The Keweenaw Peninsula is the northernmost part of Michigan's Upper Peninsula. It was the site of the first copper boom in the United States; as of the 2000 census, its population was 43,200. Its major industries are now logging and tourism, as well as jobs related to Michigan Technological University and Finlandia University; the ancient lava flows of the Keweenaw Peninsula were produced during the Mesoproterozoic Era as a part of the Midcontinent Rift between 1.096 and 1.087 billion years ago. This volcanic activity produced the only strata on Earth where large-scale economically recoverable 97 percent pure native copper is found. Much of the native copper found in the Keweenaw comes in either the form of cavity fillings on lava flow surfaces, which has a lacy consistency, or as "float" copper, found as a solid mass. Copper ore may occur within breccia as void or interclast fillings; the conglomerate layers occur as interbedded units within the volcanic pile. The Keweenaw Peninsula and Isle Royale, formed by the Midcontinent Rift System, are the only sites in the United States with evidence of prehistoric aboriginal mining of copper.
Artifacts made from this copper by these ancient Indians were traded as far south as present-day Alabama. These areas are the unique location where chlorastrolite, the state gem of Michigan, can be found; the northern end of the peninsula is sometimes referred to as Copper Island, although this term is becoming less common. It is separated from the rest of the peninsula by the Keweenaw Waterway, a natural waterway, dredged and expanded in the 1860s across the peninsula between the cities of Houghton on the south side and Hancock on the north. A Keweenaw Water Trail has been established around Copper Island; the Water Trail stretches 125 miles and can be paddled in five to ten days, depending on weather and water conditions. The Keweenaw Fault runs lengthwise through both Keweenaw and neighboring Houghton counties; this ancient geological slip has given rise to cliffs. U. S. Highway 41 and Brockway Mountain Drive, north of Calumet, were constructed along the cliff line. Lake Superior controls the climate of the Keweenaw Peninsula, keeping winters milder than those in surrounding areas.
Spring is cool and brief, transitioning into a summer with highs near 70 °F. Fall begins with winter beginning in mid-November; the peninsula receives copious amounts of lake-effect snow from Lake Superior. Official records are maintained close to the base of the peninsula in Hancock, where the annual snowfall average is about 220 inches. Farther north, in a community called Delaware, an unofficial average of about 240 inches is maintained. At Delaware, the record snowfall for one season was 390 inches in 1979. Averages over 250 inches occur in the higher elevations closer to the tip of the peninsula. Beginning as early as seven thousand years ago and peaking around 3000 B. C. Native Americans dug copper from the southern shore of Lake Superior; this development was possible in large part because, in this region, large deposits of copper were accessible in surface rock and from shallow diggings. Native copper could be found as wiry masses. Copper as a resource for functional tooling achieved popularity around 3000 B.
C. during the Middle Archaic Stage. The focus of copper working seems to have shifted from functional tools to ornamental objects by the Late Archaic Stage c. 1200 B. C. Native Americans would build a fire to heat the rock around and over a copper mass and, after heating, pour on cold water to crack the rock; the copper was pounded out, using rock hammers and stone chisels. The Keweenaw's rich deposits of copper were extracted on an industrial scale beginning around the middle of the 19th century; the industry grew through the latter part of the century and employed thousands of people well into the 20th century. Hard rock mining in the region ceased in 1967 though copper sulfide deposits continued for some time after in Ontonagon; this vigorous industry created a need for educated mining professionals and directly led in 1885 to the founding of the Michigan Mining School in Houghton. Although MTU discontinued its undergraduate mining engineering program in 2006, the university continues to offer engineering degrees in a variety of other disciplines.
Running concurrently with the mining boom in the Keweenaw was the white pine lumber boom. Trees were cut for timbers for mine shafts, to heat the communities around the large copper mines, to help build a growing nation. Much of the logging at the time was done in winter due to the ease of operability with the snow. Due to the logging practices at that time, the forest of the Keweenaw looks much different today from 100 years ago. US 41 terminates in the northern Keweenaw at the Michigan State Park housing Fort Wilkins. US 41 was the so-called "Military Trail" that started in Chicago in the 1900s and ended in the Keweenaw wilderness; the restored fort has numerous exhibits. For detailed information on the region's mineralogical history, see the virtual tour of the peninsula written by the Mineralogical Society of America, found in "External links" on this page. Information on the geological formations of the region are detailed. From 1964 to 1971, the University of Michigan cooperated with NASA and the U.
S. Navy to run the Keweenaw Rocket launch site. A par
Opera is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers, but is distinct from musical theater. Such a "work" is a collaboration between a composer and a librettist and incorporates a number of the performing arts, such as acting, scenery and sometimes dance or ballet; the performance is given in an opera house, accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble, which since the early 19th century has been led by a conductor. Opera is a key part of the Western classical music tradition. Understood as an sung piece, in contrast to a play with songs, opera has come to include numerous genres, including some that include spoken dialogue such as musical theater, Singspiel and Opéra comique. In traditional number opera, singers employ two styles of singing: recitative, a speech-inflected style and self-contained arias; the 19th century saw the rise of the continuous music drama. Opera originated in Italy at the end of the 16th century and soon spread through the rest of Europe: Heinrich Schütz in Germany, Jean-Baptiste Lully in France, Henry Purcell in England all helped to establish their national traditions in the 17th century.
