1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Missouri's 6th congressional district
Missouri's 6th congressional district takes in a large swath of land in northern Missouri, stretching across nearly the entire width of the state from Kansas to Illinois. Its largest voting population is centered in the northern portion of the Kansas City metropolitan area and the town of St. Joseph; the district includes nearly all of Kansas City north of the Missouri River. The district takes in all or parts of the following counties: Adair, Atchison, Caldwell, Chariton, Clinton, Daviess, De Kalb, Grundy, Holt, Linn, Mercer, Platte, Schuyler, Worth. Notable representatives from the district include governors John Smith Phelps and Austin A. King as well as Kansas City Mayor Robert T. Van Horn. In 1976, Jerry Litton was killed on election night as he flew to a victory party after winning the Democratic nomination for United States Senate; the visitors center at Smithville Lake is named in Litton's memory. George W. Bush beat John Kerry in this district 57%-43% in 2004; the district is represented by Republican Sam Graves, who has held the seat since 2001.
Graves held on to his seat what was expected to be a tough 2008 election, defeating former Kansas City mayor Kay Waldo Barnes by 22 percentage points. The 6th was not safe for either party. However, in recent years, it has trended Republican, mirroring the conservative bent of the more rural areas of Missouri that voted for Yellow Dog Democrats. After Missouri lost a Congressional seat following the 2010 Census, the 6th was expanded to include most of Missouri north of the Missouri River, stretching from border to border from Kansas to Illinois; the biggest geographic addition will be northeast Missouri, most of, in the northern half of the old 9th district. The 6th lost Cooper and Howard counties to the 4th district, Gladstone in southwestern Clay County to the 5th district. Missouri's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C..
The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present https://web.archive.org/web/20131013222920/http://2010.census.gov/2010census/popmap/
Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge
The 3,750-acre Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge is located in the floodplain of the Mississippi River, adjacent to Pool No. 25 in Pike County, Missouri. The refuge's diversity of habitats supports waterfowl, wading birds and songbirds. Although it is protected by a levee, the refuge provides flood storage in periods of high water. Clarence Cannon Refuge is managed by Great River National Wildlife Refuge, part of the Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Complex. Clarence Cannon Refuge website This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Media related to Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge at Wikimedia Commons
Lynching in the United States
Lynching is the practice of murder by a group of people by extrajudicial action. Lynchings in the United States rose in number after the American Civil War in the late 1800s, following the emancipation of slaves. Most lynchings were of African-American men in the South, but women were lynched, white lynchings of blacks occurred in Midwestern and border states during the 20th-century Great Migration of blacks out of the South; the purpose was to intimidate blacks through racial terrorism. On a per capita basis lynchings were common in California and the Old West of Latinos, although they represented less than 10% of the national total. Native Americans and Asian Americans were lynched. Other ethnicities, including Finnish-Americans, Jewish-Americans, German-Americans and Italian-Americans were lynched occasionally; the stereotype of a lynching is a hanging, because hangings are what crowds of people saw, are easy to photograph. Some hangings were professionally photographed and sold as postcards, which were popular souvenirs in some parts of the U.
S. Victims were killed by mobs in a variety of other ways: shot burned alive, forced to jump off a bridge, dragged behind cars, the like. Sometimes they were tortured as well, with body parts sometimes sold as souvenirs. Lynchings were not fatal. A "mock" lynching, putting the rope around the neck of someone suspected of concealing information, might be used to compel "confessions". According to the Tuskegee Institute, 4,743 people were lynched between 1882 and 1968 in the United States, including 3,446 African Americans and 1,297 whites. More than 73 percent of lynchings in the post-Civil War period occurred in the Southern states. According to the Equal Justice Initiative, 4,084 African-Americans were lynched between 1877 and 1950 in the South. Lynchings were most frequent from 1890 to the 1920s, with a peak in 1892. Lynchings were large mob actions, attended by hundreds or thousands of watchers; as in the case of Ell Parsons, they were sometimes announced in advance in newspapers and in one instance with a special train.
However, in the 20th century lynchings became more secretive, were conducted by smaller groups of people. According to Michael Pfeifer, the prevalence of lynching in postbellum America reflects lack of confidence in the "due process" judicial system, he links the decline in lynching in the early twentieth century with "the advent of the modern death penalty": "legislators renovated the death penalty...out of direct concern for the alternative of mob violence". He cites "the modern, racialized excesses of urban police forces in the twentieth century and after" as having characteristics of lynching. "More black people killed by cops in 2015 than were lynched in the worst year of Jim Crow."On April 26, 2018, in Montgomery, The National Memorial for Peace and Justice opened. Founded by the Equal Justice Initiative of that city, it is the first large memorial to document lynchings of African Americans in the United States. After the Reconstruction era, most of the South was politically dominated by white Democrats.
Lynchings were used to intimidate blacks by racial terrorism. The rate of lynchings in the South has been associated with economic strains, although the causal nature of this link is unclear. Low cotton prices and economic stress are associated with higher frequencies of lynching; the granting of U. S. Constitutional rights to freedmen after the American Civil War the vote, was resisted by many white Southerners; some blamed the freedmen for their own wartime hardships, post-war economic losses, loss of social and political privilege. During Reconstruction and white people working for civil rights were attacked and sometimes lynched. Black voting was suppressed by violence as well as by poll taxes and literacy tests. White Democrats regained control of state legislatures in 1876, a national compromise resulted in the removal of federal troops from the South in 1877. In decades, violence continued around elections until blacks were disfranchised by the states from 1885 to 1908 through constitutional changes and laws that created barriers to voter registration across the South.
