Pinchitos or Pinchos Morunos is a Moorish-derived food in Spanish cuisine, similar to Kebab. The name pinchitos is used in the southern Spanish autonomous communities of Andalusia and Extremadura, they consist of small cubes of meat threaded onto a skewer which are traditionally cooked over charcoal braziers. Similar dishes in North Africa or other Muslim majority countries tend to be lamb based, but pork and chicken are the most popular meats for the dish in Spain. Pinchitos are extremely popular in Venezuela, due to the heavy influence Spain had in Venezuelan cuisine during many years. Pinchitos is one of the main dishes in Venezuelan barbecues, are eaten during all year long. Besides lemon and wine, it is served with boiled yuca, or, in recent years, with cherry tomatoes. Pinchitos are sold in street food carts all around the country during weekends. In some regions, Pinchitos are called "Pincho Americano". Pinchitos are made of lean diced pork or chicken, marinated with olive oil, herbs and spices and seasoned with salt.
Pinchitos is one of the main meat dishes cooked at Andalusian and Extremaduran barbecues during the summer months. They are served with bread, wedges of lemon and wine. Pinchito recipe
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Spanish omelette is the English name for a traditional dish from Spanish cuisine called tortilla española, tortilla de patatas or tortilla de papas. It is an omelette made with eggs and potatoes, sometimes with onion and/or chives or garlic, it is part of the cuisine of Spain. In Spanish tortilla is the diminutive form of torta "cake"; these dishes are unrelated to the maize or wheat tortilla of Mexico and neighbouring countries, a thin flatbread. In most of Hispanic America, where both the flatbread and potato omelette are eaten, the omelette is called tortilla española to distinguish it from the maize tortilla of the region; because the potato is called papa in much of Hispanic America, this dish can sometimes be referred to as tortilla de papas in that region as well. The Spanish tortilla is eaten in Spain and some Spanish-speaking countries. While there are numerous regional variations, the basic version is made only with eggs and potatoes, onion; the addition of the onion is controversial and related to the tenderness of the local varieties of potatoes.
To avoid confusions some restaurants distinguish between the plain tortilla de patatas and the tortilla de patatas con cebolla. The potatoes, ideally a starchy variety, are cut into small dice, they are seasoned and sautéed in cooking oil, with sliced onions being added at this stage if used. These ingredients are stirred at a moderate temperature; the potatoes are removed and mixed with beaten eggs. This mixture is returned to the pan and fried, turning to fry both sides. Once the eggs are cooked on one side, a pan should be placed over the mixture and it can be inverted onto the separate pan or plate; the mixture is slipped back into the pan to cook the other side. The essential ingredients are eggs and salt. Other ingredients such as green or red peppers, chorizo or other sausage, shrimp or different vegetables, may be included as well, although the result is not a tortilla de patatas/papas; the Spanish government nutrition web site specifies extra virgin olive oil and includes onion, but some recipes state vegetable oil.
The tortilla may be eaten cold. As a tapa, it may be served on cocktail sticks; the first reference to the tortilla in Spanish is found in a Navarrese document, as an anonymous "Mousehole's memorial" addressed to the Navarra region's court in 1817. It explains the sparse conditions of Navarre's farmers in contrast with those in Pamplona and la Ribera. After listing the sparse food eaten by highlanders, the next quote follows: "…two to three eggs in tortilla for 5 or 6 as our women do know how to make it big and thick with less eggs, mixing potatoes, breadcrumbs or whatever."According to legend, during the siege of Bilbao, Carlist general Tomás de Zumalacárregui invented the "tortilla de patatas" as an easy and nutritious dish to satisfy the scarcities of the Carlist army. Although it remains unknown whether this is true, it appears the tortilla started to spread during the early Carlist wars. Another tale is that the recipe was learnt by Spanish prisoners captured after the Battle of Montes Claros during the Portuguese Restoration War in 1665.
