The fresh fruit has a light-green smooth skin and a white flesh. Rounder varieties are called calabash gourds and they grow in a variety of shapes, they can be huge and rounded and bottle shaped, or slim and serpentine, more than a metre long. The gourd was one of the first cultivated plants in the world, grown not primarily for food, but for use as water containers. The bottle gourd may have carried from Africa to Asia, Europe. It has been proven to be in the New World prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus and it is a commonly cultivated plant in tropical and subtropical areas of the world, now believed by some to have spread or originated from wild populations in southern Africa. Stands of L. siceraria, which may be source plants and this apparent domestication source plant produces thinner-walled fruit that, when dried, would not endure the rigors of use on long journeys as a water container. Todays gourd may owe its tough, waterproof wall to selection pressures over its history of domestication.
Gourds were cultivated in Africa, Asia and the Americas for thousands of years before Columbus discovery of America. Historically, in Europe, Walahfrid Strabo and poet from Reichenau and advisor to the Carolingian kings and this study showed that gourds found in American archaeological finds appeared closer to Asian variants than to African ones. In February 2014, the hypothesis was revived based on a more thorough genetic study. Nowadays, bottle gourds are grown by sowing of seeds or transplanting 15- to 20-day-old seedlings. It prefers well-drained, rich soil and it requires plenty of moisture in the growing season and a warm sunny position sheltered from the wind. It is cultivated in places such as in a pot. In rural areas, many houses with thatched roofs are covered with the gourd vines. Bottle gourds grow very rapidly and their stems can reach a length of 9 m in the summer, if planted under a tall tree, the vine can grow up to the top of the tree. To get more fruit, sometimes cut off the tip of the vine when it has grown to 6–8 feet long.
This forces the plant to produce side branches that produce much sooner and more flowers. The male flowers have long peduncles and the females have short ones with an ovary of the shape of the fruit, the female flowers drop off without growing into a gourd due to the failure of pollination if no bee activity occurs in the garden area
Radio carbon dating has established it was built about 900-200BC and abandoned 1000–1470AD. Surrounding the hilltop fortress are lower-lying areas of occupation and extensive cemeteries, attention was called to the site early on by the German archaeologist Hans Horkheimer, who wrote about Acaray in 1962 in the Peruvian magazine, published in Lima. Horkheimer noted the abundance of rolled river cobbles on the surface of the site, during the 1970s interest in Acaray increased, and the first work by archaeologists was initiated at the fortress. She led a team that surveyed the Huaura Valley and excavated at several sites and she estimated that it was built about 900-200BC and abandoned 1000–1470AD. According to Brown Vega, Acaray early megalithic wall constructions may be similar to those of Chankillo from the same period and social life in prehispanic Perú, ritual and communities at the Fortress of Acaray, Huaura Valley. PhD dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana-Champaign, conﬂict in the early horizon and late intermediate period, new dates from the fortress of Acaray, Huaura valley, Perú.
30, 38B Ruiz Estrada, Torero, M. Domingo, huacho, Perú, Comite de Educacion de la Cooperative de Ahorro y Credito San Bartolome
A metate or metlatl is a type or variety of quern, a ground stone tool used for processing grain and seeds. In traditional Mesoamerican culture, metates were used by women who would grind lime-treated maize. Similar artifacts are all over the world, including China. While varying in specific morphology, metates adhere to a common shape and they typically consist of large stones with a smooth depression or bowl worn into the upper surface. The bowl is formed by the continual and long-term grinding of materials using a smooth hand-held stone and this action consists of a horizontal grinding motion that differs from the vertical crushing motion used in a mortar and pestle. The depth of the varies, though they are typically not deeper than those of a mortar. Another type of metate called a grinding slab may be found among boulder or exposed bedrock outcroppings, the upper face of the stone is used for grinding materials, such as acorns, that results in the smoothing of the stones face and the creation of pocked dimples.
Carved, volcanic-stone ceremonial metates represent one of the most unusual and they come in many different forms, and morphological variation corresponds to different regions and time periods. They can be rectangular, flat, or curved and they may or may not have rims and between three and four legs. Some exhibits show signs of use-wear while others show no signs of wear and appear to have made specifically for use as burial goods. Some examples characterized as metate might have actually been a type of throne for sitting on – not a metate at all, some examples are known as effigy-headed metate, which feature an animal’s head at one end, with the metate itself making up the body of the creature. Animals typically depicted are jaguar, crocodile or birds, the most complex type of ceremonial metate is the class referred to as “flying-panel” metate. This style comes from the Atlantic watershed region, including the City of Guayabo and represents a level of craftsmanship. Carved from a piece of stone, these metates typically contain multiple figures.