White Democrats enacted Jim Crow laws to enforce blacks' second-class status. During this period that spanned the late 19th and early 20th centuries, lynchings reached a peak in the South. Florida led the nation in lynchings per capita from 1900 to 1930. Georgia led the nation in lynchings from 1900 to 1931 with 302 incidents, according to The Tuskegee Institute. Lynchings peaked in many areas when it was time for landowners to settle accounts with sharecroppers. There is no count of recorded lynchings which claims to be precise, the numbers vary depending on the sources, the years considered, the definition used to define an incident; the Tuskegee Institute has recorded 3,446 blacks and 1,297 whites being lynched between 1882 and 1968, with the annual peak occurring in the 1890s, at a time of economic stress in the South and increasing political suppression of blacks. A five-year study published in 2015 by the Equal Justice Initiative found that nearly 3,959 black men and children were lynched in the twelve Southern states between 1877 and 1950.
Over this period Georgia's 586 lynchings led all states. African Americans mounted resistance to lynchings in numerous ways. Intellectuals and journalists encouraged public education protesting and lobbying against lynch mob violence and gover
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Howard County, Missouri
Howard County is a county in the U. S. state with its southern border formed by the Missouri River. As of the 2010 census, the population was 10,144, its county seat is Fayette. The county was organized January 23, 1816 and named for Benjamin Howard, the first Governor of the Missouri Territory. Settled by migrants from the Upper South, it is part of the region known as Little Dixie, it is part of Missouri metropolitan area. Located on the north bank of the Missouri River, Howard County was settled from the Upper Southern states of Kentucky and Virginia; the migrants brought slaves and slaveholding traditions with them, cultivated hemp and tobacco, crops of Middle Tennessee. Howard was one of several counties settled by Southerners along the Missouri River in the center of the state; because of this, this area became known as Little Dixie, Howard County was at its heart. Following the 1848 revolutions in the German nations, many German immigrants came to this region, developing farms. Due to the reliance on slave labor, by 1860 African-American slaves composed at least 25 percent of the county's population.
Given their backgrounds and cultural affiliations, many Howard County residents supported the Confederacy during the Civil War. Ethnic German immigrants and descendants tended to support the Union. After the end of Reconstruction, whites enforced Jim Crow laws and racial segregation in the county to maintain white supremacy. In the most violent period, at the turn of the 20th century, five African Americans were lynched in Howard County from 1891 to 1914: Olli Truxton, Frank Embree, Thomas Hayden, Arthur McNeal, Dallas Shields. Howard County tied with Pike County for the highest rate of lynchings in the state; the county continued to be developed for agriculture and is still rural. However, Howard County has lost population since its peak in 1880; the mechanization of farming reduced the demand for labor, many workers left for jobs in the cities and less oppressive societies. By 2000 African Americans in the county had declined to less than seven percent of the total. In the early 21st century, nearly one-third of the residents identify as being of German ancestry, reflecting the wave of mid-19th century immigration.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 472 square miles, of which 464 square miles is land and 7.7 square miles is water. Chariton County Randolph County Boone County Cooper County Saline County U. S. Route 40 Route 3 Route 5 Route 87 Route 124 Route 240 Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 10,212 people, 3,836 households, 2,631 families residing in the county; the population density was 22 people per square mile. There were 4,346 housing units at an average density of 9 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 91.13% White, 6.84% Black or African American, 0.33% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 0.40% from other races, 1.10% from two or more races. 0.86% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 32.4% were of German, 16.1% American, 8.9% English and 8.3% Irish ancestry. There were 3,836 households out of which 31.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.30% were married couples living together, 9.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.40% were non-families.
27.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.98. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.00% under the age of 18, 13.30% from 18 to 24, 25.20% from 25 to 44, 21.30% from 45 to 64, 16.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,614, the median income for a family was $40,167. Males had a median income of $26,369 versus $19,950 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,198. About 7.50% of families and 11.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.70% of those under age 18 and 14.40% of those age 65 or over. Fayette R-III School District – Fayette Laurence J. Daly Elementary School William N. Clark Middle School Fayette High School Glasgow School District – Glasgow Howard County Elementary School Glasgow High School New Franklin R-I School District – New Franklin New Franklin Elementary School New Franklin Middle/High School St. Mary's Catholic School – Glasgow – Roman Catholic Grace & Glory Christian Academy – New Franklin – Baptist - Central Methodist University – Fayette – A private, four-year Methodist university.
Howard County Library Lewis Library of Glasgow The Democratic Party predominantly controls politics at the local level in Howard County. Democrats hold all but two of the elected positions in the county. Howard County is split between two districts of the Missouri House of Representatives, both of which are represented by Republicans. District 47 — Chuck Basye consists of the eastern part of the county. District 48 — Dave Muntzel consists of the central and western parts of the county. All of Howard County is a part of Missouri's 21st District in the Missouri Senate and is represented by Denny Hoskins. All of Howard County is included in Missouri's 4th Congressional District and is represented by Vicky Hartzler in the U. S. House of Representativ