Mount Bachelor named Bachelor Butte, is a stratovolcano atop a shield volcano in the Cascade Volcanic Arc and the Cascade Range of central Oregon. Named Mount Bachelor because it "stands apart" from the nearby Three Sisters, it lies in the eastern segment of the central portion of the High Cascades, the eastern segment of the Cascade Range; the volcano lies at the northern end of the 15-mile long Mount Bachelor Volcanic Chain, which underwent four major eruptive episodes during the Pleistocene and the Holocene. The United States Geological Survey considers Mount Bachelor a moderate threat, but Bachelor poses little threat of becoming an active volcano in the near future, it remains unclear whether the volcano is just inactive. The Mount Bachelor ski area has operated on the mountain since 1958, the volcano's summit hosts the Mount Bachelor Observatory. A center of winter recreation, the area offers snowshoeing, snow skiing, snow tubing, dog sledding, among other activities; the summit can be reached by a climbing trail.
Mount Bachelor lies in the Cascade Range, within Deschutes County, in the U. S. state of Oregon. It is located south of the Three Sisters complex volcano, reaches an elevation of 9,068 feet, it rises 3,500 feet with a proximal relief of 2,674 feet. The volcano has a volume of 6.0 cubic miles. Mount Bachelor stands 3 miles southeast of the Tumalo Mountain volcano and 18 miles to the southwest of the city of Bend, in the Deschutes National Forest. Weather varies in the area due to the rain shadow caused by the Cascade Range. Air from the Pacific Ocean rises over the western slopes, which causes it to cool and dump its moisture as rain. Precipitation increases with elevation. Once the moisture is wrung from the air, it descends on the eastern side of the crest, which causes the air to be warmer and drier. On the western slopes, precipitation ranges from 80 to 125 inches annually, while precipitation over the eastern slopes varies from 40 to 80 inches in the east. Temperature extremes reach − 20 to − 30 °F during the winters.
Mount Bachelor joins several other volcanoes in the eastern segment of the Cascade Range known as the High Cascades, which trends north–south. Constructed towards the end of the Pleistocene Epoch, these mountains are underlain by more ancient volcanoes that subsided due to parallel north–south faulting in the surrounding region. Bachelor lies in the eastern segment of the central portion of the High Cascades. Mount Bachelor is the youngest prominent volcano in the Three Sisters area of Oregon, a group of grouped volcanic peaks, in contrast to the typical 40-to-60-mile spacing between volcanoes elsewhere in the Cascades. Among the most active volcanic areas in the Cascades and one of the most densely populated volcanic centers in the world, the Three Sisters region includes peaks such as Belknap Crater, Mount Washington, Black Butte, Three Fingered Jack to the north, Broken Top and Mount Bachelor to the south. Most of the surrounding volcanoes consist of mafic lavas. Mafic magma is less viscous.
The Mount Bachelor volcanic chain, southeast of South Sister, consists of Mount Bachelor, the largest and northernmost volcano of the group, a series of cinder cones, lava flows, three shield volcanoes. The chain runs for 15 miles and encompasses an area of about 100 square miles, trending from north to south, its volcanoes show significant variation in size and shape, ranging from steep cones produced by mild explosive activity to the sloping profiles of shield volcanoes. Volcanic vents within the locale show north–northwest–north–northeast-trending trends, which correspond to normal faults in the region, including one at the Bachelor chain's southern end; the Bachelor chain shows that much of the Quaternary Cascades in Oregon were produced in short bursts of eruptive activity and that mafic shield volcanoes can erupt at equal rates to stratovolcanoes. The volcanoes within the field are fed by compartmentalized magma chambers. A stratovolcano, Mount Bachelor formed between 18,000 and 8,000 years ago.
