowball announces his plans to modernize the farm by building a windmill, Napoleon has his dogs chase Snowball away and declares himself leader. Napoleon enacts changes to the governance structure of the farm, replacing meetings with a committee of pigs who will run the farm. Through a young pig named Squealer, Napoleon claims credit for the windmill idea; the animals work harder with the promise of easier lives with the windmill. When the animals find the windmill collapsed after a violent storm and Squealer convince the animals that Snowball is trying to sabotage their project.
Once Snowball becomes a scapegoat, Napoleon begins to purge the farm with his dogs, killing animals he accuses of consorting with his old rival. When some animals recall the Battle of the Cowshed, Napoleon smears Snowball as a collaborator of Farmer Jones', while falsely representing himself as the hero of the battle. "Beasts of England" is replaced with an anthem glorifying Napoleon, who appears to be adopting the lifestyle of a man. The animals remain convinced. Mr Frederick, a neighbouring farmer, attacks the farm, using blasting powder to blow up the restored windmill. Although the animals win the battle, they do so at great cost, as many, including Boxer, the workhorse, are wounded. Despite his injuries, Boxer continues working harder and harder, until he collapses while working on the windmill. Napoleon sends for a van to purportedly take Boxer to a veterinary surgeon, explaining that better care can be given there. Benjamin, the cynical donkey who "could read as well as any pig", notices that the van belongs to a knacker and attempts a futile rescue.
Squealer assures the animals that the van had been purchased from the knacker by an animal hospital, that the previous owner's signboard had not been repainted. In a subsequent report, Squealer reports sadly to the animals that Boxer died peacefully at the animal hospital; the pigs hold a festival one day after Boxer's death to further praise
Teletubbies is a British pre-school children's television series created by Ragdoll Productions' Anne Wood and Andrew Davenport. The programme focuses on four multi-coloured creatures known as "Teletubbies", named after the television screens implanted in their abdomens. Recognised throughout popular culture for the uniquely shaped antenna protruding from the head of each character, the Teletubbies communicate through gibberish and were designed to bear resemblance to toddlers. Notable for its high production values, the series became a commercial success in Britain and abroad, it was nominated for two Daytime Emmys throughout its run. A single based on the show's theme song reached number 1 in the UK Singles Chart in December 1997 and remained in the Top 75 for 32 weeks, selling over a million copies. By October 2000, the franchise generated over £1 billion in merchandise sales. Though the original run ended in 2001, sixty new episodes were ordered in 2014, they are aired on CBeebies in the United Kingdom and on Nick Jr. in the United States.
Re-runs of the original 1997–2001 series continue to be shown on relevant television channels worldwide. The programme takes place in a grassy, floral landscape populated by rabbits with bird calls audible in the background; the main shelter of the four Teletubbies is an earth house known as the "Tubbytronic Superdome" implanted in the ground and accessed through a hole at the top or an large semicircular door at the dome's foot. The creatures co-exist with a number of strange contraptions such as the Noo-noo, the group's anthropomorphic blue vacuum cleaner, the Voice Trumpets; the show's colourful, psychedelic setting was designed to appeal to the attention spans of infants and unlock different sections of the mind while educating young children of transitions that can be expected in life. An assortment of rituals are performed throughout the course of every episode, such as the playful interactions between the Teletubbies and the Voice Trumpets, the mishaps caused by the Noo-noo, the footage of live children displayed on the screens in the Teletubbies' stomachs, the magical event that occurs once per episode.
