In Greek mythology, Danaë was an Argive princess and mother of the hero Perseus by Zeus. She was credited with founding the city of Ardea in Latium during the Bronze Age. Danae was the daughter and only child of King Acrisius of Argos by his wife Queen Eurydice or Aganippe. In some accounts, she had wife of King Oenomaus of Pisa and mother of Hippodamia. Disappointed by his lack of male heirs, King Acrisius asked the oracle of Delphi if this would change; the oracle announced to him that he would never have a son, but his daughter would, that he would be killed by his daughter's son. At the time, Danae was childless and, meaning to keep her so, King Acrisius shut her up in a bronze chamber to be constructed under the court of his palace, she was buried in this tomb. However, the king of the gods, desired her, came to her in the form of golden rain which streamed in through the roof of the subterranean chamber and down into her womb. Soon after, their child Perseus was born. Unwilling to provoke the wrath of the gods or the Furies by killing his offspring and grandchild, King Acrisius cast Danaë and Perseus into the sea in a wooden chest.
The sea was calmed by Poseidon and, at the request of Zeus, the pair survived. They were washed ashore on the island of Seriphos, where they were taken in by Dictys – the brother of King Polydectes – who raised Perseus to manhood; the King was charmed by Danaë. He agreed not to marry her only if her son would bring him the head of the Gorgon Medusa. Using Athena's shield, Hermes's winged sandals and Hades' helmet of invisibility, Perseus was able to evade Medusa's gaze and decapitate her. After Perseus brought back Medusa's head and rescued Andromeda, the oracle's prophecy came true, he started for Argos, but learning of the prophecy, instead went to Larissa, where athletic games were being held. By chance, an aging Acrisius was there and Perseus accidentally struck him on the head with his javelin, fulfilling the prophecy. Danaë in art Danaë #Art Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheke Danae-class cruiser The asteroid 61 Danaë, named after her Gaius Julius Hyginus, Fabulae from The Myths of Hyginus translated and edited by Mary Grant.
University of Kansas Publications in Humanistic Studies. Online version at the Topos Text Project. Pseudo-Apollodorus, The Library with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer, F. B. A. F. R. S. in 2 Volumes, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Greek text available from the same website. Smith, William. "Danae", Acri'sius Warburg Institute Iconographic Database
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed; the Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117. In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and to an autocratic semi-elective empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it dominated the North African coast and most of Western Europe, the Balkans and much of the Middle East.
It is grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern language, society, law, government, art, literature and engineering. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France, it achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as the construction of large monuments and public facilities. The Punic Wars with Carthage were decisive in establishing Rome as a world power. In this series of wars Rome gained control of the strategic islands of Corsica and Sicily. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa.
The Roman Empire emerged with the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman–Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia. It would become the longest conflict in human history, have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, it stretched from the entire Mediterranean Basin to the beaches of the North Sea in the north, to the shores of the Red and Caspian Seas in the East. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would temporarily divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent "barbarian" kingdoms in the 5th century; this splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-medieval "Dark Ages" of Europe.
The eastern part of the empire endured through the 5th century and remained a power throughout the "Dark Ages" and medieval times until its fall in 1453 AD. Although the citizens of the empire made no distinction, the empire is most referred to as the "Byzantine Empire" by modern historians during the Middle Ages to differentiate between the state of antiquity and the nation it grew into. According to the founding myth of Rome, the city was founded on 21 April 753 BC on the banks of the river Tiber in central Italy, by the twin brothers Romulus and Remus, who descended from the Trojan prince Aeneas, who were grandsons of the Latin King Numitor of Alba Longa. King Numitor was deposed by his brother, while Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, gave birth to the twins. Since Rhea Silvia had been raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine; the new king, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, so he ordered them to be drowned. A she-wolf saved and raised them, when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor.
The twins founded their own city, but Romulus killed Remus in a quarrel over the location of the Roman Kingdom, though some sources state the quarrel was about, going to rule or give his name to the city. Romulus became the source of the city's name. In order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent and unwanted; this caused a problem, in that Rome was bereft of women. Romulus visited neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables he was refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins with the Sabines. Another legend, recorded by Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus, says that Prince Aeneas led a group of Trojans on a sea voyage to found a new Troy, since the original was destroyed at the end of the Trojan War. After a long time in rough seas, they landed on the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, but the women who were traveling with them did not want to leave.
One woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent their leaving
In Greek mythology, Danaus was the king of Libya. His myth is a foundation legend of one of the foremost Mycenaean cities of the Peloponnesus. In Homer's Iliad, "Danaans" and "Argives" designate the Greek forces opposed to the Trojans. Danaus, was the son of King Belus of the naiad Achiroe, daughter of the river god Nilus, he was the twin brother of Aegyptus, king of Arabia while Euripides adds two others, king of Ethiopia and Phineus, betrothed of Andromeda. Danaus had the Danaides, 12 of whom were born to the naiad Polyxo. According to Hippostratus, Danaus had all these progeny begotten by the daughter of Nilus. In some accounts, Danaus married Melia while Aegyptus consorted with Isaie, these two women were daughters of their uncle Agenor, king of Tyre, their possible sister, Damno, described as the daughter of Belus. After Aegyptus commanded that his fifty sons should marry the Danaides, Danaus elected to flee instead, to that purpose, he built a ship, the first ship that was. In it, he fled to Argos, to which he was connected by his descent from Io, a priestess of Hera at Argos, wooed by Zeus and turned into a heifer and pursued by Hera until she found asylum in Egypt.
Argos at the time was ruled by King Pelasgus, the eponym of all autochthonous inhabitants who had lived in Greece since the beginning called Gelanor. The Danaides asked Pelasgus for protection when they arrived, the event portrayed in The Suppliants by Aeschylus. Protection was granted after a vote by the Argives; when Pausanias visited Argos in the 2nd century CE, he related the succession of Danaus to the throne, judged by the Argives, who "from the earliest times... have loved freedom and self-government, they limited to the utmost the authority of their kings": The sanctuary of Apollo Lykeios was still the most prominent feature of Argos in Pausanias' time: in the sanctuary the tourist might see the throne of Danaus himself, an eternal flame, called the fire of Phoronius. When Aegyptus and his fifty sons arrived to take the Danaides, Danaus gave them, to spare the Argives the pain of a battle. However, he instructed his daughters to kill their husbands on their wedding night. Forty-nine followed through, subsequently buried the heads of their bridegrooms in Lerna.
Danaus threw her to the Argive courts. Aphrodite saved her. Lynceus and Hypermnestra began a dynasty of Argive kings; some sources relate that Amymone, the "blameless" Danaid, and/or Bryce spared their husbands. Aegyptus, after the death of his sons, died there, his monument was shown in the temple of Serapis at Patrae. In some versions, Lynceus killed Danaus as revenge for the death of his brothers; the remaining forty-nine Danaides had their grooms chosen by a common mythic competition: A foot-race was held and the order in which the potential Argive grooms finished decided their brides. Two of the grooms were Archander and Architeles, sons of Achaeus: They married Scaea and Automate respectively. In accounts, the Danaides were punished in Tartarus by being forced to carry water in a jug to fill a bath without bottom and thereby wash off their sins, but the bath was never filled because the water was always leaking out. Another account of the travels of Danaus gave him three daughters, Ialysos and Lindos, who were worshipped in the cities that took their names in the island of Rhodes, Ialysos and Lindos.
According to Rhodian mythographers who informed Diodorus Siculus, Danaus would have stopped and founded a sanctuary to Athena Lindia on the way from Egypt to Greece. Herodotus heard. Ken Dowden observes that once the idea is dismissed that myth is directly narrating the movements of historical persons, that the loci of Danaian institutions at Lindos in Rhodes as well as at Argos suggests a Mycenaean colony sent to Rhodes from the Argolid, a tradition, in fact, that Strabo reports. Danaus was credited as the inventor of wells and said to have migrated from Egypt about 1485 B. C. into that part of Greece, known as Argos Dipsion. Notes in Pliny the Elder's, Natural History added that: The epic Danais was written by one of the cyclic poets, it is represented in the table of epics in the received canon on the fragmentary "Borgia table" as "Danaides". A U. S. federal judge used the version of the legend in which the Danaides are forced to perform an impossible task as a simile for the judge's task of determining whether a case "arises under" the Constitution, laws or treaties of the United States.