Bachelor is composed of basalt and basaltic andesite, though its upper volcanic cone formed after its base shield, the two edifices show similar eruptive composition. The mountain has withstood little alteration as a result of glacial erosion besides a small cirque on the northern side of the volcano. Despite the small scale of this erosion, it has extensively altered the northern face of Mount Bachelor, breaking down its lava into fine powder at the glacier terminus, where the terminal moraine resembles dust. However, the volcano's glacier has shrunk in recent decades and may vanish as a result of the warming climate; the volcano's summit has a number of clustered, northwest–southeast-trending vents, which erupted block lava flows made of basalt and andesite and only exhibited minor explosive eruptions, as little tephra can be found near the vents at the summit. There is no summit crater. Lava flows from Mount Bachelor's summit feature phenocrysts including clinopyroxene and plagioclase, with two phases for the clinopyroxene featuring augite and pigeonite
A normal route or normal way is the most used route for ascending and descending a mountain peak. It is the simplest route. In the Alps, routes are classed in the following ways, based on their waymarking and upkeep: Footpaths Hiking trails Mountain trails Alpine routes Climbing routes and High Alpine routes in combined rock and ice terrain, graded by difficultySometimes the normal route is not the easiest ascent to the summit, but just the one, most used. There may be technically easier variations; this is the case on the Watzmannfrau, the Hochkalter and Mount Everest. There may be many reasons these easier options are less well-used: the simplest route is less well known than the normal route; the technically easiest route is more arduous than another and is therefore used on the descent. The technically easiest route carries a much higher risk of e.g. rockfalls or avalanche and is therefore avoided in favour of a more difficult route. The technically easier route requires a complicated or long approach march, or all access may be banned via one country.
The term tourist route may sometimes be applied by those wishing to suggest that other routes up a mountain are somehow more "worthy". This belittling of the "normal route" therefore maintains a distinction between those perceiving themselves as serious mountaineers who disparage the incursion of tourist climbers into their domain
Diamond Head, Hawaii
Diamond Head is a volcanic tuff cone on the Hawaiian island of Oʻahu and known to Hawaiians as Lēʻahi, most from lae'browridge, promontory' plus ʻahi'tuna' because the shape of the ridgeline resembles the shape of a tuna's dorsal fin. Its English name was given by British sailors in the 19th century, who mistook calcite crystals on the adjacent beach for diamonds. Diamond Head is part of the system of cones and their associated eruption flows that are collectively known to geologists as the Honolulu Volcanic Series, eruptions from the Koʻolau Volcano that took place long after the volcano formed and had gone dormant; the Honolulu Volcanic Series is a series of volcanic eruption events that created many of Oʻahu's well-known landmarks, including Punchbowl Crater, Hanauma Bay, Koko Head, Mānana Island in addition to Diamond Head. Diamond Head, like the rest of the Honolulu Volcanic Series, is much younger than the main mass of the Koʻolau Mountain Range. While the Koʻolau Range is about 2.6 million years old, Diamond Head is estimated to be about 500,000 to 400,000 years old.
The interior and adjacent exterior areas were the home to Fort Ruger, the first United States military reservation on Hawaii. Only Battery 407, a National Guard emergency operations center, Birkhimer Tunnel, the Hawaii State Civil Defense Headquarters, remain in use in the crater. An FAA air traffic control center was in operation from 1963 to 2001. Diamond Head is a defining feature of the view known to residents and tourists of Waikīkī, a U. S. National Natural Monument; the volcanic tuff cone is a State Monument. While part of it is closed to the public and serves as a platform for antennas used by the U. S. government, the crater's proximity to Honolulu's resort hotels and beaches makes the rest of it a popular destination. In 1968, Diamond Head was declared a National Natural Landmark; the crater called Diamond Head Lookout was used as a strategic military lookout in the early 1900s. Spanning over 475 acres, it served as an effective defensive lookout because it provides panoramic views of Waikīkī and the south shore of Oahu.
The Diamond Head Lighthouse, a navigational lighthouse built in 1917 is directly adjacent to the crater's slopes. In addition, a few pillboxes are located on Diamond Head’s summit. Diamond Head appears on an 80-cent air mail stamp issued in 1952 to pay for shipping orchids to the mainland of the U. S. A 1975 televised game show, The Diamond Head Game was set at Diamond Head; the Crater was the location of several concerts in the 1970s. First held on New Year's Day, 1969, known as Hawaiian Woodstock, Diamond Head Crater Festivals, sometimes called Sunshine Festivals, were all-day music celebrations held in the'60's &'70's attracting over 75,000 in attendance for performances of the Grateful Dead, The Rolling Stones, Carlos Santana, Styx, Journey and Tower of Power, alongside Hawaii talent like Cecilio & Kapono and the Mackey Feary Band; these one day festivals became two day events in 1976 and 1977, but were cancelled by the Hawai'i Department of Land and Natural Resources because of community noise and environmental impact concerns.
