Port Jackson, consisting of the waters of Sydney Harbour, Middle Harbour, North Harbour and the Lane Cove and Parramatta Rivers, is the ria or natural harbour of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The harbour is an inlet of the Tasman Sea, it is the location of the Sydney Opera Sydney Harbour Bridge. The location of the first European settlement and colony on the Australian mainland, Port Jackson has continued to play a key role in the history and development of Sydney. Many recreational events are based on or around the harbour itself the Sydney New Year's Eve celebrations and the starting point of the Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race; the waterways of Port Jackson are managed by the Maritime Services. Sydney Harbour National Park protects a number of islands and foreshore areas, swimming spots, bushwalking tracks and picnic areas; the land around Port Jackson was occupied at the time of the European arrival and colonisation by the Eora clans, including the Gadigal and Wangal. The Gadigal occupied the land stretching along the south side of Port Jackson from what is now South Head, in an arc west to the present Darling Harbour.
The Cammeraygal lived on the northern side of the harbour. The area along the southern banks of the Parramatta River to Rose Hill belonged to the Wangal; the Eora occupied west to Parramatta. The first recorded European discovery of Sydney Harbour was by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook named the inlet after Sir George Jackson, one of the Lord Commissioners of the British Admiralty, Judge Advocate of the Fleet; as the Endeavour sailed past the entrance at Sydney Heads, Cook wrote in his journal "at noon we were...about 2 or 3 miles from the land and abrest of a bay or harbour within there appeared to be a safe anchorage which I called Port Jackson." No-one on the ship recorded seeing any of the Harbour's many islands. This would have been because their line of sight was blocked by the high promontories of South Head and Bradleys Head that shape its dog-leg entrance. However, these islands were known to Captain Arthur Phillip, the First Fleet commander, before he departed England in 1787. Cook had seen the main body of the Harbour in 1770 and, on returning home, he had reported his important discovery to the Admiralty.
An explanation of Cook's discovery was first proposed in the book Lying for the Admiralty. While the Endeavour was anchored in Botany Bay, Cook may have followed one of the ancient Aboriginal tracks that connect Botany Bay to Port Jackson, a distance of some ten kilometres; the Admiralty had ordered Cook to conceal strategically valuable discoveries, so he omitted the main Harbour from his journal and chart. Eighteen years on 21 January 1788, after arriving at Botany Bay, Governor Arthur Phillip took a longboat and two cutters up the coast to sound the entrance and examine Cook's Port Jackson. Phillip first stayed over night at Camp Cove moved down the harbour, landing at Sydney Cove and Manly Cove before returning to Botany Bay on the afternoon of 24 January. Phillip returned to Sydney Cove in HM Armed Tender Supply on 26 January 1788, where he established the first colony in Australia to become the city of Sydney. In his first dispatch from the colony back to England, Governor Phillip noted that:...we had the satisfaction of finding the finest harbour in the world, in which a thousand sail of the line may ride in the most perfect security...
The Great White Fleet, the United States Navy battle fleet, arrived in Port Jackson in August 1908 by order of U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt. From 1938, seaplanes landed in Sydney Harbour on Rose Bay, making this Sydney's first international airport. In 1942, to protect Sydney Harbour from a submarine attack, the Sydney Harbour anti-submarine boom net was constructed, it spanned the harbour from Green Point, Watsons Bay to the battery at Georges Head, on the other side of the harbour. On the night of 31 May 1942, three Japanese midget submarines entered the harbour, one of which became entangled in the western end of the boom net's central section. Unable to free their submarine, the crew detonated charges. A second midget submarine came to grief in the two crew committing suicide; the third submarine fired two torpedoes at USS Chicago before leaving the harbour. In November 2006, this submarine was found off Sydney's Northern Beaches; the anti-submarine boom net was demolished soon after World War II, all that remains are the foundations of the old boom net winch house, which can be viewed on Green Point, Watsons Bay.
