Since the 19th century the term has been used for the style of floral decoration developed in those calico textiles, but used more widely, for example on chintzware pottery and wallpaper. Unglazed calico was traditionally called cretonne, the word calico is derived from the name of the Indian city Calicut to which it had a manufacturing association. Chintz was originally a woodblock printed, painted or stained calico produced in India from 1600 to 1800 and popular for bed covers and draperies. Around 1600, Portuguese and Dutch traders were bringing examples of Indian chintz into Europe on a small scale, by 1680 more than a million pieces of chintz were being imported into England per year, and a similar quantity was going to France and the Dutch Republic. These early imports were mostly used for curtains, furnishing fabrics. It has been suggested that wearing them as clothes began when these were replaced and given to maidservants, who made them into dresses, and that they were first worn as linings.
With imported chintz becoming so popular with Europeans during the late 17th century and English mills grew concerned, in 1686 the French declared a ban on all chintz imports. In 1720 Englands Parliament enacted a law forbade the Use and Warings in Apparel of imported chintz. Even though chintz was outlawed, there were loopholes in the legislation, the Court of Versailles was outside the law and fashionable young courtiers continued wearing chintz. In 1734, French naval officer, M and his letters and samples can be seen today in the Muséum national dHistoire naturelle in Paris. In 1742, another Frenchman, Father Coeurdoux supplied details of the making process. In 1759 the ban against chintz was lifted, by this time French and English mills were able to produce chintz. Europeans at first produced reproductions of Indian designs, and added original patterns, a well-known make was toile de Jouy, which was manufactured in Jouy, between 1700 and 1843. Modern chintz usually consists of bright overall floral patterns printed on a light background, an interview with chintz expert Rosemary Crill, senior curator at the Victoria and Albert Museum
Coutil is woven cloth created specifically for making corsets. It is woven tightly to inhibit penetration of the corsets bones, coutil has a high cotton content. Cotton has good stability, or a resistance to stretching. Coutil may be made to be plain, satin, or brocade and it is common for coutil to have a herringbone texture, or a similar woven texture
Primarily, nap is the raised surface on certain kinds of cloth, such as velvet. Nap can refer additionally to other surfaces that look like the surface of a napped cloth, starting around the 14th century, the word referred originally to the roughness of woven cloth before it was sheared. When cloth, especially woollen cloth, is woven, the surface of the cloth is not smooth, generally the cloth is sheared to create an even surface, and the nap is thus removed. A person who trimmed the surface of cloth with shears to remove any excess nap was known as a shearman, since the 15th century, the term nap generally refers to a special pile given to the cloth. The term pile refers to raised fibres that are there on purpose, in this case, the nap is woven into the cloth, often by weaving loops into the fabric, which can be cut or left intact. Carpets, velvet and velveteen, are made by interlacing a secondary yarn through woven cloth, creating a nap or pile. In the finishing process of manufacturing textiles, after the cloth is woven, it goes through such as washing, raising the nap.
After the nap is trimmed, the fabric is considered finished, the raising process, which draws out the ends of the fibres, is done on both woollen and cotton fabric. Flannelette is a fabric that goes through this process. There are ways to raise the nap, most of which involve wire brushes such as raising cards, dried teasel pods were used and were still preferred for use on woollen cloth for a long time. Woollen fabrics, which must be damp when raising the nap, are dried and stretched before the nap is trimmed or sheared. Cotton cloth goes straight to the process, where the nap gets trimmed to ensure that all the raised fibres are the same length
Canvas is an extremely durable plain-woven fabric used for making sails, marquees and other items for which sturdiness is required. It is used by artists as a painting surface. It is used in such objects as handbags, electronic device cases. The word canvas is derived from the 13th century Anglo-French canevaz, both may be derivatives of the Vulgar Latin cannapaceus for made of hemp, originating from the Greek κάνναβις. Modern canvas is made of cotton or linen, although. It differs from other cotton fabrics, such as denim. Canvas comes in two types and duck. The threads in duck canvas are more tightly woven, the term duck comes from the Dutch word for cloth, doek. In the United States, canvas is classified in two ways, by weight and by a number system. The numbers run in reverse of the weight so a number 10 canvas is lighter than number 4, canvas has become the most common support medium for oil painting, replacing wooden panels. One of the earliest surviving oils on canvas is a French Madonna with angels from around 1410 in the Gemäldegalerie, panel painting remained more common until the 16th century in Italy and the 17th century in Northern Europe.