The event differs each time. Each episode is closed by the narrator; the disappointed, but obedient Teletubbies bid farewell to the viewer as they go back to the Tubbytronic Superdome while the Sun Baby sets. Tinky Winky is the first Teletubby, as well as the oldest of the group, he has a triangular antenna on his head. He always carries a red bag. Dipsy is the second Teletubby, he is green and named after his antenna. Dipsy is the most stubborn of the Teletubbies, will refuse to go along with the others' group opinion, his face is notably darker than the rest of the Teletubbies, the creators have stated that he is black. Laa-Laa is the third Teletubby, she has a curly antenna. Laa-Laa is sweet, likes to sing and dance, is shown looking out for the other Teletubbies, her favourite toy is an orange rubber ball. Po is the fourth Teletubby, as well as the youngest, she has an antenna shaped like a stick used for blowing soap bubbles. Po speaks in a soft voice and has been stated by the show's creators to be Cantonese.
The Noo-noo is a sentient vacuum cleaner who acts as housekeeper. He hardly ventures outside the Tubbytronic Superdome, instead remaining indoors and cleaning with his sucker-like nose, he communicates through a series of sucking noises. The Voice Trumpets are several devices resembling periscopes that rise from the ground and interact with the Teletubbies engaging in games with them and serving as supervisors, they are the only residents of Teletubbyland. The Sun Baby appears at the end of each episode, she acts as a wake-up call for the Teletubbies. Numerous rabbits are found throughout Teletubbyland, are depicted by several Flemish Giant rabbits; the Teletubbies enjoy watching them play. The rabbits are the only type of Earth animal found in the land, take residence in rabbit holes and bushes; the Tubby Phone is a character in the revival series, who transports the Teletubbies to the modern world. The Tiddlytubbies are baby Teletubbies appearing in the revival series, their names are Mi-Mi, Daa Daa, Ping, RuRu, Duggle Dee and Umby Pumby.
On 31 March 1997, the first episode of Teletubbies aired on BBC2. It filled a timeslot held by Playdays; this schedule change received backlash from parents, but the show was not moved. The programme's unconventional format received attention from the media, it was attracting two million viewers per episode by August. In February 1998, The Sydney Morning Herald noted that it had "reached cult status" in less than a year on the air. Teletubbies has been aired in over 120 countries in 45 diff
Piglet is a fictional character from A. A. Milne's Winnie‑the‑Pooh books. Piglet is Winnie‑the‑Pooh's closest friend amongst all the animals featured in the stories. Although he is a "Very Small Animal" of a timid disposition, he tries to be brave and on occasion conquers his fears. Piglet is introduced in the text from Chapter III of Winnie‑the‑Pooh, although he is shown earlier in one of the illustrations for Chapter II, he appears in Chapters V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, as well as every chapter of The House at Pooh Corner. Piglet is best friends with Pooh and is especially close to Christopher Robin and the rest of the main characters. Like most of the characters, Piglet was based on one of Christopher Robin Milne's stuffed animals. In the original color versions of Ernest H. Shepard's illustrations in the Winnie‑the‑Pooh books, Piglet has pale pink skin and a green jumper, he is smaller than most animals, being only taller than Roo. His voice is described as "squeaky". Piglet's adventures in the first book include hunting Woozles, attempting to capture Heffalumps, giving Eeyore a birthday balloon, impersonating Roo in an attempt to trick Kanga, joining the Expotition to the North Pole, being trapped by a flood.
In the second book, he helps build a house for Eeyore, meets Tigger, finds Small while trapped in a gravel pit, plays Poohsticks, gets lost in the mist, helps rescue Pooh and Owl after they are trapped in Owl's fallen house. For that last feat, Piglet is the subject of a seven-verse "Respectful Pooh Song" that Pooh composes for him. Piglet himself can read and write, at least well enough for short notes. In the illustrations for The House at Pooh Corner, it appears that Piglet spells his own name "Piglit", although it is rendered as "Piglet" in the actual text when describing his signature. In one chapter, Piglet is referred to as "Henry Pootel" by Christopher Robin, who claimed to not recognize Piglet after he was cleaned by Kanga. Eeyore likes to refer to him as "Little Piglet". Piglet's favorite food is acorns. At one point he plants one just outside his house, in hopes of someday having a handy supply, he lives in a house in a beech tree in the Hundred Acre Wood, next to a sign which says "TRESPASSERS W".
