Show jumping known as "stadium jumping", "open jumping", or "jumping", is a part of a group of English riding equestrian events that includes dressage, eventing and equitation. Jumping classes are seen at horse shows throughout the world, including the Olympics. Sometimes shows are limited to jumpers, sometimes jumper classes are offered in conjunction with other English-style events, sometimes show jumping is but one division of large, all-breed competitions that include a wide variety of disciplines. Jumping classes may be governed by various national horse show sanctioning organizations, such as the United States Equestrian Federation in the USA or the British Showjumping Association in Great Britain. International competitions are governed by the rules of the International Federation for Equestrian Sports. Show jumping events have jumper classes and hunt seat equitation classes. Hunters are judged subjectively on the degree to which they meet an ideal standard of manners and way of going.
Conversely, jumper classes are scored objectively, based on a numerical score determined only by whether the horse attempts the obstacle, clears it, finishes the course in the allotted time. Jumper courses tend to be much more complex and technical than hunter courses because riders and horses are not being judged on style. Courses are colorful and at times, quite creatively designed. Hunters have meticulous turnout and tend toward quiet, conservative horse tack and rider attire. Hunter bits, crops and martingales are regulated. Jumpers, while caring for their horses and grooming them well, are not scored on turnout, are allowed a wider range of equipment, may wear less conservative attire, so long as it stays within the rules. Formal turnout always is preferred. In addition to hunters and jumpers, there are equitation classes, sometimes called hunt seat equitation, which judges the ability of the rider; the equipment and fence styles used in equitation more resemble hunter classes, although the technical difficulty of the courses may more resemble jumping events.
Jumper classes are held over a course of show jumping obstacles, including verticals and double and triple combinations with many turns and changes of direction. The intent is to jump cleanly over a set course within an allotted time. Time faults are assessed for exceeding the time allowance. Jumping faults are incurred for blatant disobedience, such as refusals. Horses are allowed a limited number of refusals before being disqualified. A refusal may lead to a rider exceeding the time allowed on course. Placings are based on "faults" accumulated. A horse and rider who have not accumulated any jumping faults or penalty points are said to have scored a "clear round". Tied entries have a jump-off over a raised and shortened course, the course is timed. In most competitions, riders are allowed to walk the initial course but not the jump-off course before competition to plan their ride. Walking the course before the event is a chance for the rider to walk the lines he or she will have to ride, in order to decide how many strides the horse will need to take between each jump and from which angle.
Going off course will cost time if minor errors are made and major departures will result in disqualification. The higher levels of competition, such as "A" or "AA" rated shows in the United States, or the international "Grand Prix" circuit, present more technical and complex courses. Not only is the height and width of an obstacle increased to present a greater challenge, technical difficulty increases with tighter turns and shorter or unusual distances between fences. Horses sometimes have to jump fences from an angle rather than straight on. For example, a course designer might set up a line so that there are six and a half strides between the jumps, requiring the rider to adjust the horse's stride in order to make the distance. Unlike show hunter classes, which reward calmness and style, jumper classes require boldness, power and control; the first round of the class consists of the rider and horse having to go around the course without refusing or knocking down any jumps while staying within the time allowed.