After the Portuguese victory, more than 6000 Spanish soldiers were kept in captivity for 2 years until the Treaty of Lisbon was signed. Upon their release, these prisoners brought part of the culture of Alentejo to Spain, including many recipes, which featured a potato egg pie that evolved into the modern version of "tortilla". Spanish omelettes can range from authentic and made seasoned preparations of raw potatoes of a variety selected for best results, optional onions and good olive oil and nothing else, to nontraditional preparations with many additional ingredients; some of the many additions to the base ingredients include green peppers, courgette, aubergine and diced ham. The tortilla paisana includes peas; the tortilla is supposed to be juicy and fairly thick, ranging from about 3 to 8 cm. In Spain a tortilla is always accompanied by bread and sometimes with fried pimientos de padron. In most bars and canteens, it is served in a sandwich. A tortilla will remain juicy for around 24 hours.
A large tortilla was made by 12 chefs in Vitoria, Spain in 2014, claiming to be a record. It was 5 m in diameter, used 1.6 tons of potatoes, 16,000 eggs, 150 l of oil, 26 kg of onions, 15 kg of salt. Frittata Kuku Tunisian tajine
Navarre. The capital city is Pamplona; the first documented use of a name resembling Navarra, Nafarroa, or Naparroa is a reference to navarros, in Eginhard's early-9th-century chronicle of the feats of the Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne. Other Royal Frankish Annals feature nabarros. There are two proposed etymologies for the name. Basque nabar: "brownish", "multicolour". Basque naba: "valley", "plain" + Basque herri; the linguist Joan Coromines considers naba to be linguistically part of a wider Vasconic or Aquitanian language substrate, rather than Basque per se. During the Roman Empire, the Vascones, a pre-Roman tribe, populated the southern slopes of the Pyrenees, including the area which would become Navarre. In the mountainous north, the Vascones escaped large-scale Roman settlement, except for some coastal areas—for example Oiasso —and the flatter areas to the south, which were amenable to large-scale Roman farming—vineyards and wheat crops. There is no evidence of battles fought or general hostility between Romans and Basques, as they had the same enemies.
Neither the Visigoths nor the Franks completely subjugated the area. The Vascones assimilated neighbouring tribes as of the 7th century AD. In the year 778, the Basques defeated a Frankish army at the Battle of Roncevaux Pass. Following the Battle of Roncevaux Pass, the Basque chieftain Iñigo Arista was elected King of Pamplona supported by the muwallad Banu Qasi of Tudela, establishing a Basque kingdom, called Navarre; that kingdom reached its zenith during the reign of Sancho III, comprising most of the Christian realms to the south of the Pyrenees, a short overlordship of Gascony. When Sancho III died in 1035, the kingdom was divided between his sons, it never recovered its political power, while its commercial importance increased as traders and pilgrims poured into the kingdom via the Way of Saint James. In 1200, Navarre lost the key western Basque districts to Alphonse VIII of Castile, leaving the kingdom landlocked. Navarre contributed with a small but symbolic force of 200 knights to the decisive Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212 against the Almohads.
The native line of kings came to an end in 1234. However, the Navarrese kept most of their strong institutions; the death of Queen Blanche I inaugurated a civil war period between the Beaumont and Agramont confederacies with the intervention of the Castilian-Aragonese House of Trastámara in Navarre's internal affairs. In 1512, Navarre was invaded by Ferdinand the Catholic's troops, with Queen Catherine and King John III withdrawing to the north of the Pyrenees, establishing a Kingdom of Navarre-Béarn, led by Queen Joan III as of 1555. To the south of the Pyrenees, Navarre was annexed to the Crown of Castile, but kept a separate ambiguous status, a shaky balance up to 1610—King Henry III ready to march over Spanish Navarre. A Chartered Government was established, the kingdom managed to keep home rule. Tensions with the Spanish government came to a head as of 1794, when Spanish premier Manuel Godoy attempted to suppress Navarrese and Basque self-government altogether, with the end of the First Carlist War bringing the kingdom and its home rule to an end.