Pindar, Odes translated by Diane Arnson Svarlien. 1990. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Herodotus, The Histories with an English translation by A. D. Godley. Cambridge. Harvard University Press. 1920. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Diodorus Siculus, Diodorus Siculus: The Library of History. Translated by Charles Henry Oldfather. Twelve volumes. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Pilumnus is a genus of crabs, containing the following species
Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans. "Roman mythology" may refer to the modern study of these representations, to the subject matter as represented in the literature and art of other cultures in any period. The Romans treated their traditional narratives as historical when these have miraculous or supernatural elements; the stories are concerned with politics and morality, how an individual's personal integrity relates to his or her responsibility to the community or Roman state. Heroism was an important theme; when the stories illuminate Roman religious practices, they are more concerned with ritual and institutions than with theology or cosmogony. The study of Roman religion and myth is complicated by the early influence of Greek religion on the Italian peninsula during Rome's protohistory, by the artistic imitation of Greek literary models by Roman authors.
In matters of theology, the Romans were curiously eager to identify their own gods with those of the Greeks, to reinterpret stories about Greek deities under the names of their Roman counterparts. Rome's early myths and legends have a dynamic relationship with Etruscan religion, less documented than that of the Greeks. While Roman mythology may lack a body of divine narratives as extensive as that found in Greek literature and Remus suckling the she-wolf is as famous as any image from Greek mythology except for the Trojan Horse; because Latin literature was more known in Europe throughout the Middle Ages and into the Renaissance, the interpretations of Greek myths by the Romans had a greater influence on narrative and pictorial representations of "classical mythology" than Greek sources. In particular, the versions of Greek myths in Ovid's Metamorphoses, written during the reign of Augustus, came to be regarded as canonical; because ritual played the central role in Roman religion that myth did for the Greeks, it is sometimes doubted that the Romans had much of a native mythology.
This perception is a product of Romanticism and the classical scholarship of the 19th century, which valued Greek civilization as more "authentically creative." From the Renaissance to the 18th century, Roman myths were an inspiration for European painting. The Roman tradition is rich in historical myths, or legends, concerning the foundation and rise of the city; these narratives focus on human actors, with only occasional intervention from deities but a pervasive sense of divinely ordered destiny. In Rome's earliest period and myth have a mutual and complementary relationship; as T. P. Wiseman notes: The Roman stories still matter, as they mattered to Dante in 1300 and Shakespeare in 1600 and the founding fathers of the United States in 1776. What does it take to be a free citizen? Can a superpower still be a republic? How does well-meaning authority turn into murderous tyranny? Major sources for Roman myth include the Aeneid of Vergil and the first few books of Livy's history as well as Dionysius' s Roman Antiquities.
Other important sources are the Fasti of Ovid, a six-book poem structured by the Roman religious calendar, the fourth book of elegies by Propertius. Scenes from Roman myth appear in Roman wall painting and sculpture reliefs; the Aeneid and Livy's early history are the best extant sources for Rome's founding myths. Material from Greek heroic legend was grafted onto this native stock at an early date; the Trojan prince Aeneas was cast as husband of Lavinia, daughter of King Latinus, patronymical ancestor of the Latini, therefore through a convoluted revisionist genealogy as forebear of Romulus and Remus. By extension, the Trojans were adopted as the mythical ancestors of the Roman people; the characteristic myths of Rome are political or moral, that is, they deal with the development of Roman government in accordance with divine law, as expressed by Roman religion, with demonstrations of the individual's adherence to moral expectations or failures to do so. Rape of the Sabine women, explaining the importance of the Sabines in the formation of Roman culture, the growth of Rome through conflict and alliance.
Numa Pompilius, the Sabine second king of Rome who consorted with the nymph Egeria and established many of Rome's legal and religious institutions. Servius Tullius, the sixth king of Rome, whose mysterious origins were mythologized and, said to have been the lover of the goddess Fortuna; the Tarpeian Rock, why it was used for the execution of traitors. Lucretia, whose self-sacrifice prompted the overthrow of the early Roman monarchy and led to the establishment of the Republic. Cloelia, A Roman woman taken hostage by Lars Porsena, she escaped the Clusian camp with a group of Roman virgins. Horatius at the bridge, on the importance of individual valor. Mucius Scaevola, who thrust his right hand into the fire to prove his loyalty to Rome. Caeculus and the founding of Praeneste. Manlius and the geese, about divine intervention at the Gallic siege of Rome. Stories pertaining to the Nonae Caprotinae and Poplifugia festivals. Coriolanus, a story of politics and morality; the Etruscan city of Corythus as the "cradle" of Trojan and Italian civilization.