If the horse/rider combination completes the first round then they move on to the second round, called the "jump-off". In a jump-off, the rider needs to plan ahead of time because they need to be speedy and not have any faults; the jump-off has fewer jumps than the first round but is much more difficult. To win this round, the rider has to be the quickest while still not refusing or knocking down any jumps. Show jumping is a new equestrian sport; until the Inclosure Acts, which came into force in England in the 18th century, there had been little need for horses to jump fences but with this act of Parliament came new challenges for those who followed fox hounds. The Inclosure Acts brought fencing and boundaries to many parts of the country as common ground was dispersed amongst separate owners; this meant that those wishing to pursue their sport
Bay is a hair coat color of horses, characterized by a brown body color with a black mane, ear edges, lower legs. Bay is one of the most common coat colors in many horse breeds; the black areas of a bay horse's hair coat are called "black points", without them, a horse cannot be considered a bay horse. Black points may sometimes be covered by white markings. Bay horses have dark skin, except under white markings -. Genetically, bay occurs when a horse carries both a black base coat; the addition of other genes creates many additional coat colors. While the basic concepts behind bay coloring are simple, the genes themselves and the mechanisms that cause shade variations within the bay family are quite complex and, at times, disputed; the genetics of dark shades of bay are still under study. A DNA test said to detect the seal brown allele was developed, but subsequently pulled from the market. Sooty genetics appear to darken some horses' bay coats, that genetic mechanism is yet to be understood. Bay horses range in color from a light copper red, to a rich red blood bay to a dark red or brown called dark bay, mahogany bay, black-bay, or brown.
The dark, brown shades of bay are referred to in other languages by words meaning "black-and-tan." Dark bays/browns may be so dark as to have nearly black coats, with brownish-red hairs visible only under the eyes, around the muzzle, behind the elbow, in front of the stifle. Dark bay should not be confused with "Liver" chestnut, a dark brown color, but a liver chestnut has a brown mane and legs, no black points; the pigment in a bay horse's coat, regardless of shade, is rich and saturated. This makes bays lustrous in the sun if properly cared for; some bay horses exhibit dappling, caused by textured, concentric rings within the coat. Dapples on a bay horse suggest good condition and care, though many well-cared for horses never dapple; the tendency to dapple may be, to some extent, genetic. Bays have a two-toned hair shaft, which, if shaved too may cause the horse to appear several shades lighter, a somewhat dull orange-gold like a dun. However, as the hair grows out, it will darken again to the proper shade.
This phenomenon is part of bay color genetics, but not seen in darker shades of bay because there is less red in the hair shaft. There are many terms that are used to describe particular qualities of a bay coat; some shade variations can be related to nutrition and grooming, but most appear to be caused by inherited factors not yet understood. The palest shades, which lack specific English terminology found in other languages, are called wild bays. Wild bays are true bays with pigmented reddish coat color and black manes and tails, but the black points only extend up to the pastern or fetlock. Wild bay is found in conjunction with a trait called "pangare" that produces pale color on the underbelly and soft areas, such as near the stifle and around the muzzle. Bay horses have black skin and dark eyes, except for the skin under markings, pink. Skin color can help an observer distinguish between a bay horse with white markings and a horse which resembles bay but is not; some breed registries use the term "brown" to describe dark bays.
However, "liver" chestnuts, horses with a red or brown mane and tail as well as a dark brownish body coat, are sometimes called "brown" in some colloquial contexts. Therefore, "brown" can be an ambiguous term for describing horse coat color, it is clearer to refer to dark-colored horses as dark bays or liver chestnuts. However, to further complicate matters, the genetics that lead to darker coat colors are under study, there exists more than one genetic mechanism that darkens the coat color. One is a theorized sooty gene; the other is a specific allele of Agouti linked to a certain type of dark bay, called seal brown. The seal brown horse has dark brown body and lighter areas around the eyes, the muzzle, flanks. A DNA test said to detect the seal brown allele was developed, but the test was never subjected to peer review and due to unreliable results was subsequently pulled from the market; some foals are born bay, but carry the dominant gene for graying, thus will turn gray as they mature until their hair coat is white.