After the 1839 Convention of Bergara, a reduced version of home rule was passed in 1839. However, the 1841 Act for the Modification of Fueros made the kingdom into a province after a compromise was reached by the Spanish government with officials of the Provincial Council of Navarre; the relocation of customs from the Ebro river to the Pyrenees in 1841 prompted the collapse of Navarre’s customary cross-Pyrenean trade and the rise of smuggling. Amid instability in Spain, Carlists took over in the rest of the Basque provinces. An actual Basque state was established during the Third Carlist War with Estella as its capital, but King Alfonso XII's restoration in the throne of Spain and a counter-attack prompted the Carlist defeat; the end of the Third Carlist War saw a renewed wave of Spanish centralisation directly affecting Navarre. In 1893–1894 the Gamazada popular uprising took place centred in Pamplona against Madrid's governmental decisions breaching the 1841 chartered provisions. Except for a small faction, all parties in Navarre agreed on the need for a new political framework based on home rule within the Laurak Bat, the Basque districts in Spain.
Among these, the Carlists stood out, who politically dominated the province, resented an increased string of rulings and laws passed by Madrid, as well as left leaning influences. Unlike Biscay or Gipuzkoa, Navarre did not develop manufacturing during this period, remaining a rural economy. In 1932, a Basque Country's separate statute failed to take off over disagreements on the centrality of Catholicism, a scene of political radicalisation ensued dividing the leftist and rightist forces during the 2nd
Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water by baking. Throughout recorded history it has been a prominent food in large parts of the world and is one of the oldest man-made foods, having been of significant importance since the dawn of agriculture. Bread may be leavened by processes such as reliance on occurring sourdough microbes, industrially produced yeast, or high-pressure aeration. Commercial bread contains additives to improve flavor, color, shelf life and ease of manufacturing. Bread plays essential roles in secular culture; the Old English word for bread was hlaf. Old High German hleib and modern German Laib derive from this Proto-Germanic word, borrowed into Slavic and Finnic languages as well; the Middle and Modern English word bread appears in Germanic languages, such as West Frisian brea, Dutch brood, German Brot, Swedish bröd, Norwegian and Danish brød. Bread is one of the oldest prepared foods. Evidence from 30,000 years ago in Europe revealed starch residue on rocks used for pounding plants.
It is possible that during this time, starch extract from the roots of plants, such as cattails and ferns, was spread on a flat rock, placed over a fire and cooked into a primitive form of flatbread. The world's oldest evidence of bread-making has been found in a 14,500 year old Natufian site in Jordan's northeastern desert. Around 10,000 BC, with the dawn of the Neolithic age and the spread of agriculture, grains became the mainstay of making bread. Yeast spores are ubiquitous, including on the surface of cereal grains, so any dough left to rest leavens naturally. There were multiple sources of leavening available for early bread. Airborne yeasts could be harnessed by leaving uncooked dough exposed to air for some time before cooking. Pliny the Elder reported that the Gauls and Iberians used the foam skimmed from beer called barm to produce "a lighter kind of bread than other peoples" such as barm cake. Parts of the ancient world that drank wine instead of beer used a paste composed of grape juice and flour, allowed to begin fermenting, or wheat bran steeped in wine, as a source for yeast.
The most common source of leavening was to retain a piece of dough from the previous day to use as a form of sourdough starter, as Pliny reported. The Chorleywood bread process was developed in 1961; the process, whose high-energy mixing allows for the use of lower protein grain, is now used around the world in large factories. As a result, bread can be produced quickly and at low costs to the manufacturer and the consumer. However, there has been some criticism of the effect on nutritional value. Bread is the staple food of the Middle East, Central Asia, North Africa, in European-derived cultures such as those in the Americas and Southern Africa, in contrast to parts of South and East Asia where rice or noodle is the staple. Bread is made from a wheat-flour dough, cultured with yeast, allowed to rise, baked in an oven; the addition of yeast to the bread explains the air pockets found in bread. Owing to its high levels of gluten, common or bread wheat is the most common grain used for the preparation of bread, which makes the largest single contribution to the world's food supply of any food.
Bread is made from the flour of other wheat species. Non-wheat cereals including rye, maize, sorghum and rice have been used to make bread, with the exception of rye in combination with wheat flour as they have less gluten. Gluten-free breads have been created for people affected by gluten-related disorders such as coeliac disease and non-coeliac gluten sensitivity, who may benefit from a gluten-free diet. Gluten-free bread is made with ground flours from a variety of materials such as almonds, sorghum, corn, or legumes such as beans, tubers such as cassava, but since these flours lack gluten they may not hold their shape as they rise and their crumb may be dense with little aeration. Additives such as xanthan gum, guar gum, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, corn starch, or eggs are used to compensate for the lack of gluten. In wheat, phenolic compounds are found in hulls in the form of insoluble bound ferulic acid, where it is relevant to wheat resistance to fungal diseases. Rye bread contains ferulic acid dehydrodimers.