Today, the Australian War Memorial has on display a composite of the two midget submarines salvaged from Sydney Harbour. The conning tower of one of the midget submarines is on display at the RAN Heritage Centre, Garden Island, Sydney. Fort Denison is a former penal site and defensive facility occupying a small island located north-east of the Royal Botanic Gardens in Sydney Harbour. There are fortifications at elsewhere, some of which are now heritage listed; the earliest date from the 1830s, were designed to defend Sydney from seaborn attack or convict uprisings. There are four historical fortifications located between Taronga Zoo and Middle Head, they are: the Middle Head Fortifications, the Georges Head Battery, the Lower Georges Heights Commanding Position and a small fort located on Bradleys Head, known as the Bradleys Head Fortification Complex; the forts were built from sandstone quarried on site and consist of various tunnels, underground rooms, open batteries and casemated batteries, shell rooms, gunpowder magazines and trenches.
Geologically, Port Jackson is a drowned river v
Theodora is a dramatic oratorio in three acts by George Frideric Handel, set to an English libretto by Thomas Morell. The oratorio concerns the Christian martyr Theodora and her Christian-converted Roman lover, Didymus, it had its first performance at Covent Garden Theatre on 16 March 1750. Not popular with audiences in Handel's day, Theodora is now recognised as a masterpiece and is sometimes staged as an opera. Handel wrote Theodora during his last period of composition, he was sixty-four years old when he began working on it in June 1749. He had written the oratorios Susanna the previous year. Theodora would be his penultimate oratorio. Theodora differs from the former two oratorios because it is a tragedy, ending in the death of the heroine and her converted lover, it is Handel's only dramatic oratorio in English on a Christian subject. Thomas Morell had worked with Handel before on several oratorios, he and Handel were good friends. Morell's source for the libretto was The Martyrdom of Theodora and of Didymus by Robert Boyle, a prominent scientist and theologian.
He borrowed from Corneille's Théodore, Vierge et Martyre. Handel finished the oratorio on 31 July 1749, its premiere was on 16 March 1750. Theodora was a failure with the public and only played three times. There are at least two explanations for this. First, the theme of the persecution and martyrdom of a Christian saint may have been too removed from the Old Testament narratives that Londoners had become accustomed to from Handel's dramatic oratorios. Second, an earthquake that transpired about a week before the premiere had caused some of Handel's usual patrons to flee the city, it was the least performed of all his oratorios, being revived only once in 1755. Some of Handel's patrons appreciated the work, however. Lord Shaftesbury wrote in a letter to a friend "I can't conclude a letter and forget "Theodora". I have heard the work three times and will venture to pronounce it as finished and labour'd a composition as Handel made. To my knowledge, this took him up a great while in composing; the Town don't like it at all, but... several excellent musicians think as I do."
One of Handel's most loyal and enthusiastic supporters, Mary Delany, wrote to her sister Ann saying "Don't you remember our snug enjoyment of "Theodora?" Her sister replied "Surely "Theodora" will have justice at last, if it was to be again performed, but the generality of the world have ears and hear not". There are two surviving quotes of Handel about Theodora. Morell quotes Handel as saying "The Jews will not come to it. Handel's colleague Burney took note when two musicians asked for free tickets for Messiah and Handel responded "Oh your servant, meine Herren! you are damnable dainty! you would not go to Theodora - there was room enough to dance there, when, perform"! Theodora was Handel's favorite of his oratorios; the composer himself ranked the final chorus of Act II, "He saw the lovely youth," "far beyond" "Hallelujah" in Messiah. It has sometimes been staged as an opera, most notably in the acclaimed 1996 production by Peter Sellars at Glyndebourne; this production, conducted by William Christie, starred Dawn Upshaw as Theodora, Lorraine Hunt Lieberson as Irene and David Daniels as Didymus.
