Fremantle Prison, sometimes referred to as Fremantle Gaol or Fremantle Jail, is a former Australian prison and World Heritage Site in Fremantle, Western Australia. The six-hectare site includes the prison cellblocks, perimeter walls, initially known as the Convict Establishment, Fremantle Prison was constructed between 1851 and 1859, using convict labour. It was initially used for convicts transported from Britain, but was transferred to the government in 1886 for use for locally-sentenced prisoners. Royal Commissions were held in 1898 and 1911, and instigated some reform to the prison system, the government department in charge of the prison underwent several reorganisations in the 1970s and 1980s, but the culture of Fremantle Prison was resistant to change. Growing prisoner discontent culminated in a 1988 riot with guards taken hostage, the prison closed in 1991, replaced by the new maximum-security Casuarina Prison. Prison officers, known as warders in the 19th century, worked under stringent conditions until they achieved representation through the Western Australian Prison Officers Union, Convicts were initially of good character as potential future colonists, but less desirable convicts were eventually sent.
As a locally-run prison, Fremantles population was generally short-sentenced white prisoners in the 1890s, by the late 20th century, most prisoners were serving longer sentences, a higher proportion of them were violent, and Aboriginal people were over-represented. Prison life at Fremantle was extremely regulated, meals were an important part of the day, eaten in the cells throughout the operational life of the prison. Convict or prisoner labour was used on public works until around 1911, only work inside the prison was allowed. Punishments varied over the years, with flogging and time in irons eventually replaced by lengthening of sentences, more than 40 hangings were carried out at Fremantle Prison, which was Western Australias only lawful place of execution, between 1888 and 1984. Prominent escapees included Moondyne Joe, as well as John Boyle OReilly and six other Fenians in the 19th century, there have been various riots and other disturbances, with major riots causing damage in 1968 and 1988.
Since 1991, Fremantle Prison has been conserved as a heritage site. New uses have been found for some buildings within the prison, Fremantle Prison was built on a land grant of about 36 acres from limestone quarried on-site. A 15-foot tall boundary wall encloses the grounds, with a gatehouse in the centre of the western wall. Other roads bounding the site are Knutsford Street to the north, Hampton Road to the east, which housed prison workers and officials, are located outside the wall either side of the gatehouse. Inside the walls, the ground is located east of the gatehouse. Beyond it is the Main Cell Block at the centre of the site, north of the main block is New Division, and west of that, in the north-western corner, is the former Womens Prison, previously the cookhouse and laundry. The hospital building stands in the corner, while the former workshops are located in the south-eastern corner
A Drunkards cloak was a type of pillory used in various jurisdictions to punish miscreants. Drunkenness was first made an offence in England by the Ale Houses Act 1551. According to Ian Hornsey, the cloak, sometimes called the Newcastle cloak, became a common method of punishing recidivists. From 1655 Oliver Cromwell suppressed many of Englands alehouses, particularly in Royalist areas, an early description of the drunkards cloak appears in Ralph Gardiners Englands Grievance Discovered, first published in 1655. Gardiners account was reproduced in 1789 in John Brands History of Newcastle-on-Tyne, a similar device was used in Holland, William Brereton noted its use in Delft in 1634, as did Samuel Pepys at The Hague in 1660. One author recorded its existence in 1784 in Denmark, where it was called the Spanish Mantle, the drunkards cloak was actually a barrel, into the top of which a hole was made for the head to pass through. Two smaller holes in the sides were cut for the arms, once suitably attired, the miscreant was paraded through the town, effectively pilloried
A gallows is a frame, typically wooden, used for execution by hanging, or as a means of torture before execution, as was used when being hanged and quartered. Gallows can take several forms, The simplest form resembles an inverted L, with a single upright, the horizontal crossbeam is supported at both ends. There were even temporary gallows, which were portable, but weaker, the infamous Tyburn gallows was triangular in plan, with three uprights and three crossbeams, allowing up to 24 men and women to be executed simultaneously when all three sides were used. Occasionally, improvised gallows were used, usually by hanging the condemned from a tree or street light, hangings from such improvised gallows are usually lynchings rather than judicial executions. In Afghanistan, Taliban used football goals as gallows, Gallows may be permanent to act as a deterrent and grim symbol of the power of high justice. Many old prints of European cities show such a permanent gallows erected on a prominent hill outside the walls, in some of the cases, they were even moved to the location of the crime.