Three natural phenolic glucosides, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, p-coumaric acid glucoside and ferulic acid glucoside, can be found in commercial breads containing flaxseed. Glutenin and gliadin are functional proteins found in wheat bread that contribute to the structure of bread. Glutenin forms interconnected gluten networks within bread through interchain disulfide bonds. Gliadin binds weakly to the gluten network established by glutenin via intrachain disulfide bonds. Structurally, bread can be defined as an elastic-plastic foam; the glutenin protein contributes to its elastic nature, as it is able to regain its initial shape after deformation. The gliadin protein contributes to its plastic nature, because it demonstrates non-reversible structural change after a certain amount of applied force; because air pockets within this gluten network result from carbon dioxide production during leavening, bread can be defined as a foam, or a
A snack is a small service of food and eaten between meals. Snacks come in a variety of forms including packaged snack foods and other processed foods, as well as items made from fresh ingredients at home. Traditionally, snacks are prepared from ingredients available at home without a great deal of preparation. Biscuits, cold cuts, leftovers, popcorn and sweets are used as snacks; the Dagwood sandwich was the humorous result of a cartoon character's desire for large snacks. With the spread of convenience stores, packaged snack foods became a significant business. Snack foods are designed to be portable and satisfying. Processed snack foods, as one form of convenience food, are designed to be less perishable, more durable, more portable than prepared foods, they contain substantial amounts of sweeteners and appealing ingredients such as chocolate and specially-designed flavors. Beverages, such as coffee and tea, are not considered snacks although they may be consumed along with or in lieu of snack foods.
A snack eaten shortly before going to bed or during the night may be called a "bedtime snack", "late night snack", or "night snack". In the United States, a popular snack food is the peanut. Peanuts first arrived from South America via slave ships and became incorporated into African-inspired cooking on southern plantations. After the Civil War, the taste for peanuts spread north, where they were incorporated into the culture of baseball games and vaudeville theaters. Along with popcorn, snacks bore the stigma of being sold by unhygienic street vendors; the middle-class etiquette of the Victorian era categorized any food that did not require proper usage of utensils as lower-class. Pretzels were introduced to North America via New Amsterdam in the 17th century. In the 1860s, the snack was still associated with immigrants, unhygienic street vendors, saloons. Due to loss of business during the Prohibition era, pretzels underwent rebranding to make them more appealing to the public; as packaging revolutionized snack foods, allowing sellers to reduce contamination risk, while making it easy to advertise brands with a logo, pretzels boomed in popularity, bringing many other types of snack foods with it.
By the 1950s, snacking had become an all-American pastime, becoming an internationally recognized emblem of middle American life. Healthy snacks include those that have significant vitamins, are low in saturated fat, added sugars, sodium. Examples of healthy snacks include: Eggs, such as hard-boiled eggs and vegetables Lean cheese Lean meats, Low-fat dairy products Nuts and seeds Foods that have whole grains Government bodies, such as Health Canada, recommend that people make a conscious effort to eat more healthy, natural snacks - such as fruit, vegetables and cereal grains – while avoiding high-calorie, low-nutrient junk food. A 2010 study showed that children in the United States snacked on average six times per day twice as as American children in the 1970s; this represents consumption of 570 calories more per day than U. S. children consumed in the 1970s. A Tufts University Department of Psychology empirical study titled "Effect of an afternoon confectionery snack on cognitive processes critical to learning" found that a consumption of a confectionery snack in the afternoon improved spatial memory in the study's sample group, but in the area of attention performance it had a mixed effect.