Mantegna and Venetian artists were among those leading the change, Venetian sail canvas was readily available, as lead-based paint is poisonous, care has to be taken in using it. Early canvas was made of linen, a sturdy brownish fabric of considerable strength, linen is particularly suitable for the use of oil paint. In the early 20th century, cotton canvas, often referred to as cotton duck, linen is composed of higher quality material, and remains popular with many professional artists, especially those who work with oil paint. Cotton duck, which stretches more fully and has an even, mechanical weave, the advent of acrylic paint has greatly increased the popularity and use of cotton duck canvas. Linen and cotton derive from two different plants, the flax plant and the cotton plant, respectively. Gessoed canvases on stretchers are available and they are available in a variety of weights, light-weight is about 4 oz or 5 oz, medium-weight is about 7 oz or 8 oz, heavy-weight is about 10 oz or 12 oz.
They are prepared with two or three coats of gesso and are ready for use straight away, artists desiring greater control of their painting surface may add a coat or two of their preferred gesso
Initially it was made of linen, the term came to be applied to cotton fabrics as well. Cambric is used as fabric for linens, handkerchieves, lace, the term cambric cloth applies to a stiff, usually black, open-weave cloth typically used for a dust cover on the bottom of upholstered furniture. Cambric was originally a kind of fine white linen cloth made at or near Cambrai. The word comes from Kameryk or Kamerijk, the Flemish name of Cambrai, the word is attested since 1530. It is a synonym of the French word batiste, itself attested since 1590, batiste itself comes from the Picard batiche, attested since 1401 and derived from the old French battre for bowing wool. Cambric was a quality and more expensive than lawn. Cambric is close to chambray (/ˈʃɒmbreɪ/ from a French regional variant of Cambrai, a name comes from Cambrai, the French city. Chambray appears in North American English in the early 19th century, though the term generally refers to a cotton plain weave with a colored warp and a white weft, close to gingham, silk chambray seems to have coexisted.
Chambray was often produced during this period by the same weavers producing gingham, technical use sometime introduced a difference between cambric and batiste, the latter being of a lighter weight and a finer thread count. These fabrics, initially called Scotch cambrics to distinguish them from the original French cambrics, some authors increased the confusion with the assumption the word batiste could come from the Indian fabric bastas. In the 19th century, the terms cambric and batiste gradually lost their association with linen, in 1907, a fine cotton batist had 100 ends per inch in the finished fabric, while a cheap-grade, less than 60. It appears in the David Bowie song, Come And Buy My Toys in the lyrics You shall own a cambric shirt, batiste Lawn Nainsook Article on cambric
Cordura is the brand name for a collection of fabrics used in a wide array of products including luggage, trousers, military wear and performance apparel. Cordura fabrics are known for their durability and resistance to abrasions, originally developed and registered as a trademark by E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company in 1929, it is now the property of Invista. Cordura fabrics are made of nylon, but may be blended with cotton or other natural fibers. DuPont originally introduced the fabric as a type of rayon, the product was further developed during World War II and used by the military in tires. In 1966, when new formulations of nylon proved superior, the Cordura brand name was transferred to the product instead. In 1977 researchers discovered a process for dyeing Cordura, which opened a variety of commercial applications. By 1979 soft-sided Cordura luggage had captured about 40 percent of the luggage market, several classic brands that remain popular today continue to use Cordura fabric in their products.