Foals that are going to become gray must have one parent, gray. Some foals may be born with a few white hairs visible around the eyes and other fine-haired, thin-skinned areas, but others may not show signs of graying until they are several months old. Chestnuts, sometimes called "Sorrels," have a reddish body coat similar to a bay, but no black points, their legs and ear edges are the same color as the rest of their body and their manes and tails are the same shade as their body color or a few shades lighter. Black is confused with dark bays and liver chestnuts because some black horses "sunburn," that is, when kept out in the sun, they develop a bleached-out coat that looks brownish in the fine-haired areas around the flanks. However, a true black can be recognized by looking at the fine hairs around eyes; these hairs are always black on a black horse, but are reddish, brownish, or a light gold on a bay or chestnut. Traditionally, bay is considered to be one of the "hard" or "base" coat
Ace of spades
The ace of spades is traditionally the highest and most valued card in the deck of playing cards in English-speaking countries. The actual value of the card varies from game to game; the ornate design of the ace of spades, common in packs today, stems from the 17th century, when James I and Queen Anne imposed laws requiring the ace of spades to bear an insignia of the printing house. Stamp duty, an idea imported to England by Charles I, was extended to playing cards in 1711 by Queen Anne and lasted until 1960. Over the years a number of methods were used to show. From 1712 onwards, one of the cards in the pack the ace of spades, was marked with a hand stamp. In 1765 hand stamping was replaced by the printing of official ace of spades by the Stamp Office, incorporating the royal coat of arms. In 1828 the Duty Ace of Spades was printed to indicate; the system was changed again in 1862 when official threepenny duty wrappers were introduced and although the makers were free to use whatever design they wanted, most chose to keep the ornate ace of spades, popular today.
The ace of spades is thus used to show the card manufacturer's information. The exact design of the ace card was so important, it became the subject of design patents and trademarking. For example, on December 5, 1882, George G. White was granted US design patent US0D0013473 for his design, his ace design was adorned with male and female figures leaning onto the spade from either side. The ace of spades has been employed, in the theater of war. In the Second World War, the soldiers of the 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment of the American 101st Airborne Division were marked with the spades symbol painted on the sides of their helmet. In this capacity, it was used to represent good luck, due to its fortunate connotations in card playing. All four card suits were used for easy of identification of regiments within the airborne division following the confusion of a large scale combat airborne operation. Battalions within the regiments were denoted with tic marks or dots, marked from top clockwise: headquarters at the twelve o'clock position, 1st Battalion at the three o'clock, etc.
Some twenty years a folk legend about the ace of spades being used by American Soldiers during the Vietnam War was popularized. US troops believed that Vietnamese traditions held the symbolism of the spade to mean death and ill-fortune and in a bid to frighten and demoralize Viet Cong soldiers, it was common practice to mockingly leave an ace of spades on the bodies of killed Vietnamese and to litter the forested grounds and fields with the card; this custom was said to be so effective that the United States Playing Card Company was asked by Charlie Company, 2nd Battalion, 35th Infantry Regiment to supply crates of that single card in bulk. The plain white tuck cases were marked "Bicycle Secret Weapon", the cards were deliberately scattered in villages and in the jungle during raids; the ace of spades, while not a symbol of superstitious fear to the Viet Cong forces, did help the morale of American soldiers. It was not unheard of for US Soldiers and Marines to stick this card in their helmet band as a sort of anti-peace sign.
More in 2003 a deck of most-wanted Iraqi playing cards was issued to US Soldiers during Operation Iraqi Freedom, each card had the picture of a wanted Iraqi official on it. Saddam Hussein got the nickname "Ace of Spades". Various idioms involving the ace of spades include, "black as the ace of spades," which may refer either to color, race, a morality, or cleanliness in a person. There is the French expression fagoté comme l'as de pique—that is, " dressed like the ace of spades." U+1F0A1 PLAYING CARD ACE OF SPADES is part of the playing cards in Unicode Richard Harding, hanged in London for forgery of the duty stamp on the ace of spades and knowingly selling playing cards with the same in 1805. Black Spot List of poker hand nicknames The Death Card
The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing. Although the word thoroughbred is sometimes used to refer to any breed of purebred horse, it technically refers only to the Thoroughbred breed. Thoroughbreds are considered "hot-blooded" horses that are known for their agility and spirit; the Thoroughbred as it is known today was developed in 17th- and 18th-century England, when native mares were crossbred with imported Oriental stallions of Arabian and Turkoman breeding. All modern Thoroughbreds can trace their pedigrees to three stallions imported into England in the 17th century and 18th century and to a larger number of foundation mares of English breeding. During the 18th and 19th centuries, the Thoroughbred breed spread throughout the world. Millions of Thoroughbreds exist today, around 100,000 foals are registered each year worldwide. Thoroughbreds are used for racing, but are bred for other riding disciplines such as show jumping, combined training, dressage and fox hunting.