An illustration shows that the sign is broken off after the "W." According to Piglet, "short for Trespassers Will, short for Trespassers William,", the name of his grandfather. In The House at Pooh Corner, Eeyore mistakenly offers Piglet's house as a new home for Owl, after Owl's house had blown down. Piglet nobly agrees to let Owl have the house, at which point Pooh asks Piglet to live with him and Piglet accepts. In 1960 HMV recorded a dramatised version with songs of two episodes from The House at Pooh Corner, with Penny Morrell as Piglet, released on a 45rpm EP. Piglet was omitted by Disney in the first Pooh film, Winnie the Pooh and the Honey Tree. According to the film's director, Wolfgang Reitherman, Piglet was replaced by Gopher, thought to have a more "folksy, all-American, grass-roots image". Many familiar with the classic Milne books protested Disney's decision to exclude Piglet, Disney relented. Piglet appeared in Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day. Disney's interpretation of Piglet has a magenta jumper.
His fears and nervousness are played up more, as he runs and hides when unnecessary and stutters when nervous. He has a lot of hidden courage and faces danger to help others when afraid. Stories about him tend to revolve around these traits as well as his small size. In the Disney cartoons, Piglet loves beautiful things like flowers, is kindhearted and is obsessed with keeping things neat and tidy, he sometimes has an inferiority complex, although his friends think of him. However, he is left performing tasks better suited to someone bigger and stronger, such as in several episodes of The New Adventures of Winnie the Pooh or the 2011 film. Piglet greets, he appears less than Pooh and Eeyore, but more than Rabbit. Piglet made a brief cameo in the 1988 movie Who Framed Roger Rabbit, he was featured as one of the guests in House of Mouse. Piglet makes a cameo appearance in the DreamWorks animated film, Bee Movie along with Pooh, at one point, a man spies Pooh and Piglet eating honey and Barry tells him to "take him out" with a tranquilizer dart.
Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day Winnie the Pooh and Tigger Too Winnie the Pooh Discovers the Seasons Winnie the Pooh and a Day for Eeyore The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh Who Framed Roger Rabbit - Brief Cameo only Pooh's Grand Adventure: The Search for Christopher Robin DVD Seasons of Giving DVD The Tigger Movie The Book of Pooh: Stories from the Heart DVD Mickey's Magical Christmas: Snowed in at the House of Mouse DVD Mickey's House of Villains DVD A Very Merry Pooh Year DVD Piglet's Big Movie Springtime with Roo DVD Pooh's Heffalump Movie Pooh's Heffalump Halloween Movie DVD Bee Movie - Cameo only Super Sleuth Christmas Movie DVD Tigger & Pooh and a Musical Too DVD Super Duper Super Sleuths DVD Winnie the Pooh Christopher Robin Welcome to Pooh Corner The New Adventures of Winnie the Pooh House of Mouse The Book of Pooh My Friends Tigger & Pooh Doc McStuffins John Fiedler provided the
A suckling pig is a piglet fed on its mother's milk. In culinary contexts, a suckling pig is slaughtered between the ages of six weeks, it is traditionally cooked whole roasted, in various cuisines. It is prepared for special occasions and gatherings; the meat from suckling pig is pale and tender and the cooked skin is crisp and can be used for pork rinds. The texture of the meat can be somewhat gelatinous due to the amount of collagen in a young pig. There are many ancient recipes for suckling pig from Chinese cuisine. Since the pig is one of the first animals domesticated by human beings for slaughter, many references to pigs are found in human culture; the suckling pig appears in early texts such as the sixth-century Salic law. As an example of a law governing the punishment for theft, Title 2, article 1, is, in Latin, Si quis porcellum lactantem furaverit, et ei fuerit adprobatum CXX dinarios qui faciunt solidos III culpabilis iudicetur. "If someone has stolen a suckling pig and this is proven against him, the guilty party will be sentenced to 120 denarii which adds up to three solidus."
