Aitkin County, Minnesota
Aitkin County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 16,202, its county seat is Aitkin. Part of the Mille Lacs Indian Reservation is in the county; the county was created in 1857 and organized in 1871. Aitkin County was established in 1857 as Aiken County; the current spelling was adopted in 1872. It was named for William Alexander Aitken, a fur trader for the American Fur Company, under John Jacob Astor. Formed from Ramsey and Pine counties, Aiken County consisted of the 17 townships closest to Mille Lacs Lake, it acquired outlands of Ramsey and Pine Counties to its north and east. It was organized in 1871, taking up lands from Cass and Itasca Counties and losing a point in the southwestern corner to Crow Wing County to form its current boundaries; the Mississippi River flows southward through the west central part of the county. The county terrain consists of wooded rolling hills, dotted with ponds; the terrain slopes to the south. The county has a total area of 1,995 square miles, of which 1,822 square miles is land and 174 square miles is water.
Aitkin County voters selected the Democratic Party candidate in 71% of national elections since 1960. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Aitkin have ranged from a low of 0 °F in January to a high of 80 °F in July, although a record low of −47 °F was recorded in January 1972 and a record high of 100 °F was recorded in August 1976. Although these records are the official records, temperatures above 100 °F has been detected numerous times throughout Aitkin County and surrounding areas. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 0.79 inches in February to 4.46 inches in June. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 16,202 people, 7,542 households, 4,458 families in the county; the population density was 8.89/sqmi. There were 16,626 housing units at an average density of 9.13/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 95.63% or 15,494 people White, 0.35% or 57 people Black or African American, 2.4% or 390 people Native American, 0.17% or 27 people Asian, 0.025% or 4 people Pacific Islander, 0.13% or 21 people from other races, 1.29% or 209 people from two or more races.
Of the population with two or more races, 0.9% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 29.5% were of German, 14.3% Norwegian, 13.0% Swedish, 6.2% Irish, 5.3% United States or American and 5.2% Finnish ancestry. There were 6,644 households out of which 22.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.50% were married couples living together, 6.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.90% were non-families. 28.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.76. The county population contained 20.90% under the age of 18, 5.50% from 18 to 24, 21.60% from 25 to 44, 29.10% from 45 to 64, 23.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 46 years. For every 100 females there were 101.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $44,139, the median income for a family was $58,290.
Males had a median income of $51,604 versus $30,633 for females. The per capita income for the county was $21,848. About 5.20% of families and 7.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.50% of those under age 18 and 11.00% of those age 65 or over. National Register of Historic Places listings in Aitkin County, Minnesota Aitkin County government’s website Minnesota Department of Transportation map of Aitkin County Records
Carlton County, Minnesota
Carlton County is a county in the State of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 35,386, its county seat is Carlton. The county was formed in 1857 and organized in 1870, it was named for Reuben B. Carlton, a member of the Minnesota Senate. Part of the Fond du Lac Indian Reservation lies in NE Carlton County. Carlton County is included in MN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area. Carlton County lies on the east side of Minnesota, its east boundary line abuts the west boundary line of the state of Wisconsin. The Saint Louis River flows east-southeasterly through the county's NE corner, discharging into Lake Superior as it exits the county; the Moose Horn River flows southwesterly through the central part of the county, discharging into the Kettle River SW of the county's south boundary. The Nemadji River and the South Fork Nemadji River flow eastward through the eastern and SE part of the county, meeting a few miles east of the county's eastern boundary before flowing to Lake Superior.
The county terrain consists of low rolling hills wooded. The terrain slopes to the several river valleys; the county has a total area of 875 square miles, of which 861 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Carlton have ranged from a low of 1 °F in January to a high of 80 °F in July, although a record low of −45 °F was recorded in January 1912 and a record high of 105 °F was recorded in July 1936. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 0.87 inches in February to 4.34 inches in September. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 35,386 people residing in the county. 89.7% were White, 5.9% Native American, 1.4% Black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 0.2% of some other race and 2.4% of two or more races. 1.4% were Hispanic or Latino. 16.4 % were of 13.5 % Finnish, 8.9 % Norwegian, 8.6 % Swedish and 5.6 % American ancestry. As of the 2000 census, there were 31,671 people, 12,064 households, 8,408 families in the county.