They are commonly crossbred to create new breeds or to improve existing ones, have been influential in the creation of the Quarter Horse, Anglo-Arabian, various warmblood breeds. Thoroughbred racehorses perform with maximum exertion, which has resulted in high accident rates and health problems such as bleeding from the lungs. Other health concerns include low fertility, abnormally small hearts and a small hoof-to-body-mass ratio. There are several theories for the reasons behind the prevalence of accidents and health problems in the Thoroughbred breed, research is ongoing; the typical Thoroughbred ranges from 15.2 to 17.0 hands high. They are most bay, dark bay or brown, black, or gray. Less common colors recognized in the United States include palomino. White is rare, but is a recognized color separate from gray; the face and lower legs may be marked with white, but white will not appear on the body. Coat patterns that have more than one color on the body, such as Pinto or Appaloosa, are not recognized by mainstream breed registries.
Good-quality Thoroughbreds have a well-chiseled head on a long neck, high withers, a deep chest, a short back, good depth of hindquarters, a lean body, long legs. Thoroughbreds are classified among the "hot-blooded" breeds, which are animals bred for agility and speed and are considered spirited and bold. Thoroughbreds born in the Northern Hemisphere are considered a year older on the first of January each year; these artificial dates have been set to enable the standardization of races and other competitions for horses in certain age groups. The Thoroughbred is a distinct breed of horse, although people sometimes refer to a purebred horse of any breed as a thoroughbred; the term for any horse or other animal derived from a single breed line is purebred. While the term came into general use because the English Thoroughbred's General Stud Book was one of the first breed registries created, in modern usage horse breeders consider it incorrect to refer to any animal as a thoroughbred except for horses belonging to the Thoroughbred breed.
Nonetheless, breeders of other species of purebred animals may use the two terms interchangeably, though thoroughbred is less used for describing purebred animals of other species. The term is a proper noun referring to this specific breed, though not capitalized in non-specialist publications, outside the US. For example, the Australian Stud Book, The New York Times, the BBC do not capitalize the word. Flat racing existed in England by at least 1174, when four-mile races took place at Smithfield, in London. Racing continued at fairs and markets throughout the Middle Ages and into the reign of King James I of England, it was that handicapping, a system of adding weight to attempt to equalize a horse's chances of winning as well as improved training procedures, began to be used. During the reigns of Charles II, William III, George I, the foundation of the Thoroughbred was laid; the term "thro-bred" to describe horses was first used in 1713. Under Charles II, a keen racegoer and owner, Anne, royal support was given to racing and the breeding of race horses.
With royal support, horse racing became popular with the public, by 1727, a newspaper devoted to racing, the Racing Calendar, was founded. Devoted to the sport, it recorded race results and advertised upcoming meets. All modern Thoroughbreds trace back to three stallions imported into England from the Middle East in the late 17th and early 18th centuries: the Byerley Turk, the Darley Arabian, the Godolphin Arabian. Other stallions of oriental breeding were less influential, but still made noteworthy contributions to the breed; these included the Alcock's Arabian, D'Arcy's White Turk, Leedes Arabian, Curwen's Bay Barb. Another was the Brownlow Turk, among other attributes, is thought to be responsible for the gray coat color in Thoroughbreds. In all, about 160 stallions of Oriental breeding have been traced in the historical record as contributing to the creation of the Thoroughbred; the addition of horses of Eastern bloodlines, whether Arabian, Barb, or Turk, to the native English mares led to the creation of the General Stud Book in 1791 and the practice of official registration of horses.
