A documentary film is a nonfictional motion picture intended to document some aspect of reality for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a historical record. "Documentary" has been described as a "filmmaking practice, a cinematic tradition, mode of audience reception", continually evolving and is without clear boundaries. Documentary films were called'actuality' films and were only a minute or less in length. Over time documentaries have evolved to be longer in length and to include more categories, such as educational and even'docufiction'. Documentaries are educational and used in schools to teach various principles. Social media platforms such as YouTube, have allowed documentary films to improve the ways the films are distributed and able to educate and broaden the reach of people who receive the information. Polish writer and filmmaker Bolesław Matuszewski was among those who identified the mode of documentary film, he wrote two of the earliest texts on cinema Une nouvelle source de l'histoire and La photographie animée.
Both were published in 1898 in French and among the early written works to consider the historical and documentary value of the film. Matuszewski is among the first filmmakers to propose the creation of a Film Archive to collect and keep safe visual materials. In popular myth, the word documentary was coined by Scottish documentary filmmaker John Grierson in his review of Robert Flaherty's film Moana, published in the New York Sun on 8 February 1926, written by "The Moviegoer". Grierson's principles of documentary were that cinema's potential for observing life could be exploited in a new art form. In this regard, Grierson's definition of documentary as "creative treatment of actuality" has gained some acceptance, with this position at variance with Soviet film-maker Dziga Vertov's provocation to present "life as it is" and "life caught unawares"; the American film critic Pare Lorentz defines a documentary film as "a factual film, dramatic." Others further state that a documentary stands out from the other types of non-fiction films for providing an opinion, a specific message, along with the facts it presents.
Documentary practice is the complex process of creating documentary projects. It refers to what people do with media devices, content and production strategies in order to address the creative and conceptual problems and choices that arise as they make documentaries. Documentary filmmaking can be used as a form of advocacy, or personal expression. Early film was dominated by the novelty of showing an event, they were single-shot moments captured on film: a train entering a station, a boat docking, or factory workers leaving work. These short films were called "actuality" films. Many of the first films, such as those made by Auguste and Louis Lumière, were a minute or less in length, due to technological limitations. Films showing many people were made for commercial reasons: the people being filmed were eager to see, for payment, the film showing them. One notable film clocked in at over an hour and The Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight. Using pioneering film-looping technology, Enoch J. Rector presented the entirety of a famous 1897 prize-fight on cinema screens across the United States.
In May 1896, Bolesław Matuszewski recorded on film few surigical operations in Warsaw and Saint Petersburg hospitals. In 1898, French surgeon Eugène-Louis Doyen invited Bolesław Matuszewski and Clément Maurice and proposed them to recorded his surigical operations, they started in Paris a series of surgical films sometime before July 1898. Until 1906, the year of his last film, Doyen recorded more than 60 operations. Doyen said that his first films taught him how to correct professional errors he had been unaware of. For scientific purposes, after 1906, Doyen combined 15 of his films into three compilations, two of which survive, the six-film series Extirpation des tumeurs encapsulées, the four-film Les Opérations sur la cavité crânienne; these and five other of Doyen's films survive. Between July 1898 and 1901, the Romanian professor Gheorghe Marinescu made several science films in his neurology clinic in Bucharest: Walking Troubles of Organic Hemiplegy, The Walking Troubles of Organic Paraplegies, A Case of Hysteric Hemiplegy Healed Through Hypnosis, The Walking Troubles of Progressive Locomotion Ataxy, Illnesses of the Muscles.
All these short films have been preserved. The professor called his works "studies with the help of the cinematograph," and published the results, along with several consecutive frames, in issues of "La Semaine Médicale" magazine from Paris, between 1899 and 1902. In 1924, Auguste Lumiere recognized the merits of Marinescu's science films: "I've seen your scientific reports about the usage of the cinematograph in studies of nervous illnesses, when I was still receiving "La Semaine Médicale," but back I had other concerns, which left me no spare time to begin biological studies. I must say I am thankful to you that you reminded them to me. Not many scientists have followed your way." Travelogue films were popular in the early part of the 20th century. They were referred to by distributors as "scenics." Scenics were among the most popu
United States Department of War
The United States Department of War called the War Department, was the United States Cabinet department responsible for the operation and maintenance of the United States Army bearing responsibility for naval affairs until the establishment of the Navy Department in 1798, for most land-based air forces until the creation of the Department of the Air Force on September 18, 1947. The Secretary of War, a civilian with such responsibilities as finance and purchases and a minor role in directing military affairs, headed the War Department throughout its existence; the War Department existed from August 7, 1789 until September 18, 1947, when it split into Department of the Army and Department of the Air Force and joined the Department of the Navy as part of the new joint National Military Establishment, renamed the United States Department of Defense in 1949. Shortly after the establishment of a strong government under President George Washington in 1789, Congress created the War Department as a civilian agency to administer the field army under the president and the secretary of war.