Eastpak was the first brand to use Cordura fabric in their packs, while JanSport used the canvas-like nylon in their original daypacks in the 1970s, in the 1980s Manhattan Portage began using 1000D Cordura Nylon in their bags. In the 1990s, European workwear clothing brands adopted the 1000D and 500D fabric for reinforcements, clothing brands such as F. Engel, Fristads Kansas and Scruffs use the fabric. Cordura is used today in most mid- to higher- end textile motorcycle jackets and pants due to its high abrasion resistance and it is found in motorcycle gear made by companies such as Klim, MotoPort, RevIt, AeroStich, and Dainese. Cordura fabrics are available in a range of constructions and aesthetics, including versions designed especially for tear resistance. There are baselayer and canvas fabrics that contain blends of Invista 420 nylon 6,6 fiber and cotton, known as Cordura Baselayer, Cordura Denim, and Cordura Duck respectively. The Cordura Naturalle fabric collection, which is based on full dull yarn technologies, is designed to closely resemble the look.
Cordura Naturelle fabrics are available in knits and wovens and without stretch, some Cordura fabrics have been designed specifically for military and extended outdoor use. Cordura fabrics have a military heritage, and many US military fabric specs are based on Cordura brand specifications. Invista continues to develop new fabrics under the Cordura brand
A knotted-pile carpet is a carpet containing raised surfaces, or piles, from the cut off ends of knots woven between the warp and woof. The Ghiordes/Turkish knot and the Senneh/Persian knot, typical of Turkish carpets, a flat or tapestry woven carpet, without pile, is a kilim. A pile carpet is influenced by width and number of warp and weft, pile height, knots used, the structural weft threads alternate with supplementary weft that rises from the surface of the weave at a perpendicular angle. This supplementary weft is attached to the warp by one of three knots. to form the pile or nap of the carpet, in the knotted-pile. the arrangement of rows of weft is the dominant consideration. Diagonal, or offset, knotting has knots in successive rows occupy alternate pairs of warps and this feature allows for changes from one half knot to the next, and creates diagonal pattern lines at different angles. It is sometimes found in Kurdish or Turkmen rugs, particularly in Yomuds, the Ghiordes knot or Turkish knot is one of the two most-used knots employed in knotted-pile carpets.
In the Ghiordes knot, the weft yarn passes over the two warp yarns, and is pulled through between them and cut to form the pile. The Turkish knot has a symmetrical structure, the Ghiordes knot is the knot used in the oldest surviving pile carpets, the fragments found in Pazyryk kurgan burial mounds, in the Altai of Central Asia. The Turkish knot uses two warps, the term Senneh knot is somewhat misleading, as rugs are woven with symmetric knots in the town of Senneh. The asymmetric knot is tied by wrapping the yarn around only one warp, the Persian knot may open on the left or the right. The Persian knot may be considered as using two warps, or only warp, the asymmetric knot allows to produce more fluent, often curvilinear designs, while more bold, rectilinear designs may use the symmetric knot. As exemplified by Senneh rugs with their elaborate designs woven with symmetric knots, another knot frequently used in Persian carpets is the Jufti knot, which is tied around four warps instead of two. A serviceable carpet can be made with jufti knots, and jufti knots are used in large single-colour areas of a rug, for example in the field.
Another variant of knot is known from early Spanish rugs, the Spanish knot or single-warp knot, is tied around one single warp. Some of the rug fragments excavated by A. Stein in Turfan seem to be woven with a single knot, single knot weavings are known from Egyptian Coptic pile rugs. Pile weave Rug Knots and Making Pile Carpets, MathForum. org
Bengaline is a woven silk-and-cotton material which became fashionable for women and children to wear in the 1880s and 1890s. It offered the impression of silk but was made with lesser amounts of silk than cotton. Lizzie Borden stated at her December 1892 inquest that she was wearing a dress made of silk on the morning she was accused of murdering her father and stepmother. The fabric went out of fashion when completely smooth-surfaced materials became popular, piqué, coachmans whipcord, diagonal serge, and surah are similar to bengaline silk. Surah was once known in France as silk serge, bengaline silk sold for $2.50 per yard in 1889 but was sometimes discounted to sell for $1.25 per yard. A heavy lined, long cloak for infants, with deep bengaline silk embroidery, retailed for $7.98 at a Manhattan, New York clothing shop, diagonal striped dresses featuring the fabric were popular in the spring of 1912
Polar fleece is a soft napped insulating fabric made from a type of polyester called polyethylene terephthalate or other synthetic fibers. Other names for this fabric are Polar Wool, Vega Wool, despite names suggesting the product is made of natural material, polar fleece is 100% polyethylene terephthalate. Polar fleece is used in jackets, sweaters, cloth nappies, gym clothes, blankets and it can be made partially from recycled plastic bottles and is very light and easy to wash. One of the first forms was Polar Fleece, created in Massachusetts in 1979 by Malden Mills and it was a new, strong pile fabric meant to mimic—and in some ways surpass—wool. Aaron Feuerstein intentionally declined to patent Polar fleece, allowing the material to be produced cheaply and widely by many vendors, leading to the materials quick and wide acceptance. A lightweight and soft fabric, fleece has some of good qualities. Polar fleece garments traditionally come in different thicknesses, micro,100,200 and it is hydrophobic, holding less than 1% of its weight in water.