The words "chrane calcium" are written in Frankish. These glosses in Frankish, the so-called Malberg-Glossen, are considered the earliest attested words in Old Dutch. There are various preparations for suckling pig in Asian cuisines; the most popular preparation can be found in northern Spain, namely Segovia. Lechón is a pork dish in several regions of the world, most Spain and its former colonial possessions; the word lechón originated from the Spanish term leche. Lechón is a popular item in the cuisine in Los Angeles, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Argentina, Bolivia, Perú, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, other Spanish-speaking nations in Latin America. In Spanish cuisine, cochinillo asado is used to refer to roast piglet, as lechón has drifted linguistically to mean any roasted pig. In most of these regions, lechón is prepared throughout the year for special occasions, during festivals, the Thanksgiving. After seasoning, the piglet is cooked by skewering the entire animal, entrails removed, on a large stick and cooking it in a pit filled with charcoal.
The piglet is placed over the charcoal, the stick or rod it is attached to is turned in a rotisserie action. In Asia, roast suckling pig is eaten in Vietnamese restaurants for important parties, it is a popular dish at wedding dinners or a party for a baby's completion of its first month of life. In the former Spanish colony of the Philippines, lechón is considered a national dish; as the usage of the term has evolved over the years, "lechón" has now come to refer to roasted pig in general. Suckling pigs in the country are referred to as lechón de leche, which corresponds to the term cochinillo in Spain. There is variant of suckling pig among the Indonesian non-Muslim ethnic groups, such as the Balinese and Minahasa; some pork dishes are influenced by ethnic Chinese. The European cuisines of Romania, Spain, Austria, Croatia, Serbia and Georgia favor it as well, it accompanies goose as the traditional Christmas feast of families in Russia and Serbia. Russian Navy maintains a tradition of presenting a roast piglet to the crew of a ship returning from deployment.
Suckling pig is known in Austrian cuisine as Spanferkel. It can be roasted in the oven or grilled, is served at festive occasions such as Oktoberfest. In Sweden suckling pig is called spädgris, it is cooked in the oven, or sometimes roasted directly over the fire, it is stuffed with various fruits such as apples and plums, together with butter and breadcrumbs. The suckling pig is used in Cajun cuisine in the southern U. S. where the Cochon de Lait festival is held annually in the small town of Louisiana. During this festival, as its name implies, suckling pigs are roasted. Other uses for the suckling pig in the U. S. include slow roasting in a pit. The latter remains popular in the cuisine of the Southern United States. Asado Eisbein Roasted pig Kalua List of barbecue dishes List of spit-roasted foods
Helicocranchia pfefferi, the banded piglet squid, is a small squid of the genus Helicocranchia. Adults of this species are mesopelaegic; the average size of adult H. pfefferi is 100 mm in mantle length. The body consists of a large funnel with small paddle-like fins, they have small tentacles above their eyes. The funnel contains a dorsal pad with three papillae as organs. Paddle-shaped fins are attached to a part of the gladius. H. pfefferi does not have photophores at its arm tips. As paralarvae, they live near the surface of between 100 m and 200 m deep, they descend to the mesopelagic zone as they mature, but do not exhibit a diel vertical migration pattern. Young, R. E. & K. M. Mangold. 2006. Helicocranchia Massy, 1907. Version 16 July 2006. In: The Tree of Life Web Project. "CephBase: Helicocranchia pfefferi". Archived from the original on 2005. Images of Helicocranchia from the SERPENT Project Blog post with lots of information
A pig roast or hog roast is an event or gathering which involves the barbecuing of a whole pig. Pig roasts in the Deep South of the United States are referred to as a pig pickin', although roasts are a common occurrence in the Philippines, Puerto Rico and Cuba as well as the US state of Hawaii. Roasts are sometimes organised in other states. A pig roast is a traditional meal in the Balkan states of Serbia and Montenegro prepared for celebration events and family feasts, it can be found on the menu of traditional taverns and bars: kafana. In Southeast Asia, a pig roast is a staple among the Hindu and Christian communities, notably among Catholic Filipinos and Hindu Balinese people; the tradition of the hog roast is found in many cultures. There are numerous ways to roast pork, including open fire rotisserie style roasting, "caja china" style box grilling. Many families traditionally have a pig roast for Christmas. In Miami and other areas with large Cuban, Puerto Rican, Honduran or other Caribbean populations pig roasts are held on Christmas Eve by families and friends, whereas families from Hawaii hold a roast on Memorial Day.