The population density was 36.8/sqmi. There were 13,721 housing units at an average density of 15.9/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 91.75% White, 0.97% Black or African American, 5.19% Native American, 0.35% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.21% from other races, 1.52% from two or more races. 0.84% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 18.5 % were of 11.8 % Swedish and 5.8 % Polish ancestry. 95.5 % spoke 1.8 % Finnish and 1.1 % Spanish as their first language. There were 12,064 households out of which 32.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.50% were married couples living together, 9.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.30% were non-families. 26.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.00. The county population contained 25.40% under the age of 18, 7.70% from 18 to 24, 28.40% from 25 to 44, 23.50% from 45 to 64, 15.10% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 102.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $40,021, the median income for a family was $48,406. Males had a median income of $38,788 versus $25,555 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,073. About 5.40% of families and 7.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.20% of those under age 18 and 9.30% of those age 65 or over. Big Lake Esko Mahtowa Clear Creek North Carlton Carlton County voters are traditionally Democratic. In no national election since 1928 has the county selected the Republican Party candidate. National Register of Historic Places listings in Carlton County, Minnesota Cloquet Fire of 1918 Carlton County official website Carltoncountyhelp.org: A guide to service organizations in Carlton County MN Mn/DOT – map of Carlton County
Wild River State Park
Wild River State Park is a state park of Minnesota, United States, curving along 18 miles of the St. Croix River; this long, narrow park is shaped somewhat like a sideways'S', with development concentrated in the lower third. The remote upper sections flank; the park is managed to provide quieter, more nature-oriented recreation as a counterpoint to the busier William O'Brien and Interstate State Parks downstream. Wild River State Park is named after the St. Croix's designation as a National Wild and Scenic River; the park contains the Point Douglas to Superior Military Road: Deer Creek Section, a surviving section of the Point Douglas to Superior Military Road built in 1853, listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The bedrock of the park is basalt formed by volcanic activity 1.1 billion years ago. This is overlain by a thick layer of glacial debris. During the Wisconsin glaciation 16,000 years ago, a small glacial lobe branched northeast off the Des Moines Lobe, blocking drainage from farther north.
Water backed up into Glacial Lake Grantsburg. The soil in the park is quite sandy from the sediments. At the end of this ice age 10,000 years ago, meltwater flowing out of Glacial Lake Duluth carved the St. Croix River Valley. Today the river is one hundred times smaller than its glacial maximum; the ancient bank of the river is a bluff running through the park, well back from the current riverbed. This area was a transition zone between pine forest, hardwood forest, oak savanna; these habitats were disrupted by logging and farming. Today the park is a mix of second-growth meadow; as the river tends to overflow its banks in spring, inundation-tolerant species like silver maple and basswood dominate the floodplain. Wetlands are scattered throughout the park. Berries are prevalent along the trails; each month throughout spring and summer brings different wildflowers in bloom. Some common spring flowers include wild columbine, wild geranium, Carolina puccoon. During the summer, visitors can see black-eyed Susan, butterfly milkweed, rough blazing star.
Fall brings its own mix including many asters and goldenrods. There is a variety of native grasses, including big bluestem, little bluestem, Indian grass. Restoration is taking place through the park's Prairie Care Project, to rehabilitate oak savanna and prairie areas; these efforts involve controlled burning to reduce built-up thatch and clearing plantations of farmer-introduced pines. The Prairie Care Project allows and encourages volunteers to participate in seed collection in the fall and seed sowing in the spring. Wild River State Park is trying to reduce or eliminate the population of non-native, invasive buckthorn within park boundaries; the Buckthorn-Free Zone initiative allows volunteers to claim a portion, or "zone", of the park as their own with the responsibility of making it buckthorn-free. The park's narrowness reduces its quality as wildlife habitat somewhat, it serves as north-south continuous corrider along the St. Croix River, used as a migration route for many birds. Prevalent mammals include beaver, river otter, coyote, squirrel and white-tailed deer.