The plot has some elements of a rescue opera. The original libretto included an extra scene in which Septimius converted to Christianity himself, but it was never set by Handel, though it was printed; the second scene in Act 2 was subject to several revisions by Handel. The 4th century AD. Valens, the Roman governor of Antioch, issues a decree that in honour of Diocletian's birthday all citizens will offer sacrifice to Venus, the Roman goddess of love, Flora, a fertility goddess of the spring, on pain of death, puts Septimius in charge of enforcing this. Didymus, a soldier secretly converted to Christianity, asks that citizens whose consciences prevent them making sacrifices to idols be spared punishment, which Valens dismisses. Septimius suspects Didymus is a Christian and affirms his own loyalty to the law although he pities those who will be condemned to die by the decree and wishes he could be allowed to extend mercy to them. Theodora, a nobly-born Christian and her friend Irene are worshipping with their fellow believers in private rather than joining in the festival for the emperor's birthday when a messenger brings news of Valens' decree.
Septimius comes to arrest them - Theodora expects to be put to death but is informed that instead she has been sentenced to serve as a prostitute in the temple of Venus. Theodora is led away to the temple. Irene informs Didymus who goes in the hope of either dying with her; the first Act closes with a chorus of Christians praying for the mission's success. At the start of the second Act the festival in honour of the emperor and the goddesses is being enjoyed by the pagans. Valens sends Septimius to tell Theodora that if she doesn't join in with the festival by the end of the day, he will send his guards to rape her; the crowd expresses their satisfaction at this sentence. In the temple of Venus which serves as a brothel, Theodora is frightened, but her mood changes as she contemplates the afterlife. Didymus confesses to his friend and superior officer Septimius that he is a Christian and appeals to the other man's sense of decency. Septimius allows Didymus to visit Theodora. At first Theodora appeals to Didymus to kill her and put an end to her suffering, but instead Didymus persuades her to conceal her identity by putting on his helmet and his uniform and escaping, leaving Didymus in her pl
George Frideric Handel
George Frideric Handel was a German British, Baroque composer who spent the bulk of his career in London, becoming well-known for his operas, oratorios and organ concertos. Handel received important training in Halle-upon-Saale and worked as a composer in Hamburg and Italy before settling in London in 1712, he was influenced both by the great composers of the Italian Baroque and by the middle-German polyphonic choral tradition. Within fifteen years, Handel had started three commercial opera companies to supply the English nobility with Italian opera. Musicologist Winton Dean writes; as Alexander's Feast was well received, Handel made a transition to English choral works. After his success with Messiah he never composed an Italian opera again. Blind, having lived in England for nearly fifty years, he died in 1759, a respected and rich man, his funeral was given full state honours, he was buried in Westminster Abbey in London. Born the same year as Johann Sebastian Bach and Domenico Scarlatti, Handel is regarded as one of the greatest composers of the Baroque era, with works such as Messiah, Water Music, Music for the Royal Fireworks remaining steadfastly popular.
One of his four coronation anthems, Zadok the Priest, composed for the coronation of George II, has been performed at every subsequent British coronation, traditionally during the sovereign's anointing. Another of his English oratorios, has remained popular, with the Sinfonia that opens act 3 featuring at the 2012 London Olympics opening ceremony. Handel composed more than forty operas in over thirty years, since the late 1960s, with the revival of baroque music and informed musical performance, interest in Handel's operas has grown. Handel was born in 1685 to Georg Händel and Dorothea Taust, his father, aged sixty-three when George Frideric was born, was an eminent barber-surgeon who served the court of Saxe-Weissenfels and the Margraviate of Brandenburg. Georg Händel was the son of a coppersmith, Valentin Händel, who had emigrated from Eisleben in 1608 with his first wife Anna Belching, the daughter of a master coppersmith, they were Protestants and chose reliably Protestant Saxony over Silesia, a Hapsburg possession, as religious tensions mounted in the years before the Thirty Years War.
Halle was a prosperous city, home of a salt-mining industry and center of trade. The Margrave of Brandenburg became the administrator of the archiepiscopal territories of Mainz, including Magdeburg when they converted, by the early 17th century held his court in Halle, which attracted renowned musicians; the smaller churches all had "able organists and fair choirs", humanities and the letters thrived. The Thirty Years War brought extensive destruction to Halle, by the 1680s it was impoverished. However, since the middle of the war the city had been under the administration of the Duke of Saxony, soon after the end of the war he would bring musicians trained in Dresden to his court in Weissenfels; the arts and music, flourished only among the higher strata, of which Handel's family was not a member. Georg Händel was born at the beginning of the war, was apprenticed to a barber in Halle at the age of 14, after his father died; when he was 20, he married the widow of the official barber-surgeon of a suburb of Halle, inheriting his practice.