Retired senior General Henry Knox in civilian life, served as the first United States Secretary of War. Forming and organizing the department and the army fell to Secretary Knox. Direct field command of the small Regular Army by President Washington leading a column of troops west through Pennsylvania to Fort Cumberland in Maryland in 1794 to combat the incipient Whiskey Rebellion on the frontier was an occasion never since used by American Presidents; the Possibility of re-organizing a "New Army" under nominal command of retired President and Major General George Washington and his aide, former Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton to deal with the rising tide of maritime incidents between American commerce ships and the new French Republic was authorized by second President John Adams in 1798 and the remote possibility of land invasion was an interesting adventure. On November 8, 1800 the War Department building with its records and files was consumed by fire. Foundation of the new military academy at West Point along the Hudson River upstream from New York City in 1802 was important to the future growth of the American army.
In August 1814 during the Burning of Washington, the United States Department of War building was burned-however the War and State Department files had been removed-all books and record had been saved. The multiple failures and fiascos of the War of 1812 convinced Washington that thorough reform of the War Department was necessary. Secretary of War, John C. Calhoun reorganized the department into a system of bureaus, whose chiefs held office for life, a commanding general in the field, although the Congress did not authorize this position. Winfield Scott became the senior general until the start of the American Civil War in 1861; the bureau chiefs acted as advisers to the Secretary of War while commanding their own troops and field installations. The bureaus conflicted among themselves, but in disputes with the commanding general, the Secretary of War supported the bureaus. Congress regulated the affairs of the bureaus in detail, their chiefs looked to that body for support. Calhoun set up the Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1824, the main agency within the War Department for dealing with Native Americans until 1849, when the Congress transferred it to the newly founded Department of the Interior.
During the American Civil War, the War Department responsibilities expanded. It handled the recruiting, supply, medical care and pay of two million soldiers, comprising both the regular army and the much larger temporary volunteer army. A separate command structure took charge of military operations. In the late stages of the war, the Department took charge of refugees and freedmen in the American South through the Bureau of Refugees and Abandoned Lands. During Reconstruction, this bureau played a major role in supporting the new Republican governments in the southern states; when military Reconstruction ended in 1877, the U. S. Army removed the last troops from military occupation of the American South, the last Republican state governments in the region ended; the Army comprised hundreds of small detachments in forts around the West, dealing with Indians, in coastal artillery units in port cities, dealing with the threat of a naval attack. The United States Army, with 39,000 men in 1890 was the smallest and least powerful army of any major power in the late 19th century.
By contrast, France had an army of 542,000. Temporary volunteers and state militia units fought the Spanish–American War of 1898; this conflict demonstrated the need for more effective control over its bureaus. Secretary of War Elihu Root sought to appoint a chief of staff as general manager and a European-type general staff for planning, aiming to achieve this goal in a businesslike manner, but General Nelson A. Miles stymied his efforts. Root enlarged the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York and established the United States Army War College and the General Staff, he changed the procedures for promotions and organized schools for the special branches of the service. He devised the principle of rotating officers from staff to line. Concerned about the new territories acquired after the Spanish–American War, Root worked out the procedures for turning Cuba over to the Cubans, wrote the charter of government for the Philippines, eliminated tariffs on goods imported to the United States from Puerto Rico.