Trophy heads, jaguar and saurian figures are the most common themes, the “flying panel” metate is believed to be the precursor to free standing sculptural figures more common in the Atlantic watershed region. The earliest traditions of sculpture in Costa Rica, including ceremonial metate. Metate from the Nicoya/Guanacaste region have longitudinally curved and rimless plates and those from the Atlantic Watershed have a plate that is horizontally flat and rimmed. Both are associated with goods, suggesting differential social status existed within these communities
Fernando Collor de Mello
Collor was the first President directly elected by the people after the end of the Brazilian military government. He is the youngest President in Brazilian history, taking office at the age of 40 and he was acquitted of ordinary criminal charges in his judicial trial before Brazils Supreme Federal Court, for lack of valid evidence. Fernando Collor was born into a political family, Collor is a Portuguese adaptation of the German surname Koehler, from his maternal grandfather Lindolfo Leopoldo Boeckel Collor. Collor has been serving as Senator for Alagoas since February 2007, having been first elected in 2006, Collor became the president of Brazilian football club Centro Sportivo Alagoano in 1976. During his term as governor, he attracted a lot of publicity by allegedly fighting the payment of super-salaries to public servants, the efficacy of his policies in reducing public expense is disputed, but it certainly made him popular over the country. This helped boost his career, with the help of television appearances in nationwide broadcasts.
In 1989 Collor defeated Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in a controversial two-round presidential race and 35 million votes, in December 1989, days prior to the second round, Abílio dos Santos Diniz was the victim of a sensational political kidnapping. The act is recognized as an attempt to sabotage Lulas chances of victory, by associating the kidnapping with the left wing. At the time, Brazilian law barred any party from addressing the media on the prior to election day. Lulas party thus had no opportunity to clarify the accusations that the party was involved in the kidnapping, Collor won in the state of São Paulo against many prominent political figures. The first democratically elected President of Brazil in 29 years, Collor spent the years of his government allegedly battling inflation. The very day he took office, Collor launched the Plano Collor, in the month before Collor took power, hyperinflation was 25 percent per month and growing. All accounts over 50,000 Cruzeiros, were frozen for several weeks and he proposed freezes in wages and prices, as well as major cuts in government spending.
The measures were received unenthusiastically by the people, though felt that radical measures were necessary to kill the hyperinflation. Within a few months, inflation resumed, eventually reaching rates of 10 percent per month, during the course of his government, Collor was accused of condoning an influence peddling scheme. The accusations weighed on the government and they led Collor and his team to an institutional crisis leading to a loss of credibility that reached the finance minister and this political crisis had negative consequences on his ability to carry out his policies and reforms. The Plano Collor I, under Zélia would be renewed with the implementation of the Plano Collor II, the failure of Zélia and Plano Collor I led to their substitution by Marcílio Marques Moreira and his Plano Collor II. Moreiras plan tried to correct some aspects of the first plan, Collors administration was paralyzed by the fast deterioration of his image, through a succession of corruption accusations
Asiru Phatjata is a hill in Peru, situated at a height of about 3,895 metres. It is located in the Puno Region, Yunguyo Province, Yunguyo District, Asiru Phatjata lies near Lake Titicaca at the road which connects Yunguyo and Puno, south of the village Asiru Phatjata and north of the mountain Qhapiya. On the hill there is an archaeological area and it was declared a National Cultural Heritage of Peru by the National Institute of Culture
The lúcuma is a subtropical fruit native to the Andean valleys and produced in Chile and Ecuador. Lúcuma has been found on ceramics at burial sites of the people of coastal Peru. The Moche people had a fascination with agriculture and often chose to represent fruits and vegetables, including lúcuma, in Peru, harvesting season is from October to March and in Chile from June to November. The fruit was first seen and reported by Europeans in Ecuador in 1531 and it is sometimes known as lucmo. In the Philippines, it is known as tiesa and may be called eggfruit in English, the name eggfruit refers to lúcumas dry flesh, which is similar in texture to a hard-boiled egg yolk with a unique flavor of maple and sweet potato. The round or ovoid fruits are green, with a yellow flesh that is often fibrous. It grows at elevations between 2700-3000 metres. Temperatures of its native range make the species technically subtropical. Attempts at growing lúcuma in Floridas climate typically fail, in addition to Peru, the fruit is grown to a limited extent in Bolivia and Costa Rica.