The arrival of the Great Mother in Rome. Narratives of divine activity played a more important role in the system of Greek religious belief than among the Romans, for whom ritual and cult were primary. Although Roman religion did not have a basis in scriptures and exegesis, priestly literature was one of the earliest written forms of Latin prose; the books and commentaries of the College of Pontiffs and
A cereal is any grass cultivated for the edible components of its grain, composed of the endosperm and bran. The term may refer to the resulting grain itself. Cereal grain crops are grown in greater quantities and provide more food energy worldwide than any other type of crop and are therefore staple crops. Edible grains from other plant families, such as buckwheat and chia, are referred to as pseudocereals. In their natural, whole grain form, cereals are a rich source of vitamins, carbohydrates, fats and protein; when processed by the removal of the bran, germ, the remaining endosperm is carbohydrate. In some developing countries, grain in the form of rice, millet, or maize constitutes a majority of daily sustenance. In developed countries, cereal consumption is still substantial; the word cereal is derived from the Roman goddess of harvest and agriculture. Agriculture allowed for the support of an increased population, leading to larger societies and the development of cities, it created the need for greater organization of political power, as decisions had to be made regarding labor and harvest allocation and access rights to water and land.
Agriculture bred immobility, as populations settled down for long periods of time, which led to the accumulation of material goods. Early Neolithic villages show evidence of the development of processing grain; the Levant is the ancient home of the ancestors of wheat and peas, in which many of these villages were based. There is evidence of the cultivation of figs in the Jordan Valley as long as 11,300 years ago, cereal production in Syria 9,000 years ago. During the same period, farmers in China began to farm rice and millet, using man-made floods and fires as part of their cultivation regimen. Fiber crops were domesticated as early as food crops, with China domesticating hemp, cotton being developed independently in Africa and South America, Western Asia domesticating flax; the use of soil amendments, including manure, fish and ashes, appears to have begun early, developed independently in several areas of the world, including Mesopotamia, the Nile Valley and Eastern Asia. The first cereal grains were domesticated by early primitive humans.
About 8,000 years ago, they were domesticated by ancient farming communities in the Fertile Crescent region. Emmer wheat, einkorn wheat, barley were three of the so-called Neolithic founder crops in the development of agriculture. Around the same time and rices were starting to become domesticated in East Asia. Sorghum and millets were being domesticated in sub-Saharan West Africa. During the second half of the 20th century there was a significant increase in the production of high-yield cereal crops worldwide wheat and rice, due to an initiative known as the Green Revolution; the strategies developed by the Green Revolution focused on fending off starvation and were successful in raising overall yields of cereal grains, but did not give sufficient relevance to nutritional quality. These modern high yield-cereal crops have low quality proteins, with essential amino acid deficiencies, are high in carbohydrates, lack balanced essential fatty acids, vitamins and other quality factors. While each individual species has its own peculiarities, the cultivation of all cereal crops is similar.
Most are annual plants. Wheat, triticale, oats and spelt are the "cool-season" cereals; these are hardy plants that cease to grow in hot weather. The "warm-season" cereals are prefer hot weather. Barley and rye are the hardiest cereals, able to overwinter in Siberia. Many cool-season cereals are grown in the tropics. However, some are only grown in cooler highlands, where it may be possible to grow multiple crops per year. For the past few decades, there has been increasing interest in perennial grain plants; this interest developed due to advantages in erosion control, reduced need for fertiliser, potential lowered costs to the farmer. Though research is still in early stages, The Land Institute in Salina, Kansas has been able to create a few cultivars that produce a good crop yield; the warm-season cereals are grown in tropical lowlands year-round and in temperate climates during the frost-free season. Rice is grown in flooded fields, though some strains are grown on dry land. Other warm climate cereals, such as sorghum, are adapted to arid conditions.