Root's successor as Secretary
New York State Inebriate Asylum
The New York State Inebriate Asylum known as Binghamton State Hospital, was the first institution designed and constructed to treat alcoholism as a mental disorder. Located in Binghamton, NY, its imposing Gothic Revival exterior was designed by New York architect Isaac G. Perry and construction was completed in 1864. In 1993 the main building was closed due to safety concerns; the asylum appears on both the state and national lists of Historic Places, but it is in a state of disrepair and is one of the most endangered historical places in the nation, according to the National Trust for Historic Preservation. The building was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1997, it is located at 425 Robinson Street, in Binghamton, New York and is owned by Upstate Medical University, Clinical Campus. The 1858 asylum is under phase 1 renovation, funded by 12.45 million dollars provided by the New York State Legislature. A Binghamton Clinical Campus Expansion Campaign Fund 04550 exists for Phase 2 renovation to serve as headquarters for the Binghamton Clinical Campus and physician assistant program.
In 2015, Binghamton University announced it had taken stewardship of the building and will proceed with plans for rehabilitation of the building. Media related to New York State Inebriate Asylum at Wikimedia Commons 2013 interior and exterior photos Castle on the Hill, commercial photography website 4 data pages on New York State Inebriate Asylum, at Historic American Buildings Survey American Insane Asylums. American Psychosurgery
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Transloading is the process of transferring a shipment from one mode of transportation to another. It is most employed when one mode cannot be used for the entire trip, such as when goods must be shipped internationally from one inland point to another; such a trip might require transport by truck to an airport by airplane overseas, by another truck to its destination. Transloading is required at railroad break-of-gauge points, since the equipment between lines is not compatible. Since transloading requires handling of the goods, it causes a higher risk of damage. Therefore, transloading facilities are designed with the intent of minimizing handling. Due to differing capacities of the different modes, the facilities require some storage facility, such as warehouses or rail yards. For bulk goods, specialized material handling and storage are provided. Intermodal transport limits handling by using standardized containers, which are handled as units and which serve for storage if needed. Transloading may be confused with transshipment, but in modern usage they represent different concepts.
Transloading concerns the mechanics of transport, while transshipment is a legal term addressing how the shipment originates and is destined. Consider a load of grain, transloaded at an elevator, where it is combined with grain from other farms and thus leaves on the train as a distinct shipment from that in which it arrived, it thus cannot be said to be transshipped. Or consider a package shipped through a package delivery service or the mails: it may change shipping mode several times along the trip, but since it is conveyed as a single shipment regardless of how it is conveyed or what else travels with it on the legs of its journey, it is not considered to be transshipped. Conversely, a load on a truck can be taken in one shipment to an intermediate point and to its ultimate destination without leaving the truck. If this is specified as two shipments the goods are transshipped, but no transloading has taken place; the modern distinction between transloading and transshipment was not well codified in the period of the mid-19th through mid-20th centuries, when discussions of break of gauge used the word transshipment for what today's careful usage would call transloading, or for any combination of transloading and transshipment.
Transloading can occur at any place. A truck can pull up to another truck or a train, transloading may be accomplished by no more elaborate means than teamsters and stevedores. In the interests of speed and efficiency, however, a variety of specialized equipment is used to handle the goods. Thus, intermodal facilities have specialized cranes for handling the containers, coal piers have car dumpers, loaders and other equipment for unloading and loading railroad cars and ships and with a minimum of personnel; the equipment used to ship the goods is optimized for rapid transfer. For instance, the shipment of automobiles is expedited by autorack rail cars and roll-on/roll-off ships, which can be loaded without cranes or other equipment. Standardized containers obviate break bulk handling. Transloading is combined with classification and routing facilities, since the latter require handling of goods. Transloading may occur at break-of-gauge stations. Where ports are too small to handle large bulk carrier ships, transloading can occur at sea, using transhipment platforms, ships, or floating cranes and barges.
ExpressRail "How Transloading Works". Union Pacific Distribution Services. Archived from the original on 2016-06-03. Origin and Door-to-door Rail Transloading - "How Transloading Works". Union Pacific Distribution Services.^ "OLDENDORFF CARRIERS – Transshipment Experts Throughout the Globe". Www.oldendorff.com. Retrieved 2019-04-13
New York Institute of Technology
New York Institute of Technology is a private doctoral research university with two main campuses in New York, one in Old Westbury and one in Manhattan. Additionally, it has a cybersecurity research center in Port Washington, New York, as well as campuses in Arkansas, United Arab Emirates and Canada. NYIT has five schools and two colleges, all with an emphasis on technology and applied scientific research: School of Architecture and Design, School of Interdisciplinary Studies and Education, School of Engineering and Computing Sciences, School of Health Professions, School of Management, College of Arts and Sciences and College of Osteopathic Medicine. NYIT offers a full range of plus master's and doctoral programs; the Institute offers three doctoral degree programs, has plans of offering more doctoral degree programs in the near future. NYIT is the birthplace of 3D CGI films; as of 2018, NYIT enrolls 9,930 full-time students across its campuses worldwide. U. S. News & World Report listed NYIT as a "selective" university and ranked it 32nd in the 2017 edition of Best Regional Universities North Rankings.