Black bear sightings are on the rise. Ducks and bitterns frequent the wetlands. Wild River State Park's bird list documents 200 species that can be viewed at different times throughout the year. Archaeological remains have been found in the park dating back 5000 years, but the majority of artifacts date from 1200–500 years ago. A village site from this time has been identified near the mouth of the Sunrise River. A fur trading post was built on top of the ancient village site in 1847. Together with a post established nearby in 1850, these were the last trading posts in the St. Croix Valley, only operated for a few years; the townships of Sunrise and Amador, the community of Almelund were founded in the 1850s. Land was sold in the town of Nashua, which may have been a confidence trick. In the 1850s the federal government began building the Point Douglas to Superior Military Road. Although intended as a highway for troop movement, this route from Hastings, Minnesota to Superior, Wisconsin was one of the first roads in the territory and attracted a flood of civilian and commercial traffic.
When Minnesota achieved statehood in 1858, responsibility for the road devolved to the state, which did not have the funds to finish the project. Although rough and in places incomplete, the road was still the best route north until railroads were built in 1870. A 1.2-mile segment was still in evidence when Wild River State Park was established and was incorporated into the park's trail system. The road segment begins in a clearing just south of Deer Creek and forms the eastern leg of the Deer Creek Loop trail along the St. Croix River. Where the hiking trail veers away to loop back north, the road fragment continues as a maintenance access road for 2,500 feet to the southeastern corner of the park boundary. Traces of the Point Douglas to Superior Military Road can be seen in Minnesota's Banning State Park. Following an 1837 treaty with the Ojibwe, territory including the park was opened up to logging; the primary target was the massive Eastern White Pine. Timber felled here and farther north was floated down the St. Croix River
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Banning State Park
Banning State Park is a state park of Minnesota, USA, stretched along 10 miles of the Kettle River near Sandstone in Pine County. The centerpiece of the park is 1.5 miles of churning rapids, some up to Class IV. The daring kayakers and canoeists who shoot Blueberry Slide, Mother's Delight, Dragon's Tooth, Little Banning, Hell's Gate each spring attract spectators to the park. Landbound visitors can hike along the state's first Wild and Scenic River amid dramatic sandstone rock formations, large potholes carved by the river, the remains of a historic quarry. Other features are Robinson Ice Cave; the park is located directly off Interstate 35. The park lies in a narrow valley worn by the Kettle River; the topsoil is thin and in the center of the park the river has cut down through Precambrian sandstone known as the Hinckley Formation and on into the bedrock, resulting in a gorge—up to 40 feet tall at Hell's Gate—and 1.5 miles of rapids. The park is notable for its numerous glacial potholes, smooth shafts scoured into rock.
These were formed at the end of the Wisconsin glaciation when the river was swollen by the melting ice, powerful eddies sent debris swirling around and around drilling shafts into the streambed. The Log Creek Arches in the northern section are potholes whose bottoms have been worn away on one side. Robinson Ice Cave is a 200-foot deep cave in the bluffs between Sandstone; the cave is not open to the public and the entrance is gated to protect the little brown bats, big brown bats, Keen's myotis bats that hibernate in it. In winter large stalagmites of ice form on the cave floor, but in a strict sense it is not an ice cave because the ice does not persist year-round. Below the rapids, the valley once again begins to widen. Away from the river valley, the topography is level to gently-rolling glacial till plain; the vegetation in this part of the Mille Lacs Uplands is still recovering from 19th century human industry and forest fires. The forest was logged, around the quarry the ground was stripped bare.