In England, pirates were executed using a temporary gallows, at low tide in the intertidal zone. The only surviving New Drop gallows in the UK are in Rutland County Museum, the gallows were portable and were set up at the gaol when needed. These gallows were first used in 1813 to hang two burglars, the New Drop design was not very effective as the drop was too short to break the neck cleanly. If a crime took place inside, gallows were sometimes erected—and the criminal hanged—at the front door, in some cases of multiple offenders it was not uncommon to erect multiple temporary gallows, with one noose per condemned criminal. In one case a condemned strangled to death in agony for forty minutes until he died from asphyxiation. Hanging people from early gallows sometimes involved fitting the noose around the neck while he or she was on a ladder or in a horse-drawn cart underneath. Removing the ladder or driving the cart away left the person dangling by the neck to slowly strangle, a noted example of this type of execution in the USA was the hanging of British spy John André in 1780.
During the era of public execution in London, England, a prominent gallows stood at Tyburn, executions occurred outside Newgate Gaol, where the Old Bailey now stands. Hangmans Elm Triberg Gallows Capital punishment Dule Tree Gibbet Jail tree Moot hill J. Thredgold-waugh 11/11/1944 BBC Article about British manufacturer, wikibooks, A Researchers Guide to Local History Terminology, Local History terminology
Vere Street Coterie
The Vere Street Coterie were a group of men arrested at a molly house in Vere Street, London in 1810 for sodomy and attempted sodomy. Two of them were hanged and six were pilloried for this offence, along with Oscar Wildes imprisonment for a similar offence, this episode was one of the major events in gay history in England during the 19th century. The club had been operating for less than six months when, on 8 July 1810, twenty-seven men were arrested, but in the end, the majority of them were released, and only eight were tried and convicted. Six of the men, who had been found guilty of attempted sodomy, were pilloried in the Haymarket on 27 September that year. The crowds who turned out to witness the scene were violent and unruly, the women in the crowd were reported as being particularly vicious. The city provided a force of 200 armed constables, half of them mounted. A man and a boy, John Hepburn and Thomas White, were convicted of the act of sodomy, the pair was hanged at Newgate Prison on 7 March 1811.
Vere Street Coterie is known in connection with alleged same sex marriages there, the entire history of the White Swan and the Vere Street Coterie were related by the lawyer Robert Holloway, who published a book about it called The Phoenix of Sodom in 1813. Cleveland Street scandal Rictor Norton, Mother Claps Molly House,1992
This is performed using a hot or very cold branding iron. It may be practiced as a rite of passage, e. g. within a tribe, in Dutch, branden mean to burn, brandmerk a branded mark, similarly, in German, Brandzeichen means a brand and brandmarken, to brand. Sometimes, the word cauterize is used, however cauterization is now generally understood to mean a medical process – specifically to stop bleeding. The origin may be the ancient treatment of a slave as livestock, european and other colonial slavers branded millions of slaves during the period of trans-Atlantic enslavement. Sometimes there were several brandings, e. g. for the Portuguese crown and the private owner, to a slave owner it would be logical to mark such property just like cattle, more so since humans are more able to escape. Ancient Romans marked runaway slaves with the letters FGV, in criminal law, branding with a hot iron was a mode of punishment consisting of marking the subject as if goods or animals, sometimes concurrently with their reduction of status in life.
Under Constantine I the face was not permitted to be so disfigured, in the 16th century, German Anabaptists were branded with a cross on their foreheads for refusing to recant their faith and join the Roman Catholic church. The mark in times was often chosen as a code for the crime. Branding was used for a time by the Union Army during the American Civil War and Oxford English Dictionary contributor William Chester Minor was required to brand deserters at around the time of the Battle of the Wilderness. In Germany however, branding was illegal, following the Conspiracy of the Slaves of 1749 in Malta, some slaves were branded with the letter R on their forehead and condemned to the galleys for life. In Louisiana, there was a code, or Code Noir, which allowed the cropping of ears, shoulder branding. Slave owners used extreme punishments to stop flight, or escape and they would often brand the slaves palms, buttocks, or cheeks with a branding iron. Branding was sometimes used to mark recaptured runaway slaves to help the locals easily identify the runaway.