In Brazil, a pig roast is called porco no rolete. In various Chinese communities, a roast suckling pig is purchased for special family occasions, business launches, or as a ritualistic spiritual offering. For example, one tradition is to offer one or several whole roast suckling pigs to the Jade Emperor to celebrate a Chinese film's opening; the pig is in prayer for the film's success. One garnish used to make the dish look more appealing is a circular slice of pineapple and cherry, is placed in a red box for luck. In Indonesia, a pig roast is called babi guling, babi babi bakar. In Bali, babi guling is served with lawar and steamed rice. In the Batak people's tradition, babi guling is a prerequisite in wedding offerings by the bride's family. In Papua and yams are roasted in heated stones placed in a hole dug in the ground and covered with leaves. In the Philippines a former Spanish colony, as well as Overseas Filipino communities, the roasted pig is the national and main cultural dish and has the same culinary significance as in Puerto Rico and expat communities.
It is referred to as lechon litson baboy. It is traditionally prepared for Christmas celebrations, but is commonplace at birthday parties, weddings and family reunions. Variants in Cebu, known as "Cebu Lechon", popular, are stuffed with various vegetables and spices. Pig roast is popular in many former Spanish colonies. In Puerto Rico, pig roasts occur year-round, but are most common at New Year's Eve and Christmas. In the Dominican Republic, puerco a la puya is a traditional part of the Christmas Eve meal. In Spain, the locals call this a lechon asado. Hog roasts are becoming more popular across Spain and more so in Southern Spain due to the ex-pat community, as well as some of Spain's former colonies. In the UK, the tradition of pig roasting, more known in the UK as a "hog roast", is popular on many occasions parties and celebrations, it is an outdoor event, a staple meal at many show events. The tradition is to roast either on a spit, turning the pig under a flame, or in a large oven in a roasting pan.
The pig is roasted in a gas propane machine. The pig's skin is covered in water and salt to make the crackling. In ancient times, going all the way back to the Saxons, roasting a wild boar was the centerpiece of a meal at Yuletide, with Yule being Freya's feast; the head was the greatest delicacy, as evidenced by the survival of the Boar's Head Carol. In the United States, roasting a whole pig or a feral hog has been a tradition for over two hundred years in the Southern United States where it is linked to barbecue. From Virginia south to Florida Panhandle. and west to the Mississippi River south to Louisiana, the favored meat in Southern, Cajun and Creole cooking is pork and has been since colonial times: pigs did not require any special handling or maintenance and could be sent off into the woods and rounded up again when supplies ran low, thus were the prime choice for meat for small farmers and plantation owners, for men living up in the mountains, the tradition was to drive their pigs to market every fall, fattening them up on the many nuts and acorns that proliferated in the area.