With this, Georg determinedly began the process of becoming self-made. Anna died in 1682. Within a year Georg married again, this time to the daughter of a Lutheran minister, Pastor Georg Taust of the Church of St. Bartholomew in Giebichtenstein, who himself came from a long line of Lutheran pastors. Handel was the second child of this marriage. Two younger sisters were born after the birth of George Frideric: Dorthea Sophia, born 6 October 1687, Johanna Christiana, born 10 January 1690. Early in his life Handel is reported to have attended the gymnasium in Halle, where the headmaster, Johann Praetorius, was reputed to be an ardent musician. Whether Handel remained there or for how long is unknown, but many biographers suggest that he was withdrawn from school by his father, based on the characterization of him by Handel's first biographer, John Mainwaring. Mainwaring is the source for all information of Handel's childhood, much of that information came from J. C. Smith, Jr. Handel's confidant and copyist.
Whether it came from Smith or elsewhere, Mainwaring relates misinformation. It is from Mainwaring that the portrait comes of Handel's father as implacably opposed to any musical education. Mainwaring writes that Georg Händel was "alarmed" at Handel's early propensity for music, "took every measure to oppose it", including forbidding any musical instrument in the house and preventing Handel from going to any house where they might be found; this did nothing to dampen young Handel's inclination. Mainwaring tells the story of Handel's
The viol, viola da gamba, or gamba, is any one of a family of bowed and stringed instruments with hollow wooden bodies and pegboxes where the tension on the strings can be increased or decreased to adjust the pitch of each of the strings. Frets on the viol are made of gut, tied on the fingerboard around the instrument's neck, to enable the performer to stop the strings more cleanly. Frets improve consistency of intonation and lend the stopped notes a tone that better matches the open strings. Viols first appeared in Spain in the mid to late 15th century and were most popular in the Renaissance and Baroque periods. Early ancestors include the Arabic rebab and the medieval European vielle, but more direct possible ancestors include the Venetian viole and the 15th- and 16th-century Spanish vihuela, a 6-course plucked instrument tuned like a lute that looked like but was quite distinct from the 4-course guitar. Although bass viols superficially resemble cellos, viols are different in numerous respects from instruments of the violin family: the viol family has flat rather than curved backs, sloped rather than rounded shoulders, c holes rather than f holes, five to seven rather than four strings.
All members of the viol family are played upright. All viol instruments are held between the legs like a modern cello, hence the Italian name viola da gamba was sometimes applied to the instruments of this family; this distinguishes the viol from the viola da braccio. A player of the viol is known as a gambist, violist, or violist da gamba. "Violist" shares the spelling, but not the pronunciation, of the word used since the mid-20th century to refer to a player of the viola. It can therefore cause confusion if used in print where context does not indicate that a viol player is meant, though it is unproblematic, common, in speech. Vihuelists began playing their flat-edged instruments with a bow in the second half of the 15th century. Within two or three decades, this led to the evolution of an new and dedicated bowed string instrument that retained many of the features of the original plucked vihuela: a flat back, sharp waist-cuts, thin ribs, an identical tuning—hence its original name, vihuela de arco.