Many items from the bands were brought out of the Crater by helicopter. Various views of Diamond Head Diamond Head Lighthouse Diamond Head Theatre Kapiolani Community College Official website Hawaii State Parks - Diamond Head State Monument Geographic data related to Diamond Head, Hawaii at OpenStreetMap Satellite image of Diamond Head
Fremont–Winema National Forest
The Fremont–Winema National Forest is a United States National Forest formed from the 2002 merger of the Fremont and Winema National Forests. They cover territory in southern Oregon from the crest of the Cascade Range on the west past the city of Lakeview to the east; the northern end of the forests is bounded by U. S. Route 97 on the west and Oregon Route 31 on the east. To the south, the state border with California forms the boundary of the forests. Klamath Falls is the only city of significant size in the vicinity; the forests are managed by the United States Forest Service, the national forest headquarters are located in Lakeview. The Fremont National Forest was named after John C. Frémont, who explored the area for the United States Army Corps of Engineers in 1843, it is located in western Lake and eastern Klamath counties in Oregon and has a land area of 1,207,039 acres. There are local ranger district offices located in Bly, Lakeview and Silver Lake; the Warner Canyon Ski Area was part of Fremont until a land swap transferred ownership to Lake County.
Founded in 1908, the Fremont National Forest was protected as the Goose Lake Forest Reserve in 1906. The name was soon changed to Fremont National Forest, it absorbed part of Paulina National Forest on July 19, 1915. In 2002, it was administratively combined with the Winema National Forest as the Fremont–Winema National Forests. A 1993 Forest Service study estimated that the extent of old growth in the forest was 549,800 acres, 113,800 acres of which were lodgepole pine forests; the sites of two former uranium mines, the White King and Lucky Lass mines, are within the Fremont National Forest. They are now Superfund sites. Common recreational activities in the Fremont National Forest include hiking, boating, horseback riding, mountain biking, skiing and fishing; the 50-mile Fremont National Recreation Trail runs northwest–southeast between Government Harvey Pass and Cox Pass in the forest. The Winema National Forest is a national forest in Klamath County on the eastern slopes of the Cascades in south-central Oregon and covers 1,045,548 acres.
The forest borders Crater Lake National Park near the crest of the Cascades and stretches eastward into the Klamath Basin. Near the floor of the basin the forest gives way to vast marshes and meadows associated with Upper Klamath Lake and the Williamson River drainage. To the north and east, extensive stands of ponderosa and lodgepole pine grow on deep pumice and ash that blanketed the area during the eruption of Mount Mazama nearly 7,000 years ago. A 1993 Forest Service study estimated. There are local ranger district offices located in Chemult and Klamath Falls; the forest is named after Toby Riddle, a Modoc woman known as "Winema". Founded in 1961, the Winema National Forest was protected as the Cascade Range Forest Reserve from 1893 to 1907, when it became the Cascade National Forest. In 1908, it changed to the Mazama National Forest and Crater Lake National Forest until 1932; the land was part of the Rogue River National Forest from 1932 to 1961, when it was designated the Winema National Forest.
In 2002, it was administratively combined with the Fremont National Forest. The Winema National Forest separately is the third-largest national forest, contained within one county. More than 50 percent of the forest is former Klamath Indian Reservation land; as part of the Indian Termination Policy that began in the 1950s, the United States Congress enacted a few termination acts directed at specific tribes that included the Klamath Tribe. The Klamath Tribe was vulnerable to government termination due to factionalism within the tribe that resulted from cultural assimilation effects of the previous decades. On the date of the act, a roll was taken of the tribe, locking in those eligible for property rights to tribal land. After this process, the collective land was divided among each individual on the roll and a vote was conducted on whether to withdraw from the tribe, those that remained would have their portion put back into a collective of land. Given that estimates suggest seventy percent of tribal members would withdraw, selling their land for commercial use, the government and lumber industry became concerned with how the increase in Klamath Forest timber would saturate the industry.
The act was amended to put commercial sales into the hands of the Forest Service, who implemented a sustainable-yield policy in regards to the former Klamath Forest. In the end, seventy-seven percent of the tribe voted to withdraw, shrinking the reservation down from 762,000 acres to 145,000 acres. Two purchases by the US government - the first in 1963 of about 500,000 acres and the second in 1973 of about 135,000 acres - were combined with portions of three other national forests to form the Winema National Forest. Members of the Klamath tribe reserve specific rights of hunting, fishing and gathering of forest materials on former reservation land within the Winema National Forest. There are over 300 species of fish that occur in this region. There are about 925 species of documented vascular plants in the Fremont National Forest; the vascular plants provide food and habitat for mammals, fish and mankind. Management to ensure that all native species maintain healthy populations is a focus of the Forest Service.