Mr. Micajah Ricks, in Raleigh, North Carolina, was looking for his slave and described, I burnt her with a hot iron, on the side of her face. Most slave owners would use whipping as their method. Another testimony explains how a slave owner in Kentucky around 1848 was looking for his runaway slave and he described her having a brand mark on the breast something like L blotched. In South Carolina, there were many laws which permitted the punishments slaves would receive, when a slave ran away, if it was the first offense, the slave would receive no more than forty lashes. Then the second offense would be branding, the slave would have been marked with the letter R on their forehead signifying that they were a criminal, and a runaway
Charing Cross denotes the junction of Strand and Cockspur Street, just south of Trafalgar Square in central London. It gives its name to several landmarks, including Charing Cross railway station, Charing Cross is named after the Eleanor cross that stood on the site, in what was once the hamlet of Charing. The site of the cross has been occupied since 1675 by a statue of King Charles I. A loose Victorian replica of the cross, the Queen Eleanor Memorial Cross, was erected a short distance to the east outside the railway station. Until 1931, Charing Cross referred to the part of Whitehall between Great Scotland Yard and Trafalgar Square, at least one property retains a Charing Cross postal address, Drummonds Bank, on the corner of Whitehall and The Mall, which is designated 49 Charing Cross. Since the early 19th century, Charing Cross has often been regarded as the centre of London. Erect a rich and stately carved cross, Whereon her statue shall with glory shine, George Peele The Famous Chronicle of King Edward the First The name of the area, Charing, is derived from the Old English word cierring, referring to a bend in the River Thames.
Folk etymology suggests the name derives from chère reine — dear queen in French — and this wooden sculpted cross was the work of the medieval sculptor, Alexander of Abingdon. It was destroyed in 1647 on the orders of Parliament during the Civil War, a 70 ft -high stone sculpture in front of Charing Cross railway station is a copy of the original cross. Erected in 1865, it is situated a few hundred yards to the east of the original cross and it was designed by the architect E. M. Barry and carved by Thomas Earp of Lambeth out of Portland stone, Mansfield stone and Aberdeen granite. It is not a replica, being more ornate than the original. A variation on the name appears to be Charygcrouche, near St Martin in the Fields, since 1675 the site of the cross has been occupied by a statue of King Charles I mounted on a horse. The site is recognised by convention as the centre of London for the purpose of indicating distances by road in favour of other measurement points. Charing Cross is marked on maps as a road junction.
Since 1 January 1931 this section of road has been designated part of the Whitehall thoroughfare, the cross has given its name to a railway station, a tube station, police station, hospital, a hotel, a theatre, and a music hall. Charing Cross Road the main route from the north was named after the railway station, at some time between 1232 and 1236, the Chapel and Hospital of St Mary Rounceval was founded at Charing. It occupied land at the corner of the modern Whitehall and into the centre of Northumberland Avenue and it was an Augustinian house, tied to a mother house at Roncesvalles in the Pyrenees. The house and lands were seized for the king in 1379, protracted legal action returned some rights to the prior, but in 1414, Henry V suppressed the alien houses
Stocks are devices that were used internationally, in medieval and colonial American times as a form of physical punishment involving public humiliation. The stocks partially immobilized its victims and they were exposed in a public place such as the site of a market to the scorn of those who passed by. This scorn was commonly represented by throwing food at the victim. With stocks, boards are placed around the ankles and the wrists in some cases, whereas in the pillory they are placed around the arms and neck and fixed to a pole, and the victim stands. However, the terms can be confused, and many refer to the pillory as the stocks. The victims feet were bare, this caused heightened humiliation. Since stocks served a public form of punishment, its victims were subjected to the daily and nightly weather. As a consequence it was common for people kept in stocks over several days to die from exposure, the practice of using stocks continues to be cited as an example of torture and cruel and unusual punishment.