According to Peter Willett, about 50% of the foundation stallions appear to have been of Arabian bloodlines, wit
Celle State Stud
Celle State Stud is a state-owned facility for horse breeding in Celle, Germany. The State Stud of Celle, located in what is now known as Lower Saxony, was founded in 1735 by order of George II, King of Great Britain, Elector of Hanover and Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, its purpose was to make high-quality stallions available to local breeders. Several wars affected not only the types of stallions housed there. Celle's history is intertwined with the history of the Hanoverian horse breed, but the breed registry is owned and is an entity independent of the stud. Today the state stud is known for its annual stallion parades; the Lower Saxony State Stud of Celle was founded on July 27, 1735. Celle's foundation is unique among the state studs of Germany, because it was not based on a royal stud or courtly stables, it was established by the decree of King George II of Great Britain the Elector of Hanover and Duke of Braunschweig-Lüneburg. Although it was established by this royal decree, the stud has always been "exclusively for the improvement of horse breeding for farmers."
The quality of local stock had a direct impact on the safety of a sovereign region. In times of war, cavalry horses were recruited locally from farmers, the quality of remounts affected the outcomes of battles. Furthermore, nobles wanted quality riding horses for personal use and harness horses for carriage transport. Poor quality local stock meant. Establishment of a state stud meant that fine riding and driving horses could be purchased locally, reducing trade dependence on other autonomous regions; the first sires to stand. Young stallions were imported from Mecklenburg and England. Despite the close connection between Hanover and Great Britain, Thoroughbred horses could not play a role in the founding of the stud, as the breed was in its infancy in Celle's own early years. Pedigrees were recorded in Celle's studbooks as early as the end of the 18th century; the Napoleonic Wars, from 1803 to 1815, decimated horse populations, including those at the State Stud of Celle. In 1803, the 100 stallions living at Celle had to be evacuated to Mecklenburg, of which only 30 returned.
While the war was responsible for the loss of many horses, horse breeding expanded to meet the needs of the cavalries, such that the population of stallions at Celle had returned to pre-war numbers within 15 years. In the aftermath of the wars, King George IV assisted in the repopulation of the State Stud of Celle with about 50 of his own stallions; these stallions, which came from his private stables, were stationed in various parts of his kingdom and utilized by locals. In 1829, King George IV discontinued this practice, purchased 26 excellent stallions for Celle; the pedigrees of Thoroughbreds were first organized on a large scale by the General Stud Book in 1791 creating the original breed registry for Thoroughbreds. Within fifty years, the rising prominence of the breed and the personal union between Hannover and Great Britain saw an influx of Thoroughbred and part-Thoroughbred stallions. Further use of Thoroughbred stallions is credited to the state equerries of the mid-19th century; the state equerry is a government position which oversees activities related to the horses of a region.
From 1866, the state equerries of Hannover were two brothers and Frederick von Spörken, who imported over 100 Thoroughbred-influenced stallions from England. These stallions were used to breed more refined, more energetic and enduring mounts. Nearly a third of the sires at Celle were Thoroughbred or of Thoroughbred extraction; this demographic resulted in horses that were too physically and temperamentally refined for farm work, a period of consolidation followed this explosion of Thoroughbred influence. World War I raged between 1914 and 1918. During this period, warring nations avidly developed new advantages in the form of mechanized warfare. Demand for cavalry horses during the war itself was high, Celle helped meet this demand by increasing the number of stallions available at the main stud and its outposts from 350 to 500 by 1924; the prestige associated with the cavalry made many nations slow to replace them, but the role of the horse in warfare dwindled with the advent of tanks. Without the armed forces to purchase their stock, breeders around Celle began to cut back, to refocus.