There are rare species of plants found in the forest. Game animals include elk and mule deer. There are several types of trout in the
John Day Fossil Beds National Monument
John Day Fossil Beds National Monument is a U. S. National Monument in Wheeler and Grant counties in east-central Oregon. Located within the John Day River basin and managed by the National Park Service, the park is known for its well-preserved layers of fossil plants and mammals that lived in the region between the late Eocene, about 45 million years ago, the late Miocene, about 5 million years ago; the monument consists of three geographically separate units: Sheep Rock, Painted Hills, Clarno. The units cover a total of 13,944 acres of semi-desert shrublands, riparian zones, colorful badlands. About 210,000 people visited the park in 2016 to engage in outdoor recreation or to visit the Thomas Condon Paleontology Center or the James Cant Ranch Historic District. Before the arrival of Euro-Americans in the 19th century, the John Day basin was frequented by Sahaptin people who hunted and gathered roots and berries in the region. After road-building made the valley more accessible, settlers established farms, a few small towns along the river and its tributaries.
Paleontologists have been unearthing and studying the fossils in the region since 1864, when Thomas Condon, a missionary and amateur geologist, recognized their importance and made them known globally. Parts of the basin became a National Monument in 1975. Averaging about 2,200 feet in elevation, the monument has a dry climate with temperatures that vary from summer highs of about 90 °F to winter lows below freezing; the monument has more than 80 soil types that support a wide variety of flora, ranging from willow trees near the river to grasses on alluvial fans to cactus among rocks at higher elevations. Fauna include more than 50 species of migratory birds. Large mammals like elk and smaller animals such as raccoons and voles frequent these units, which are populated by a wide variety of reptiles, fish and other creatures adapted to particular niches of a mountainous semi-desert terrain; the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument consists of three separated units—Sheep Rock, Painted Hills, Clarno—in the John Day River basin of east-central Oregon.
Located in rugged terrain in the counties of Wheeler and Grant, the park units are characterized by hills, deep ravines, eroded fossil-bearing rock formations. To the west lies the Cascade Range, to the south the Ochoco Mountains, to the east the Blue Mountains. Elevations within the 13,944-acre park range from 2,000 to 4,500 feet; the Clarno Unit, the westernmost of the three units, consists of 1,969 acres located 18 miles west of Fossil along Oregon Route 218. The Painted Hills Unit, which lies about halfway between the other two, covers 3,132 acres, it is situated about 9 miles northwest of Mitchell along Burnt Ranch Road, which intersects U. S. Route 26 west of Mitchell; these two units are within Wheeler County. The remaining 8,843 acres of the park, the Sheep Rock Unit, are located along Oregon Route 19 and the John Day River upstream of the unincorporated community of Kimberly; this unit is in Grant County, although a small part extends into Wheeler County. The Sheep Rock Unit is further subdivided into the Mascall Formation Overlook, Picture Gorge, the James Cant Ranch Historic District, Cathedral Rock, Blue Basin, the Foree Area.
Some of these are separated from one another by farms and other parcels of land that are not part of the park. The park headquarters and main visitor center, both in the Sheep Rock Unit, are 122 miles northeast of Bend and 240 miles southeast of Portland by highway; the shortest highway distances from unit to unit within the park are Sheep Rock to Painted Hills, 45 miles. The John Day River, a tributary of the Columbia River, flows west from the Strawberry Mountains before reaching the national monument, it turns north between the Mascall Formation Overlook and Kimberly, where the North Fork John Day River joins the main stem. Downstream of Kimberly, the river flows west to downstream of the unincorporated community of Twickenham, north thereafter. Rock Creek enters the river at the north end of Picture Gorge. Bridge Creek passes through Mitchell north along the eastern edge of the Painted Hills Unit to meet the John Day downstream of Twickenham. Intermittent streams in the Clarno Unit empty into Pine Creek, which flows just beyond the south edge of the unit and enters the John Day upstream of the unincorporated community of Clarno.