An influence in the playing posture has been credited to the example of Moorish rabab players. The viol is unrelated to the much older Hebrew stringed instrument called a nevel; this ancient harp-like instrument was similar to nabla. Stefano Pio argues that a re-examination of documents in the light of newly collected data indicates an origin different from the vihuela de arco from Aragon. According to Pio, the viol evolved independently in Venice. Pio asserts that it is implausible that the vihuela de arco underwent such a rapid evolution by Italian instrument makers – not Venetian, nor Mantuan or Ferrarese – so that a ten-year span brought the birth and diffusion in Italy of a new family of instruments; these comprised instruments of different size, some as large as the famous violoni as ‘big as a man’ mentioned by Prospero Bernardino in 1493. Pio notes that both in the manuscript of the early 15th-century music theorist Antonius de Leno and in the treatises of the Venetian Silvestro Ganassi dal Fontego and Giovanni Maria Lanfranco, the fifth string of the viola da gamba is uniquely called a bordone, although it is not a drone and is played the same as the other strings.
Pio argues that this inconsistency is justifiable only assuming the invention, during the last part of the fifteenth century, of a larger instrument derived from the medieval violetta, to which were added other strings to allow a greater extension to the low register that resulted from its increased size. The fifth string present in some specimens of these violette as a drone, was incorporated into the neck when they were expanded in size; this was surpassed by a sixth string, named basso, which fixed the lower sound produced by the instrument. In Pio's view, the origin of the viola da gamba is tied to the evolution of the smaller the medieval violetta or vielle, fitted with a fifth string drone, where the name remained unchanged though it ceased to perform this function. Ian Woodfield, in his The Early History of the Viol, points to evidence that the viol does in fact start with the vihuela but that Italian makers of the instrument began to apply their own developed instrument-making traditions to the early version of the instrument when it was introduced into Italy.
The family of viole shared common characteristics but differed in the way they were played. The increase in the dimensions of the "viola" determined the birth of the viol and the definitive change in the manner the instrument was held, as musicians found it easier to play it vertically; the first consort of viols formed by four players was documented at the end of the fifteenth ce
City Recital Hall
City Recital Hall in Sydney, Australia, is a purpose-built concert venue with the capacity for 1,238 guests seated over three tiers of sloped seating. It is situated in the city centre in Angel Place, just off Martin Place. City Recital Hall, opened in 1999, is the first specially designed concert venue to be built in the city since the Opera House in 1973; the role of City Recital Hall is to provide a high quality venue of international standing. The venue was initiated by the City of Sydney and was designed for solo recitals, chamber music and the spoken word; the auditorium's 1.8-second reverberation time is attuned for chamber music. The spoken word and amplified music are accommodated by the operation of specially designed acoustic banners; the entire auditorium is supported on rubber bearings to avoid vibration and street sounds and the air conditioning and lighting systems have been treated to minimise external noise. The Hall was designed in a shoebox shape, based on the classical configuration of 19th-century European concert halls.
The design includes sloping stalls and two galleries that wrap around both sides and rear of the auditorium. The décor is of light timber panelling and plum-coloured upholstery; the main grand stairway is of white marble. City Recital Hall has hosted the following companies: Australian Brandenburg Orchestra Australian Chamber Orchestra Australian String Quartet Gondwana Voices Musica Viva Australia Pinchgut Opera Selby & Friends Sydney Children's Choir Sydney Festival Sydney Philharmonia Choirs Sydney Symphony List of concert halls Forgotten Songs Dr Lisa Anne Murray, "Musical Chairs: The Quest for a City Recital Hall", Sydney 2006. ISBN 0-9751196-3-X. Official City Recital Hall website Review of the new book "Musical Chairs: The Quest for a City Recital Hall"
The Fairy-Queen is a masque or semi-opera by Henry Purcell. The libretto is an anonymous adaptation of William Shakespeare's wedding comedy A Midsummer Night's Dream. First performed in 1692, The Fairy-Queen was composed three years before Purcell's death at the age of 35. Following his death, the score was lost and only rediscovered early in the twentieth century. Purcell did not set any of Shakespeare's text to music; the play itself was slightly modernised in keeping with seventeenth-century dramatic conventions, but in the main the spoken text is as Shakespeare wrote it. The masques are related to the play metaphorically, rather than literally. Many critics have stated. Recent scholarship has shown that the opera, which ends with a masque featuring Hymen, the God of Marriage, was composed for the fifteenth wedding anniversary of William III and Mary II. Growing interest in Baroque music and the rise of the countertenor contributed to the work's re-entry into the repertoire; the opera received several full-length recordings in the latter part of the 20th century and several of its arias, including "The Plaint", have become popular recital pieces.