Victims may be insulted, tickled, spat on, one of the earliest references to the stocks in literature appears in the Bible. Paul and Silas, disciples of Jesus, were arrested and their treatment by their jailer was detailed in the Book of Acts, Having received such a charge, he put them into the inner prison and fastened their feet in the stocks. The Old Testaments book of Job describes the stocks, referring to God, He puts my feet in the stocks, he watches all my paths. The stocks were popular among civil authorities from medieval to early modern times. In the stocks, an offenders ankles, and sometimes wrists, the stocks were popular during the Colonial days in America. Public punishment in the stocks was an occurrence from around 1500 until at least 1748. The stocks were popular among the early American Puritans, who frequently employed the stocks for punishing the lower class. In the American colonies, the stocks were used, not only for punishment. They would eventually be brought before a judge, the offender would be exposed to whatever treatment those who passed by could imagine.
This could include tickling of the feet, englands second Statute of Labourers prescribed the use of the stocks for unruly artisans in 1350, and required that every town and village erect a set of stocks
Dalarna, is a historical province or landskap in central Sweden. Another English language form established in literature is the Dales, Dalarna adjoins Härjedalen, Hälsingland, Gästrikland, Västmanland and Värmland. It is bounded by Norway in the west, borders of the province mostly coincide with the modern administrative Dalarna County. The word Dalarna means the dales, the area is a popular vacation destination for Swedes from the south, who often travel there to relax during summer vacations, drawn by good fishing lakes, beautiful campgrounds, and deep forests. Many such Swedes own or rent a residence in Dalarna. In mid-June, summerfest celebrations and dances are held in many of the villages and, of course. Dalarna is a full of historical associations, possessing strong local characteristics in respect of its products. In the western district Lima, some people in villages speak a dialect, while in Älvdalen. Historically, the people of Dalecarlia – called Dalecarlians, or Dalesmen and Daleswomen – are famous for their love of independence, the Old Norse form of the province is Járnberaland, which means the land of the iron carriers.
The provinces of Sweden serve no administrative or political purposes, Dalarnas coat of arms dates from 1560, the use of two crossed arrows as a symbol precedes this. A Duchy of Dalecarlia exists, and the arms include a ducal coronet. Blazon, two Dalecarlian Arrows Or in saltire point upwards pointed Argent and in chief a Crown of the first, as early as 1525, the arrows appeared in use on a seal. Dalarna County uses the coat of arms, granted for the Kopparberg County in 1936. The northern part of the lies within the Scandinavian mountain range. The southern part consists of plains, with mines, most notably copper. Highest point is Storvätteshågna,1,204 meters above sea-level, lowest point is at 55 meters, in the south-east part. Lake Siljan features in the part of Dalarna, and the Västerdal River. Dalarnas second lake is Runn, which lies between Falun and Borlänge, with 66.6 square kilometres of water and over fifty islands, the lake is a popular tourist destination
Cidade Velha is a town in the southern part of the island of Santiago, Cape Verde. It is situated on the south coast,10 km west of the capital Praia, a former capital of Cape Verde, it is the oldest settlement in Cape Verde. Once called Ribeira Grande, its name was changed to Cidade Velha so to avoid confusion with Ribeira Grande on Santo Antão island and it is the seat of the Ribeira Grande de Santiago municipality. Located off Africas northwest coast, this town was the first European colonial settlement in the tropics, some of the meticulously planned original design of the site is still intact, including a royal fortress, two towering churches and a 16th-century town square. Today, Cidade Velha is an Atlantic shipping stop and center for Creole culture, the city became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2009. Santo António - east São Roque - west São Sebastião - city center After the island was discovered, the settlement was built in a valley inside a large stream named Ribeira Grande, vegetation is dominant.
The abundance of water and resources for agriculture made it suitable, the making of the main buildings, location on an accidental land, the settlement was built amphitheatrically, built within the sea. After discovery of the Americas, the settlement became an important port for trading slaves from Guinea-Bissau and Sierra Leone to Brazil, transcontinental slavery made Cidade Velha the second richest city in the Portuguese realm. Cidade Velhas port was a place for two great navigators, Vasco da Gama, in 1497, on his way to India. Cidade Velha has the oldest colonial church in the world - Nossa Senhora do Rosário church, the location of the archipelago had a great strategic importance, located on the maritime routes with the Americas and the south of Africa. It supplied ships with water and fresh food and ship repairs, the island served for bringing agricultural and animal species and African to the Pan-American continent and the Pan-American ones to Europe and Africa. Requested by John III of Portugal to Pope Clement VII in 1532 and had a Papal bull pro excellenti in 1533, during the Drakes raid, it was probably in Ribeira Brava.