"Wikibooks Cookbook – A collection of recipes from around the world". Wikibooks
A croquette is a small breadcrumbed fried food roll containing as main ingredients, ground meat, fish, cheese, mashed potatoes or vegetables, mixed with béchamel or brown sauce, soaked white bread, onion and herbs, milk, beer, or some combination, sometimes with a filling, e.g. sautéed onions, mushrooms, or boiled eggs. The croquette is shaped into a cylinder, disk, or oval shape, deep-fried; the croquette gained worldwide popularity, both as a fast food. Mashed potato-filled croquettes are served as a side dish in winter holiday meals, such as Christmas. In fast food cuisine, varieties exist without potatoes, but with cheese, beef, or goulash in a filling based on béchamel sauce; the dish was created in France. In 1898 Monsieur Escoffier, the founder of the classical French Cuisine, together with the help of Monsieur Philias Gilbert, started to write down the recipe, it was made with beef. A potato-filled croquette called aloo tikki, which originated in the Indian subcontinent, is popular in northern India and is served with a stew.
They are eaten as snacks at home and are popularly sold by road-side vendors. In West Bengal, it is called alu chop, as in Bangladesh. Sometimes it is called a "cutlet" and eaten plain or as a fast food variation, served inside a hamburger bun. Meat croquettes called. Spiced beef croquettes are a popular snack and appetiser among the Christian communities in Goa and Kerala; the kroket made of mashed potato filled with minced chicken or ragout is one of the most popular snack items in Indonesia, introduced during the Dutch colonial rule. The kroket is made by putting chicken filling inside a mashed potato ball, breaded and fried. A relative of the croquette, known as korokke is a popular fried food available in supermarkets and butcher shops, as well as from specialty korokke shops. Patty-shaped, it is made of potatoes with some other ingredients such as vegetables and maybe less than 5% meat, it is served with tonkatsu sauce. Cylinder-shaped korokke are served, which more resemble the French version, where seafood or chicken in white sauce is cooled down to make it harden before the croquette is breaded and deep-fried.
When it is served hot, the inside melts. This version is called "cream korokke" to distinguish it from the potato-based variety, it is served with no sauce or tomato sauce. Unlike its French cousin, croquettes made of meat are not called korokke in Japan, they are called menchi short for minced meat cutlets. Called goroke or keuroket, it is a food sold in most bread shops in Korea; the most common type is deep fried rolls stuffed with japchae ingredients or chicken curry and mashed potato with vegetable salad. Goroke are sometimes filled with kimchi and bulgogi ingredients. Many Korean stores advertise the goroke as a French product and they are sold in most European-style bread stores all over Korea; every restaurant offers kroketten/croquettes as a side dish, when served this way, they always mean the variety filled with mashed potatoes. As the ubiquitous main dish in Belgian restaurants, croquettes are different from the potato filled variety served as a simple side dish; the two most popular traditional Belgian croquettes have a thick and creamy bechamel filling mixed with grey shrimps "garnaalkroketten/croquettes de crevettes" or cheese "kaaskroketten/croquettes de fromage".
Most menus offer both either as a main course. You'll find croquettes served everywhere in Belgium and the quality comes down to the filling; as a main dish they are served with a salad, fried parsley and frites. More adventurous chefs have experimented with the classic formula, adding endives, goat's cheese or beer to their fillings The ragout-filled dish was regarded as a French cuisine delicacy, first described in a recipe from 1691 by the chef of the French king Louis XIV and using ingredients such as truffles and cream cheese. From the 1800s onwards, it became a way to use up leftover stewed meat. Plain potato croquettes are served as a side dish in restaurants and are available frozen in supermarkets, they are called Kroketten. Krokett is a small cylindrical croquette similar to the Czech variety: potatoes, eggs and butter, seasoned with nutmeg and salt and deep-fried in oil; this variety can be ordered in most restaurants as a side dish, bought frozen. When made with cottage cheese, they are called túrókrokett.
In Italy, crocchette are made with crushed potatoes or vegetables, like aubergines. Plain potato croquettes are available frozen or refrigerated in most supermarkets, they are homemade with the addition of chopped onion. After World War II, several suppliers started mass-producing croquettes filled with beef; the croquette subsequently became more popular as a fast food. Its success as a fast food garnered its reputation as a cheap dish of dubious quality, to such an extent that Dutch tongue in cheek urban myths relate its "allegedly mysterious content" to offal and butchering waste. Research in 2008 showed. An estimated 75% of all Dutch people eat the