It retains much of its powers even when wet. It is machine washable and dries quickly and it is a good alternative to wool. It can be out of recycled PET bottles, or even recycled fleece. Despite its fuzzy appearance and feel, it is not flammable, regular polar fleece is not windproof and does not absorb moisture. Fleece readily generates static electricity, which causes the accumulation of lint, dust and it is susceptible to damage from high temperature washing, tumble drying, or ironing. Lower-quality polar fleece material is prone to pilling. Berners-Lee reckons the average greenhouse gas footprint of polar fleece in manufacturing carpets at 5.55 kg CO2 equivalent per kilo and this gives it almost the same carbon footprint as wool, but with greater durability. Non-recycled fleece is made from non-renewable petroleum derivatives, even if made of recycled materials, fleece relies on a continued production of non-renewable fossil fuels for the raw material. When fleece goes through the laundry, it generates microplastics which become part of waste water.
Municipal waste water systems often discharge into rivers and oceans, PET does not biodegrade and suspended microplastics are easily ingested by marine life, thus entering the food chain. Microfiber Polartec, once Malden Mills, the manufacturer of Polartec
A textile or cloth is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, cotton, Textiles are formed by weaving, crocheting, knotting, or felting. The words fabric and cloth are used in textile assembly trades as synonyms for textile, there are subtle differences in these terms in specialized usage. Textile refers to any material made of interlacing fibres, a fabric is a material made through weaving, spreading, crocheting, or bonding that may be used in production of further goods. Cloth may be used synonymously with fabric but is often a piece of fabric used for a specific purpose. The word textile is from Latin, from the adjective textilis, meaning woven, from textus, the word cloth derives from the Old English clað, meaning a cloth, woven or felted material to wrap around one, from Proto-Germanic kalithaz. The discovery of dyed flax fibres in a cave in the Republic of Georgia dated to 34,000 BCE suggests textile-like materials were made even in prehistoric times.
The production of textiles is a craft whose speed and scale of production has been altered almost beyond recognition by industrialization, for the main types of textiles, plain weave, twill, or satin weave, there is little difference between the ancient and modern methods. Textiles have an assortment of uses, the most common of which are for clothing and for such as bags. In the household they are used in carpeting, upholstered furnishings, window shades, coverings for tables and other flat surfaces, in the workplace they are used in industrial and scientific processes such as filtering. Textiles are used in traditional crafts such as sewing, quilting. Textiles for industrial purposes, and chosen for other than their appearance, are commonly referred to as technical textiles. Technical textiles include textile structures for applications, medical textiles, agrotextiles. In all these applications stringent performance requirements must be met, woven of threads coated with zinc oxide nanowires, laboratory fabric has been shown capable of self-powering nanosystems using vibrations created by everyday actions like wind or body movements.
Fashion designers commonly rely on textile designs to set their fashion collections apart from others, the late Gianni Versace, and Emilio Pucci can be easily recognized by their signature print driven designs. Textiles can be made from many materials and these materials come from four main sources, plant and synthetic. In the past, all textiles were made from natural fibres, including plant, animal, in the 20th century, these were supplemented by artificial fibres made from petroleum. Textiles are made in various strengths and degrees of durability, from the finest gossamer to the sturdiest canvas, microfibre refers to fibres made of strands thinner than one denier