In July 2009, in celebration of the 350th anniversary of Purcell's birth, The Fairy-Queen was performed by Glyndebourne Festival Opera using a new edition of the score, prepared for the Purcell Society by Bruce Wood and Andrew Pinnock. The Fairy-Queen was first performed on 2 May 1692 at the Queen's Theatre, Dorset Garden in London by the United Company; the author or at least co-author of the libretto was Thomas Betterton, the manager of Dorset Garden Theatre, with whom Purcell worked regularly. This belief is based on an analysis of Betterton's stage directions. A collaboration between several playwrights is feasible. Choreography for the various dances was provided by Josias Priest, who worked on Dioclesian and King Arthur, and, associated with Dido and Aeneas. A letter describing the original performance shows that the parts of Titania and Oberon were played by children of eight or nine. Other fairies were played by children. Following the huge success of his operas Dioclesian and King Arthur, Purcell composed The Fairy-Queen in 1692.
Purcell's "First" and "Second Music" were played while the audience were taking their seats. The "Act Tunes" are played between acts, as the curtain was raised at the beginning of a performance and not lowered until the end. After act 1, each act commences with a short symphony; the English tradition of semi-opera, to which The Fairy-Queen belongs, demanded that most of the music within the play be introduced through the agency of supernatural beings, the exception being pastoral or drunken characters. All the masques in The Fairy-Queen are presented by Oberon. Act 1 contained no music, but due to the work's enormous success it was revived in 1693, when Purcell added the scene of the Drunken Poet and two further songs on in the work; as noted above, each masque is subtly related to the action in the play during that particular act in a metaphorical way. In this manner we have Night and Sleep in act 2, apt as that act of the play consists of Oberon's plans to use the power of the "love-in-idleness" flower to confuse various loves, it is therefore appropriate for the allegorical figures of Secrecy, Mystery et al. to usher in a night of enchantment.
The masque for Bottom in act 3 includes metamorphoses, songs of both real and feigned love, beings who are not what they seem. The Reconciliation masque between Oberon and Titania at the end of act 4 prefigures the final masque; the scene changes to a Garden of Fountains, denoting King William's hobby, just after Oberon says "bless these Lovers' Nuptial Day". The Four Seasons tell us that the marriage here celebrated is a good one all year round and "All Salute the rising Sun"/... The Birthday of King Oberon"; the kings of England were traditionally likened to the sun. The Chinese scene in the final masque is in homage to Queen Mary's famous collection of china; the garden shown above it and the exotic animals bring King William back into the picture and Hymen's song in praise of their marriage, plus the stage direction bringing china vases containing orange trees to the front of the stage complete the symbolism. Written as he approached the end of his brief career, The Fairy-Queen contains some of Purcell's finest theatre music, as musicologists have agreed for generations.
In particular, Constant Lambert was a great admirer. It shows to excellent effect Purcell's complete mastery of the pungent English style of Baroque counterpoint, as well as displaying his absorption of Italian influences. Several arias such as "The Plaint", "Thrice happy lovers" and "Hark! the echoing air" have entered the discographic repertory of many singers outside their original context. The orchestra for The Fairy-Queen consists of two recorders, two oboes, two trumpets, string instruments and harpsichord continuo. Following Purcell's premature death, his opera Dioclesian remained popular until well into the eighteenth century, but the score of The Fairy-Queen was lost and only rediscovered early in the twentieth century. Other works like. Changing tastes were not the o
Franz Joseph Haydn was an Austrian composer of the Classical period. He was instrumental in the development of chamber music such as the piano trio, his contributions to musical form have earned him the epithets "Father of the Symphony" and "Father of the String Quartet". Haydn spent much of his career as a court musician for the wealthy Esterházy family at their remote estate; until the part of his life, this isolated him from other composers and trends in music so that he was, as he put it, "forced to become original". Yet his music circulated and for much of his career he was the most celebrated composer in Europe, he was a friend and mentor of Mozart, a tutor of Beethoven, the older brother of composer Michael Haydn. Joseph Haydn was born in Rohrau, Austria, a village that at that time stood on the border with Hungary, his father was Mathias Haydn, a wheelwright who served as "Marktrichter", an office akin to village mayor. Haydn's mother Maria, née Koller, had worked as a cook in the palace of Count Harrach, the presiding aristocrat of Rohrau.