Today middle-successional species like birch and aspen are more prevalent than the Norway and eastern white pines that would have dominated the area. 184 bird species have been sighted in Banning State Park, including ruffed grouse. Spotted mammals include white-tailed deer, black bear, coyote, raccoon and snowshoe hare. 17 species of reptiles and amphibians and 34 species of mammals live in this park. The durable, pink-colored sandstone exposed by the river was an ideal construction material, in 1892 quarrying began after the St. Paul and Duluth Railroad laid a spur to the outcrop; the 1894 Great Hinckley Fire was a major setback, but quarrying bounced back and two years a town arose just outside the quarry. It was named Banning after the president of the railroad, whose tracks allowed the stones to be shipped to St. Paul and beyond; the quarrying frenzy was over by 1905, a victim of national factors. Within the quarry most of the extractable high-quality sandstone was gone, there was a nationwide architectural move away from stone to structural steel.
An asphalt company lingered on until 1912. The railroad company removed its tracks that decade. In 1959 the Pine County Historical Society interested the state in acquiring the Banning ghost town as a historical site. Given the obvious scenic value of the area, the proposal evolved into a call for a new state park. A bill to this effect was ratified in 1963, although the state didn't acquire enough land to begin developing recreational facilities until 1967. An undeveloped northern section was added in 1986. In 1995 a dam at the southern tip of the park was removed, restoring a waterfall and another series of rapids; the remains of the town, which prompted the creation of the park, are no longer visible. The Kettle River is a destination for whitewater paddling including rafting and kayaking. Within the park there are two boat ramps. Much of the river is Class I, with portages around the rapids. Fishing is available along the Kettle River, which has held and produced state-record sturgeon. Banning State Park's drive-in campground has 33 sites, a camper cabin, showers.
There are four canoe campsites spaced along the river. Banning State Park staff manage a campground within nearby General C. C. Andrews State Forest that boasts 38 drive-in sites, 2 walk-in sites, a group tent camp; the park has 17 miles of hiking trails. A paved bicycling path connects with the Willard Munger State Trail. In winter 11 miles of trail are groomed for cross-country skiing and 6 miles are open for snowmobiling. Banning State Park
Burnett County, Wisconsin
Burnett County is a county located in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 15,457, its county seat is Siren, with the majority of county governmental services located at the Burnett County Government Center. The county was created in 1856 and organized in 1865. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 880 square miles, of which 872 square miles is land and 58 square miles is water. Saginaw Lake is located in the county, south of the Namekagon River. Douglas County – northeast Washburn County – east Barron County – southeast Polk County – south Chisago County, Minnesota – southwest Pine County, Minnesota – west Highway 35 Highway 48 Highway 70 Highway 77 Highway 87 Burnett County Airport serves the county and surrounding communities. Grantsburg Municipal Airport enhances county service. Saint Croix National Scenic Riverway As of the census of 2000, there were 15,674 people, 6,613 households, 4,503 families residing in the county; the population density was 19 people per square mile.
There were 12,582 housing units at an average density of 15 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 93.25% White, 0.36% Black or African American, 4.45% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 0.21% from other races, 1.42% from two or more races. 0.77% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 28.9 % were of 15.4 % Swedish, 12.8 % Norwegian and 6.3 % Irish ancestry. There were 6,613 households out of which 25.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.20% were married couples living together, 7.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.90% were non-families. 26.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.80. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.10% under the age of 18, 6.00% from 18 to 24, 23.20% from 25 to 44, 28.40% from 45 to 64, 20.30% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females there were 101.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.30 males. Burnett County is one of only three Wisconsin counties, it is the only Wisconsin county to have villages but no cities. Grantsburg Siren Webster Danbury Burnett County Airport National Register of Historic Places listings in Burnett County, Wisconsin USS Burnett County Peet, Ed. L. Burnett County, Wisconsin: A Pamphlet Descriptive of Northern Wisconsin in General and of Burnett County in Detail. Grantsburg, Wis.: Burnett County Board of Immigration, 1902. Burnett County government website Burnett County map from the Wisconsin Department of Transportation Brief History of Burnett County Fort Folle Avoine Historical Park