In 1955, NYIT opened under a provisional charter granted by the New York State Board of Regents to NYIT. Its first campus opened at 500 Pacific Street in the Borough of New York; the founders of NYIT, in particular, Alexander Schure, started NYIT with the mission of offering career-oriented professional education, providing all qualified students access to opportunity, supporting applications-oriented research Schure served as NYIT's first president. In the higher education community at the time, a debate arose around the concern that humanities studies would be overshadowed by too much emphasis on science and engineering. NYIT's goal was to create a balance between science/engineering and a liberal arts education, since, it has been focusing on this model to prepare students for current and future careers. By the 1958–1959 academic year, the university had 300 students, the time had come to expand its physical operations. In April 1958, the college purchased the Pythian Temple at 135–145 W. 70th St. in Manhattan for its main center.
The building, adjacent to the planned Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, was an ornate 12-story structure with a columned entranceway. Built in 1929 at a cost of $2 million, it included among its features a 1,200-seat auditorium. In 1958, NYIT sponsored the first National Technology Awards, created by Frederick Pittera, an organizer of international fairs and a member of the NYIT Board of Trustees, to help raise funds for the NYIT science and technology laboratories; the awards, held at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, were attended by several hundred guests, with entertainment provided by the U. S. Air Force Band. 36th President of the United States Lyndon Johnson was the keynote speaker. His speech was broadcast nationally by the ABC Radio Network. Among the honorees were Dr. Wernher von Braun and Major General Bernard Schriever, Commanding General of the Ballistic Air Command. Photos, press clippings, audio tapes of the event are on view at the Lyndon Johnson Library at Austin, Texas. In 1959, NYIT introduced “teaching machines” for student instruction in physics and mathematics.
NYIT pioneered the use of mainframes as a teaching tool, having received its first, donated by the CIT Financial Corporation, in 1965. The curriculum was successful enough that NYIT received two grants totaling $3 million from the federal government – one to develop a system of individualized learning through the use of computers. NYIT was a pioneer in 3-D computer animation. Before Pixar and Lucasfilm, there was New York Institute of Technology Computer Graphics Lab. In 1974, New York Institute of Technology Computer Graphics Lab was established and attracted the likes of: Pixar Animation Studios President Edwin Catmull and co-founder Alvy Ray Smith. Researchers at the New York Institute of Technology Computer Graphics Lab created the tools that made 3D CGI films possible. NYIT CG Lab was regarded as the top computer animation research and development group in the world during the late 70s and early 80s. In 1995, the NYIT School of Engineering took first place in the U. S. Department of Energy's Clean Air Road Rally.
The student engineering team spent three years designing and building the high-performance hybrid electric car that beat 43 other vehicles. In 1998, NYIT opened its first international program in China. In 1999, Bill Gates received NYIT's Presidential Medal. In 2002, NYIT installed the fastest broadband network on the East Coast. In 2003, NYIT opened its Bahrain site to students seeking an American-style education in the Middle East. In 2005, NYIT participated in its first Solar Decathlon, an international competition sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy. NYIT was one of nineteen colleges internationally and the only school in the New York metropolitan area; the team, composed of students and faculty, captured fifth place honors. In 2007, NYIT co-hosted the International Energy Exhibition in Daegu, South Korea. In 2007 the university received $500,000 in federal funding to develop a "green print" initiative to research alternative fuel technology and determine its carbon footprint. In 2008, NYIT installed a 3-D motion capture lab for its Fine Arts program in Old Westbury.