Neither parent could read music. According to Haydn's reminiscences, his childhood family was musical, sang together and with their neighbours. Haydn's parents had noticed that their son was musically gifted and knew that in Rohrau he would have no chance to obtain serious musical training, it was for this reason that, around the time Haydn turned six, they accepted a proposal from their relative Johann Matthias Frankh, the schoolmaster and choirmaster in Hainburg, that Haydn be apprenticed to Frankh in his home to train as a musician. Haydn therefore went off with Frankh to Hainburg and he never again lived with his parents. Life in the Frankh household was not easy for Haydn, who remembered being hungry and humiliated by the filthy state of his clothing, he began his musical training there, could soon play both harpsichord and violin. The people of Hainburg heard. There is reason to think that Haydn's singing impressed those who heard him, because in 1739 he was brought to the attention of Georg von Reutter, the director of music in St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna, who happened to be visiting Hainburg and was looking for new choirboys.
Haydn passed his audition with Reutter, after several months of further training moved to Vienna, where he worked for the next nine years as a chorister. Haydn lived in the Kapellhaus next to the cathedral, along with Reutter, Reutter's family, the other four choirboys, which after 1745 included his younger brother Michael; the choirboys were instructed in Latin and other school subjects as well as voice and keyboard. Reutter was of little help to Haydn in the areas of music theory and composition, giving him only two lessons in his entire time as chorister. However, since St. Stephen's was one of the leading musical centres in Europe, Haydn learned a great deal by serving as a professional musician there. Like Frankh before him, Reutter did not always bother to make sure; as he told his biographer Albert Christoph Dies, Haydn was motivated to sing well, in hopes of gaining more invitations to perform before aristocratic audiences—where the singers were served refreshments. By 1749, Haydn had matured physically to the point that he was no longer able to sing high choral parts.
Empress Maria Theresa herself complained to Reutter about his singing, calling it "crowing". One day, Haydn carried out a prank; this was enough for Reutter: Haydn was first caned summarily dismissed and sent into the streets. He had the good fortune to be taken in by a friend, Johann Michael Spangler, who shared his family's crowded garret room with Haydn for a few months. Haydn began his pursuit of a career as a freelance musician. Haydn struggled at first, working at many different jobs: as a music teacher, as a street serenader, in 1752, as valet–accompanist for the Italian composer Nicola Porpora, from whom he said he learned "the true fundamentals of composition", he was briefly in Count Friedrich Wilhelm von Haugwitz's employ, playing the organ in the Bohemian Chancellery chapel at the Judenplatz. While a chorister, Haydn had not received any systematic training in music composition; as a remedy, he worked his way through the counterpoint exercises in the text Gradus ad Parnassum by Johann Joseph Fux and studied the work of Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, whom he acknowledged as an important influence.
As his skills increased, Haydn began to acquire a public reputation, first as the composer of an opera, Der krumme Teufel, "The Limping Devil", written for the comic actor Johann Joseph Felix Kurz, whose stage name was "Bernardon". The work was premiered in 1753, but was soon closed down by the censors due to "offensive remarks". Haydn noticed without annoyance, that works he had given away were being published and sold in local music shops. Between 1754 and 1756 Haydn worked freelance for the court in Vienna, he was among several musicians who were paid for services as supplementary musicians at balls given for the imperial children during carnival season, as supplementary singers in the imperial chapel in Lent and Holy Week. With the increase in his reputation, Haydn obtained aristocratic patronage, crucial for the career of a composer in his day. Countess Thun, having seen one of Haydn's compositions, summoned him and engaged him as her singing an