Between the First and Second World Wars, horses fulfilled agricultural roles, such as pulling plows and farm machinery. This market change was not limited to any one part of Germany, as a result, Celle supplied breeders with heavier, stronger stallions with which to breed their mares. To cope with the expansion of horse breeding during this period, new outposts of the State Stud were established; this change did not endure, as another bout of human ingenuity was spurred on by World War II, which lasted from 1939 to 1945. One of the outcomes of the war was mechanized agriculture. In particular, widespread access to tractors all but eliminated the need for farm horses. Mechanization of transportation and agriculture eliminated, in succession, the working horse. What remained in the wake of World War II was riding for fun. In 1945, what remained of the refined Trakehners evacuated East Prussia, fleeing from Russian troops; some of these elegant horses made their way to Celle, as breeding aim changed to feature the riding horse, many were incorporated into the stud farm.
Since 1945, many Thoroughbreds and Trakehners, some Anglo-Arabians, have occupied stalls at the State Stud at Celle. Today, 140 stallions including 10 Thoroughbreds, 2 Anglo-Arabians, 2 Trakehners, 3 ponies serve 8000 broodmar
Show Jumping World Championships
The Show Jumping World Championships, or the show jumping competition at the FEI World Equestrian Games, was started in 1953, with individual competition. In 1978 Team competitions began, men and women began competing against one another. From 1990, show jumping was brought together along with the other equestrian disciplines into the World Equestrian Games, they are held every four years. The current historical medal count since 1953 is as follows: Note 1: Medal count is sorted by total gold medals total silver medals total bronze medals alphabetically. Note 2: Germany includes both Germany and West Germany. 1978 Aachen: GBR Derek Ricketts / Hydrophane Coldstream Caroline Bradley / Tigre Malcolm Pyrah / Law Court David Broome / Philco 1982 Dublin: FRA Michel Robert / Ideal de la Haye Patrick Caron / Malesan Eole IV Frédéric Cottier / Flambeau C Gilles B. de Balanda / Malesan Galoubet A 1986 Aachen: USA Michael Matz / Chef Conrad Homfeld / Abdullah Katie Monahan / Amadia Katharine Burdsall / The Natural 1990 Stockholm: FRA Eric Navet / M. Quito de Baussy Hubert Bourdy / Morgat Roger-Yves Bost / Norton de Rhuys Pierre Durand / Jappeloup 1994 Den Haag: GER Franke Sloothaak / S.
P. Weihaiwej Sören von Rönne / Taggi Dirk Hafemeister / P. S. Priamos Ludger Beerbaum / Almox Ratina Z 1998 Rome: GER Lars Nieberg / Loro P. Esprit Markus Beerbaum / Lady Weingard Franke Sloothaak / SP Joly Ludger Beerbaum / P. S. Priamos 2002 Jerez de la Frontera: FRA Eric Levallois / Diamant de Semilly Ecolit Reynald Angot / Tlaloc M Gilles Bertran de Balanda / Crocus Graverie Eric Navet / Dollar du Murier Hts de Seine 2006 Aachen: NED Piet Raymakers / Van Schijndel's Curtis Jeroen Dubbeldam / BMC Up And Down Albert Zoer / Okidoki Gerco Schröder / Eurocommerce Berlin 2010 Lexington: GER Marcus Ehning / Plot Blue Janne Friederike Meyer / Cellagon Lambrasco Meredith Michaels-Beerbaum / Checkmate Carsten-Otto Nagel / Corradina 2014 Caen: NED Maikel van der Vleuten / VDL Groep Verdi TN N. O. P. Jeroen Dubbeldam / Zenith SFN Jur Vrieling / VDL Bubalu Gerco Schröder / Glock's London N. O. P 2018 Tryon: USA McLain Ward / Clinta Adrienne Sternlicht / Cristalline Devin Ryan / Eddie Blue Laura Kraut / Zeremonie 1965 Hickstead: Marion Coakes and Stroller 1970 Copenhagen: Janou Lefèbvre and Rocket 1974 La Baule: Janou Tissot-Lefèbvre and Rocket World Championships Statistics by Canadian Show Jumping
A stallion is a male horse that has not been gelded. Stallions follow the conformation and phenotype of their breed, but within that standard, the presence of hormones such as testosterone may give stallions a thicker, "cresty" neck, as well as a somewhat more muscular physique as compared to female horses, known as mares, castrated males, called geldings. Temperament varies based on genetics, training, but because of their instincts as herd animals, they may be prone to aggressive behavior toward other stallions, thus require careful management by knowledgeable handlers. However, with proper training and management, stallions are effective equine athletes at the highest levels of many disciplines, including horse racing, horse shows, international Olympic competition; the term "stallion" dates from the era of Henry VII, who passed a number of laws relating to the breeding and export of horses in an attempt to improve the British stock, under which it was forbidden to allow uncastrated male horses to be turned out in fields or on the commons.