Cool-season cereals are well-adapted to temperate climates. Most varieties of a particular species are either spring types. Winter varieties are sown in the autumn and grow vegetatively become dormant during winter, they mature in late spring or early summer. This cultivation system makes optimal use of water and frees the land for another crop early in the growing season. Winter varieties do not flower until springtime because they require vernalization: exposure to low temperatures for a genetically determined length of time. Where winters are too warm for vernalization or exceed the hardiness of the crop, farmers grow spring varieties. Spring cereals are planted in early springtime and mature that same summer, without vernalization. Spring cereals require more irrigation and yield less than winter cereals. Once the cereal plants have grown their seeds, they have completed their life cycle; the plants di
A satirical poet of the time of Nero and Vespasian bears this name. In Virgil's Aeneid, Turnus was the King of the Rutuli, the chief antagonist of the hero Aeneas. Turnus was a legendary king of the Rutulians in Roman history. According to Virgil's Aeneid, Turnus is the son of Daunus and the nymph Venilia and is brother of the nymph Juturna. While there is a limited amount of information in historical sources about Turnus, some key details about Turnus and the Rutuli differ from the account in the Aeneid; the only source predating the Aeneid is Marcus Portius Cato's Origines. Turnus is mentioned by Livy in his Ab Urbe Condita and by Dionysius of Halicarnassus in his Ρωμαϊκή Αρχαιολογία, both of which come than the Aeneid. In all of these historical sources, Turnus' heritage is unclear. Dionysius calls him "Tyrrhenus,". In all of these sources and his Rutulians are settled in Italy prior to the arrival of the Trojans and are involved in the clash between the Latins and the Trojans, but there is a great deal of discrepancy in details.
It appears that Virgil drew on a variety of historical sources for the background of Turnus in the Aeneid. Prior to Aeneas' arrival in Italy, Turnus was the primary potential suitor of Lavinia, the only daughter of Latinus, King of the Latin people. Upon Aeneas' arrival, Lavinia is promised to the Trojan prince. Juno, determined to prolong the suffering of the Trojans, prompts Turnus to demand a war with the new arrivals. King Latinus is displeased with Turnus, but steps down and allows the war to commence. During the War between the Latins and the Trojans, Turnus proves himself to be hot-headed. In Book IX, he nearly takes the fortress of the Trojans after defeating many opponents, but soon gets into trouble and is only saved from death by Juno. In Book X, Turnus slays the son of the young prince Pallas; as he gloats over the killing, he puts it on. Enraged, Aeneas seeks out the Rutulian King with full intent of killing him. Virgil marks the death of Pallas by mentioning the inevitable downfall of Turnus.
To prevent his death at the hands of Aeneas, Juno conjures a ghost apparition of Aeneas, luring Turnus onto a ship and to his safety. Turnus takes great offense at this action, questioning his worth and contemplating suicide. In Book XII, Aeneas and Turnus duel to the death. Turnus begs Aeneas either to give his body back to his people. Aeneas considers but upon seeing the belt of Pallas on Turnus, he is consumed by rage and finishes him off; the last line of the poem describes Turnus' unhappy passage into the Underworld. Turnus' supporters include: his sister and minor river / Juturna. In the Middle English poem Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, the unknown poet cites as a parallel to Brutus of Troy's founding of Britain, that of an unidentified "Ticius" to Tuscany. Although some scholars have tried to argue that "Titius" is derived from Titus Tatius, Otis Chapman has proposed that "Ticius" is a scribal error for what the poet intended to read as Turnus. On top of manuscript stylometric evidence, Chapman notes that in a passage in Ranulf Higdon's Polychronicon, Turnus is named as King of Tuscany.
This suggests that legends in the age after Virgil came to identify Turnus "as a legendary figure like Aeneas, Romulus, "Langeberde", Brutus". In Book IX of John Milton's Paradise Lost, the story of Turnus and Lavinia is mentioned in relation to God's anger at Adam and Eve. Turnus can be seen as a "new Achilles," due to his fierceness. According to Barry Powell, he may represent Mark Antony or local peoples who must submit to Rome's empire. Powell adds that in the dispute between Turnus and Aeneas, Turnus may have the moral upper hand, having been arranged to marry Lavinia first. However, Turnus must be stopped. Quotations related to Turnus at Wikiquote Media related to Turnus at Wikimedia Commons