It grows well in most tropical regions, but is not widely favored, formerly known as Lucuma obovata, it is now considered a member of the genus Pouteria, and given the name Pouteria lucuma. It is not the species Pouteria obovata, when eaten raw, the fruit has a dry texture. In Peru it is commonly enjoyed as a flavor in juice, milk shakes. Its unique flavor in such preparations has been described variously as being similar to potato, maple syrup. A popular dessert called merengue con salsa de lúcuma is served in Chile, popular in Chile is manjar con lúcuma. Germplasm Resources Information Network, Pouteria lucuma Lúcuma at bioversityinternational. org
Chankillo is an ancient monumental complex in the Peruvian coastal desert, found in the Casma-Sechin basin in the Ancash Department of Peru. The ruins include the hilltop Chankillo fort, the nearby Thirteen Towers solar observatory, the Thirteen Towers have been interpreted as an astronomical observatory built in the 4th century BC. The culture that produced Chankillo is called the Casma/Sechin culture or the Sechin Complex, the site covers about four square kilometres and has been interpreted as a fortified temple. The regularly-spaced thirteen towers of Chankillo were constructed atop the ridge of a low hill running near north to south and are, to the east and west investigators designated two possible observation points. From these vantages, the 300m long spread of the towers along the horizon corresponds very closely to the rising and setting positions of the Sun over the year, the Thirteen Towers of Chankillo could be the earliest known observatory in the Americas. Inhabitants of Chankillo would have been able to determine an accurate date, acaray List of archaeoastronomical sites by country 3D reconstruction of the site Chankillo, Ancient Solar Observatory
The llama is a domesticated South American camelid, widely used as a meat and pack animal by Andean cultures since the Pre-Columbian era. The height of a full-grown, full-size llama is 1.7 to 1.8 m tall at the top of the head, at birth, a baby llama can weigh between 9 and 14 kg. Llamas typically live for 15 to 25 years, with some individuals surviving 30 years or more and they are very social animals and live with other llamas as a herd. The wool produced by a llama is very soft and lanolin-free, llamas are intelligent and can learn simple tasks after a few repetitions. When using a pack, they can carry about 25 to 30% of their weight for 8 to 13 km. The name llama was adopted by European settlers from native Peruvians, llamas appear to have originated from the central plains of North America about 40 million years ago. They migrated to South America about three years ago. By the end of the last ice age, camelids were extinct in North America, lamoids, or llamas, consist of the vicuña, Suri alpaca, and Huacaya alpaca, and the domestic llama.
Guanacos and vicuñas live in the wild, while alpacas – as well as llamas – exist only as domesticated animals, although early writers compared llamas to sheep, their similarity to the camel was soon recognized. They were included in the genus Camelus along with alpaca in the Systema Naturae of Linnaeus and they were, separated by Cuvier in 1800 under the name of lama along with the guanaco. Alpacas and vicuñas are in genus Vicugna, the Tylopoda consist of a single family, the Camelidae, and shares the order Artiodactyla with the Suina, the Tragulina, the Pecora, and the Whippomorpha. Llamas were not always confined to South America, abundant llama-like remains were found in Pleistocene deposits in the Rocky Mountains, some of the fossil llamas were much larger than current forms. Some species remained in North America during the last ice ages, North American llamas are categorized as a single extinct genus, Hemiauchenia. Llama-like animals would have been a common sight 25,000 years ago, in modern-day California, New Mexico, Missouri, the camelid lineage has a good fossil record.
Camel-like animals have been traced from the thoroughly differentiated, modern species back through early Miocene forms and their characteristics became more general, and they lost those that distinguished them as camelids, they were classified as ancestral artiodactyls. No fossils of these forms have been found in the Old World, indicating that North America was the original home of camelids. The formation of the Isthmus of Panama three million years ago allowed camelids to spread to South America as part of the Great American Interchange, North American camelids died out at the end of the Pleistocene. The following characteristics apply especially to llamas, dentition of adults, -incisors 1/3 canines 1/1, premolars 2/2, molars 3/2, total 32
Chauchilla Cemetery is a cemetery that contains prehispanic mummified human remains and archeological artifacts, located 30 kilometres south of the city of Nazca in Peru. The cemetery was discovered in the 1920s, but had not been used since the 9th century AD, the cemetery includes many important burials over a period of 600 to 700 years. The start of the interments was in about 200 AD and it is important as a source of archaeology to Nazca culture. The cemetery has been plundered by huaqueros who have left human bones. Similar local cemeteries have been damaged to a greater extent, the site has been protected by Peruvian law since 1997 and tourists pay around seven U. S. dollars to take the two-hour tour of this ancient necropolis. The site is by the Poroma riverbed and can be accessed via a road from the Panamerican Highway. In 1997, the majority of the bones and plundered pottery were restored to the tombs. The bodies are so remarkably preserved due mainly to the dry climate in the Peruvian Desert, the bodies were clothed in embroidered cotton and painted with a resin and kept in purpose-built tombs made from mud bricks.
The resin is thought to have kept out insects and slowed bacteria trying to feed on the bodies, the nearby site of Estaquería may provide clues to the remarkable preservation of the numerous bodies in these cemeteries. At that site, archeologists found wooden pillars initially thought to have used for astronomical sightings. However, it is now believed that the posts were used to dry bodies in a mummification process and this may account for the high degree of preservation seen in thousand-year-old bodies which still have hair and the remains of soft tissue, such as skin. Chauchilla Cemetery is a prominent setting in Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, though not called by name in the film, the cemetery is explicitly identified in the screenplay, promotional materials, and merchandise. This fictionalized version of the features a number of embellishments, including mask-wearing Nazcan guards. The cemetery is depicted as being built on a promontory overlooking the Nazca Valley, offering the characters a view of the famous Nazca Lines