"Stallion" is used to refer to males of other equids, including zebras and donkeys. Contrary to popular myths, many stallions do not live with a harem of mares. Nor, in natural settings, do they fight each other to the death in competition for mares. Being social animals, stallions who are not able to find or win a harem of mares band together in stallions-only "bachelor" groups which are composed of stallions of all ages. With a band of mares, the stallion is not the leader of a herd but defends and protects the herd from predators and other stallions; the leadership role in a herd is held by a mare, known colloquially as the "lead mare" or "boss mare." The mare determines the movement of the herd as it travels to obtain food and shelter. She determines the route the herd takes when fleeing from danger; when the herd is in motion, the dominant stallion herds the straggling members closer to the group and acts as a "rear guard" between the herd and a potential source of danger. When the herd is at rest, all members share the responsibility of keeping watch for danger.
The stallion is on the edge of the group, to defend the herd if needed. There is one dominant mature stallion for every mixed-sex herd of horses; the dominant stallion in the herd will tolerate both sexes of horses while young, but once they become sexually mature as yearlings or two-year-olds, the stallion will drive both colts and fillies from the herd. Colts may present competition for the stallion, but studies suggest that driving off young horses of both sexes may be an instinctive behavior that minimizes the risk of inbreeding within the herd, as most young are the offspring of the dominant stallion in the group. In some cases, a single younger mature male may be tolerated on the fringes of the herd. One theory is that this young male is considered a potential successor, as in time the younger stallion will drive out the older herd stallion. Fillies soon join a different band with a dominant stallion different from the one that sired them. Colts or young stallions without mares of their own form small, all-male, "bachelor bands" in the wild.
Living in a group gives these stallions the protective benefits of living in a herd. A bachelor herd may contain older stallions who have lost their herd in a challenge. Other stallions may directly challenge a herd stallion, or may attempt to "steal" mares and form a new, smaller herd. In either case, if the two stallions meet, there is a true fight. If a fight for dominance occurs do opponents hurt each other in the wild because the weaker combatant has a chance to flee. Fights between stallions in captivity may result in serious injuries. In the wild, feral stallions have been known to mate with domesticated mares; the stallion's reproductive system is responsible for his sexual behavior and secondary sex characteristics. The external genitalia comprise: the testes; the testes of an average stallion are ovoids 8 to 12 cm long, 6 to 7 cm high by 5 cm wide. Stallions have a vascular penis; when non-erect, it is quite flaccid and contained within the prepuce. The retractor penis muscle is underdeveloped.
Erection and protrusion take place by the increasing tumescence of the erectile vascular tissue in the corpus cavernosum penis. When not erect, the penis is housed within the prepuce, 50 cm long and 2.5 to 6 cm in diameter with the distal end 15 to 20 cm. The retractor muscle contracts to retract the penis into the sheath and relaxes to allow the penis to extend from the sheath; when erect, the penis doubles in length and thickness and the glans increases by 3 to 4 times. The urethra opens within a small pouch at the distal end of the glans. A structure called the urethral process projects beyond the glans; the internal genitalia comprise the accessory sex glands, which include the vesicular glands, the prostate gland and the bulbourethral glands. These contribute fluid to the semen at ejaculation, but are not necessary for fertility. Domesticated stallions are trained and managed in a variety of ways, depending on the region of the w