Early inhabitants of north-central Oregon included Sahaptin-speaking people of the Umatilla and Warm Springs tribes as well as the Northern Paiutes, speakers of a Uzo-Aztecan language. All were hunter-gatherers competing for resources such as elk and salmon. Researchers have identified 36 sites of related archeological interest, including rock shelters and cairns, in or adjacent to the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument. Most significant among the prehistoric sites are the Picture Gorge pictographs, consisting of six panels of rock art in the canyon at the south end of the Sheep Rock Unit; the art is of undetermined origin and age but is "centuries old". The John Day basin remained unexplored by non-natives until the mid-19th century. Lewis and Clark noted but did not explore the John Day River while traveling along the Columbia River in 1805. John Day, for whom the river is named visited only its confluence with the Columbia in 1812. In 1829, Peter Skene Ogden, working for the Hudson's Bay Company, led a company of explorers and fur trappers along the river through what would
United States Forest Service
The United States Forest Service is an agency of the U. S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass 193 million acres. Major divisions of the agency include the National Forest System and Private Forestry, Business Operations, the Research and Development branch. Managing 25% of federal lands, it is the only major national land agency, outside the U. S. Department of the Interior; the concept of the National Forests was born from Theodore Roosevelt’s conservation group and Crockett Club, due to concerns regarding Yellowstone National Park beginning as early as 1875. In 1876, Congress formed the office of Special Agent in the Department of Agriculture to assess the quality and conditions of forests in the United States. Franklin B. Hough was appointed the head of the office. In 1881, the office was expanded into the newly formed Division of Forestry; the Forest Reserve Act of 1891 authorized withdrawing land from the public domain as "forest reserves," managed by the Department of the Interior.
In 1901, the Division of Forestry was renamed the Bureau of Forestry. The Transfer Act of 1905 transferred the management of forest reserves from the General Land Office of the Interior Department to the Bureau of Forestry, henceforth known as the United States Forest Service. Gifford Pinchot was the first United States Chief Forester in the Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt. Significant federal legislation affecting the Forest Service includes the Weeks Act of 1911, the Multiple Use – Sustained Yield Act of 1960, P. L. 86-517. L. 88-577. L. 94-588. L. 91-190. L. 95-313. L. 95-307. In February 2009, the Government Accountability Office evaluated whether the Forest Service should be moved from the Department of Agriculture to the Department of the Interior, which includes the National Park Service, the Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management, managing some 438,000,000 acres of public land; as of 2009, the Forest Service has a total budget authority of $5.5 billion, of which 42% is spent fighting fires.
The Forest Service employs 34,250 employees in 750 locations, including 10,050 firefighters, 737 law enforcement personnel, 500 scientists. The mission of the Forest Service is "To sustain the health and productivity of the Nation's forests and grasslands to meet the needs of present and future generations." Its motto is "Caring for the land and serving people." As the lead federal agency in natural resource conservation, the US Forest Service provides leadership in the protection and use of the nation's forest and aquatic ecosystems. The agency's ecosystem approach to management integrates ecological and social factors to maintain and enhance the quality of the environment to meet current and future needs. Through implementation of land and resource management plans, the agency ensures sustainable ecosystems by restoring and maintaining species diversity and ecological productivity that helps provide recreation, timber, fish, wildlife and aesthetic values for current and future generations of people.
The everyday work of the Forest Service balances resource extraction, resource protection, providing recreation. The work includes managing 193,000,000 acres of national forest and grasslands, including 59,000,000 acres of roadless areas. Further, the Forest Service fought fires on 2,996,000 acres of land in 2007; the Forest Service organization includes ranger districts, national forests, research stations and research work units and the Northeastern Area Office for State and Private Forestry. Each level has responsibility for a variety of functions; the Chief of the Forest Service is a career federal employee. The Chief reports to the Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment in the U. S. Department of Agriculture, an appointee of the President confirmed by the Senate; the Chief's staff provides broad policy and direction for the agency, works with the Administration to develop a budget to submit to Congress, provides information to Congress on accomplishments, monitors activities of the agency.
There are five deputy chiefs for the following areas: National Forest System and Private Forestry and Development, Business Operations, Finance. The Forest Service Research and Development deputy area includes five research stations, the Forest Products Laboratory, the International Institute of Tropical Forestry, in Puerto Rico. Station directors, like regional foresters, report to the Chief. Research stations include Northern, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Southwest, Rocky Mountain, Southern. There are 92 research work units located at 67 sites throughout the United States. There are 80 Experimental Forests and Ranges that have been established progressively since 1908; the system provides places for long-term science and management studies in major vegetation types of the 195 million acres of public land administered by the Forest Service. Individual sites range from 47 to 22,500 ha in size. Operations of Experimental Forests and Ranges are directed by local research teams for the individual sites, by Research Stations for the regions in which they are located, at the level of the Forest Service.
Major themes in