The system allows the university to use technology to teach the next generation of computer animators. In 2008 NYIT was awarded a $130,000 rese
John Marcellus Huston was an American film director and actor. Huston was a citizen of the United States by birth but renounced U. S. citizenship to become an Irish resident. He returned to reside in the United States, he wrote the screenplays for most of the 37 feature films he directed, many of which are today considered classics: The Maltese Falcon, The Treasure of the Sierra Madre, The Asphalt Jungle, The African Queen, The Misfits, Fat City and The Man Who Would Be King. During his 46-year career, Huston received 15 Oscar nominations, won twice, directed both his father, Walter Huston, daughter, Anjelica Huston, to Oscar wins in different films. Huston was known to direct with the vision of an artist, having studied and worked as a fine art painter in Paris in his early years, he continued to explore the visual aspects of his films throughout his career, sketching each scene on paper beforehand carefully framing his characters during the shooting. While most directors rely on post-production editing to shape their final work, Huston instead created his films while they were being shot, making them both more economical and cerebral, with little editing needed.
Some of Huston's films were adaptations of important novels depicting an "heroic quest," as in Moby Dick, or The Red Badge of Courage. In many films, different groups of people, while struggling toward a common goal, would become doomed, forming "destructive alliances," giving the films a dramatic and visual tension. Many of his films involved themes such as religion, truth, psychology and war. Huston has been referred to as "a titan", "a rebel", a "renaissance man" in the Hollywood film industry. Author Ian Freer describes him as "cinema's Ernest Hemingway"—a filmmaker, "never afraid to tackle tough issues head on." John Huston was born on August 1906, in Nevada, Missouri. He was the only child of Canadian-born Walter Huston, his father was an actor in vaudeville, in films. His mother worked as a sports editor for various publications, but gave it up after John was born, his father gave up his stage acting career for steady employment as a civil engineer, although he returned to stage acting within a few years.
He became successful on both Broadway and in motion pictures. He had Scottish, Scots-Irish and Welsh ancestry. Huston's parents divorced in 1913, when he was six, as a result much of his childhood was spent living in boarding schools. During summer vacations, he traveled with each of his parents separately — with his father on vaudeville tours, with his mother to horse races and other sports events. Young Huston benefited from seeing his father act on stage, as he was drawn to acting; some critics, such as Lawrence Grobel, surmise that his relationship with his mother may have caused his five marriages, why few of his relationships lasted. Grobel wrote, "When I interviewed some of the women who had loved him, they referred to his mother as the key to unlocking Huston's psyche." According to actress Olivia de Havilland, "she was the central character. I always felt, he seemed pursued by something destructive. If it wasn't his mother, it was his idea of his mother."As a child he was ill and was treated for an enlarged heart and kidney ailments.
He recovered after an extended bedridden stay in Arizona, moved with his mother to Los Angeles, where he attended Abraham Lincoln High School. He dropped out after two years to become a professional boxer, by age 15 was a top-ranking amateur lightweight boxer in California, he ended his brief boxing career after suffering a broken nose. He "plunged" himself into a multitude of interests, including abstract painting, ballet and French literature and horseback riding. Living in Los Angeles he became "infatuated" with the new film industry and motion pictures, but as a spectator only. To Huston, "Charlie Chaplin was a god."He moved back to New York to live with his father, acting in off-Broadway productions, John had a few small roles. He remembers, while watching his father rehearse, being fascinated with the mechanics of acting: What I learned there, during those weeks of rehearsal, would serve me for the rest of my life. After a short period acting on stage, having undergone surgery, he traveled on his own to Mexico.
During his two years there, among his other adventures, he got a position riding as an honorary member of the Mexican cavalry. He married a girlfriend from high school, Dorothy Harvey, their marriage lasted seven years. During his stay in Mexico, he wrote a play called "Frankie and Johnny", based on the ballad of the same title. After selling it he decided that writing would be a viable career, he focused on it, his self-esteem was enhanced when H. L. Mencken, editor of the popular magazine American Mercury, bought two of his stories, "Fool" and "Figures of Fighting Men." During subsequent years his stories and feature articles were published in Esquire, Theatre Arts, The New York Times. He worked for a period on the New York Graphic. In 1931, when he was 25, he moved back to Los Angeles with his hopes aimed at writing for the blossoming film industry, where the silent film industry had given way to "talkies", writers were in demand. In addition, his father had earlier moved there where he was successful in a number of films.
He received a script editing contract with Samuel Goldwyn Productions, but after six months of receiving no assignments, quit to work for Universal Studios, whe