George Washington mentions attending a barbecue in his journal on August 4, 1769, records at Mount Vernon show the man had his own smokehouse on the premises. Like many plantation owners, he raised several pigs for slaughter in November and once his slaves had finished curing the meat into ham and bacon, they would pit roast some whole pigs over hot coals as a treat. Outside of the English-speaking states of the South, francophone Cajuns
Tardigrades are a phylum of water-dwelling, eight-legged, segmented micro-animals. They were first described by the German zoologist Johann August Ephraim Goeze in 1773, who gave them the name of "little water bears"; the name Tardigrada was given in 1777 by the Italian biologist Lazzaro Spallanzani. They have been found everywhere: from mountaintops to mud volcanoes. Tardigrades are among the most resilient known animals, with individual species able to survive extreme conditions that would be fatal to nearly all other known life forms, such as exposure to extreme temperatures, extreme pressures, air deprivation, radiation and starvation. Tardigrades have survived exposure to outer space. About 1,150 known species form a part of the superphylum Ecdysozoa; the group includes fossils dating from 530 million years ago, in the Cambrian period. Tardigrades are about 0.5 mm long when they are grown. They are plump, with four pairs of legs, each ending in claws or sucking disks. Tardigrades are prevalent in mosses and lichens and feed on plant cells and small invertebrates.
When collected, they may be viewed under a low-power microscope, making them accessible to students and amateur scientists. Johann August Ephraim Goeze named the tardigrade kleiner Wasserbär, meaning "little water bear" in German; the name Tardigradum means "slow walker" and was given by Lazzaro Spallanzani in 1776. The name "water bear" comes from the way they reminiscent of a bear's gait; the biggest adults may reach a body length of the smallest below 0.1 mm. Newly hatched tardigrades may be smaller than 0.05 mm. Tardigrades are found on lichens and mosses. Other environments are dunes, beaches and marine or freshwater sediments, where they may occur quite frequently. Tardigrades, in the case of Echiniscoides wyethi, may be found on barnacles. Tardigrades can be found by soaking a piece of moss in water. Tardigrades have barrel-shaped bodies with four pairs of stubby legs. Most range from 0.3 to 0.5 mm in length. The body consists of a head, three body segments each with a pair of legs, a caudal segment with a fourth pair of legs.
The legs are without joints. The cuticle is moulted periodically; the first three pairs of legs are directed downward along the sides, are the primary means of locomotion, while the fourth pair is directed backward on the last segment of the trunk and is used for grasping the substrate. Tardigrades lack a large intermediate region of the body axis. In insects, this corresponds to the abdomen; the whole body, except for the last pair of legs, is made up of just the segments that are homologous to the head region in arthropods. All adult tardigrades of the same species have the same quantity of cells; some species have as many as 40,000 cells in each adult. The body cavity consists of a haemocoel, but the only place where a true coelom can be found is around the gonad. No respiratory organs are found, with gas exchange able to occur across the entirety of the body; some tardigrades have three tubular glands associated with the rectum. Nephridia are absent; the tubular mouth is armed with stylets, which are used to pierce the plant cells, algae, or small invertebrates on which the tardigrades feed, releasing the body fluids or cell contents.
The mouth opens into a triradiate, sucking pharynx. The stylets are lost when the animal molts, a new pair is secreted from a pair of glands that lie on either side of the mouth; the pharynx connects to a short esophagus, to an intestine that occupies much of the length of the body, the main site of digestion. The intestine opens, to an anus located at the terminal end of the body; some species only defecate. The brain develops in a bilaterally symmetric pattern; the brain includes multiple lobes consisting of three bilaterally paired clusters of neurons. The brain is attached to a large ganglion below the esophagus, from which a double ventral nerve cord runs the length of the body; the cord possesses one ganglion per segment, each of which produces lateral nerve fibres that run into the limbs. Many species possess a pair of rhabdomeric pigment-cup eyes, numerous sensory bristles are on the head and body. Tardigrades all possess a buccopharyngeal apparatus which, along with the claws, is used to differentiate among species.
Although some species are parthenogenic, both males and females are present, each with a single gonad located above the intestine. Two ducts run from the testes in males. In contrast, females have a single duct opening either just above the anus or directly into the rectum, which thus forms a cloaca. Tardigrades are oviparous, fertilization is external. Mating occurs during the molt with the eggs being laid inside the shed cuticle of the female and covered with sperm. A