After the Cassard expedition, the seat may have moved to Ribeira Brava on the island of São Nicolau, in the mid-16th century, the city had 500 buildings which were built from stone. It had other buildings including the church of Saint Roch, Saint Peters, Monte Alverne, Our Lady of Conception. Also located in the part was the church and hospital of Santa Casa de Misericórdia, in the upper part had the hospice. The Sé Cathedral started construction in 1556 under Francisco da Cruz and it was a temple with large dimensions, located 25 meters above sea level, dominated the city with its presence. Its construction works were delayed, it was completed over a century by the bishop Vitoriano Portuense in the 1693, the fort Real de São Filipe overlooks the town. It was constructed in 1590 to defend the Portuguese colony from the attacks of the Frenchmen and English, however, it was sacked by French pirates as part of the Cassard expedition in 1712, much of its inhabitants including the bishop fled to the island interior
Scandinavia /ˌskændᵻˈneɪviə/ is a historical and cultural region in Northern Europe characterized by a common ethnocultural North Germanic heritage and mutually intelligible North Germanic languages. The term Scandinavia always includes the three kingdoms of Denmark and Sweden, the remote Norwegian islands of Svalbard and Jan Mayen are usually not seen as a part of Scandinavia, nor is Greenland, an overseas territory of Denmark. This looser definition almost equates to that of the Nordic countries, in Nordic languages, only Denmark and Sweden are commonly included in the definition of Scandinavia. In English usage, Scandinavia sometimes refers to the geographical area, the name Scandinavia originally referred vaguely to the formerly Danish, now Swedish, region Scania. Icelanders and the Faroese are to a significant extent descended from the Norse, Finland is mainly populated by Finns, with a minority of approximately 5% of Swedish speakers. A small minority of Sami people live in the north of Scandinavia.
The Danish and Swedish languages form a continuum and are known as the Scandinavian languages—all of which are considered mutually intelligible with one another. Faroese and Icelandic, sometimes referred to as insular Scandinavian languages, are intelligible in continental Scandinavian languages only to a limited extent, Finnish and Meänkieli are closely related to each other and more distantly to the Sami languages, but are entirely unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Apart from these, German and Romani are recognized minority languages in Scandinavia, the southern and by far most populous regions of Scandinavia have a temperate climate. Scandinavia extends north of the Arctic Circle, but has mild weather for its latitude due to the Gulf Stream. Much of the Scandinavian mountains have a tundra climate. There are many lakes and moraines, legacies of the last glacial period, Scandinavia usually refers to Denmark and Sweden. Some sources argue for the inclusion of the Faroe Islands and Iceland, though that broader region is known by the countries concerned as Norden.
Before this time, the term Scandinavia was familiar mainly to classical scholars through Pliny the Elders writings, and was used vaguely for Scania, as a political term, Scandinavia was first used by students agitating for Pan-Scandinavianism in the 1830s. After a visit to Sweden, Andersen became a supporter of early political Scandinavism, the term is often defined according to the conventions of the cultures that lay claim to the term in their own use. More precisely, and subject to no dispute, is that Finland is included in the broader term Nordic countries, various promotional agencies of the Nordic countries in the United States serve to promote market and tourism interests in the region. The official tourist boards of Scandinavia sometimes cooperate under one umbrella, Norways government entered one year later. All five Nordic governments participate in the joint promotional efforts in the United States through the Scandinavian Tourist Board of North America, Scandinavia can thus be considered a subset of the Nordic countries
Eyre Crowe (painter)
Eyre Crowe ARA was an English painter, principally of historical art and genre scenes, but with an interest in social realism. He was born in London but grew up in France and he was the eldest son of the journalist Eyre Evans Crowe and brother of the journalist and art historian Joseph Archer Crowe. He was a pupil of William Darley and of Paul Delaroche in Paris and he traveled in the United States as amanuensis to Thackeray between 1852 and 1853. He published With Thackeray in America and Thackerays Haunts and Homes and he exhibited paintings at the Royal Academy in London between 1846 and 1908. In 1876 he was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy, Eyre Crowe on Artcyclopedia Profile on Royal Academy of Arts Collections