In the 18th century, Italian opera continued to dominate most of Europe, attracting foreign composers such as George Frideric Handel. Opera seria was the most prestigious form of Italian opera, until Christoph Willibald Gluck reacted against its artificiality with his "reform" operas in the 1760s; the most renowned figure of late 18th-century opera is Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who began with opera seria but is most famous for his Italian comic operas The Marriage of Figaro, Don Giovanni, Così fan tutte, as well as Die Entführung aus dem Serail, The Magic Flute, landmarks in the German tradition. The first third of the 19th century saw the high point of the bel canto style, with Gioachino Rossini, Gaetano Donizetti and Vincenzo Bellini all creating works that are still performed, it saw the advent of Grand Opera typified by the works of Auber and Meyerbeer. The mid-to-late 19th century was a golden age of opera and dominated by Giuseppe Verdi in Italy and Richard Wagner in Germany; the popularity of opera continued through the verismo era in Italy and contemporary French opera through to Giacomo Puccini and Richard Strauss in the early 20th century.
During the 19th century, parallel operatic traditions emerged in central and eastern Europe in Russia and Bohemia. The 20th century saw many experiments with modern styles, such as atonality and serialism and Minimalism. With the rise of recording technology, singers such as Enrico Caruso and Maria Callas became known to much wider audiences that went beyond the circle of opera fans. Since the invention of radio and television, operas were performed on these mediums. Beginning in 2006, a number of major opera houses began to present live high-definition video transmissions of their performances in cinemas all over the world. Since 2009, complete performances are live streamed; the words of an opera are known as the libretto. Some composers, notably Wagner, have written their own libretti. Traditional opera referred to as "number opera", consists of two modes of singing: recitative, the plot-driving passages sung in a style designed to imitate and emphasize the inflections of speech, aria in which the characters express their emotions in a more structured melodic style.
Vocal duets and other ensembles occur, choruses are used to comment on the action. In some forms of opera, such as singspiel, opéra comique and semi-opera, the recitative is replaced by spoken dialogue. Melodic or semi-melodic passages occurring in the midst of, or instead of, are referred to as arioso; the terminology of the various kinds of operatic voices is described in detail below. During both the Baroque and Classical periods, recitative could appear in two basic forms, each of, accompanied by a different instrumental ensemble: secco recitative, sung with a free rhythm dictated by the accent of the words, accompanied only by basso continuo, a harpsichord and a cello. Over the 18th century, arias were accompanied by the orchestra. By the 19th century, accompagnato had gained the upper hand, the orchestra played a much bigger role, Wagner revolutionized opera by abolishing all distinction between aria and recitative in his quest for what Wagner termed "endless melody". Subsequent composers have tended to follow Wagner's example, though some, such as Stravinsky in his The Rake's Progress have bucked the trend.
The changing role of the orchestra in opera is described in more detail below. The Italian word opera means "work", both in the sense of the labour done and the result produced; the Italian word derives from the Latin opera, a singular noun meaning "work" and the plural of the noun opus. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the Italian word was first used in the sense "composition in which poetry and music are combined" in 1639. Dafne by Jacopo Peri was the earliest composition considered opera, it was writt
Iron Mountain, Michigan
Iron Mountain is a city in the U. S. state of Michigan. The population was 7,624 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Dickinson County, in the state's Upper Peninsula. Iron Mountain was named for the valuable iron ore found in the vicinity. Iron Mountain is the principal city of the Iron Mountain, MI-WI Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Dickinson County and Florence County in Wisconsin. Iron Mountain hosts a few points of interest such as the Millie Hill bat cave, The Cornish Pump, is located adjacent to Pine Mountain ski jump/ski resort, one of the largest artificial ski jumps in the world, it shares Woodward Avenue with Kingsford. In addition, Iron Mountain is known for its pasties, Bocce Ball Tournaments, World Cup Ski Jumps, Italian cuisine. Iron Mountain was named a "Michigan Main Street" community by Michigan Governor Jennifer Granholm in 2006, it is one of only thirteen such communities in the State of Michigan in 2008. It is the hometown of Michigan State University men's basketball coach Tom Izzo and former NFL head coach Steve Mariucci.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.04 square miles, of which, 7.37 square miles of it is land and 0.67 square miles is water. Indian Trails provides daily intercity bus service between Ironwood, Michigan. US 2 runs east to west to Ironwood. US 141 heads northward toward Crystal Falls. M-95 connects with Kingsford just with M-69 east at Randville about 14 miles north; the Iron Mountain area is served by Ford Airport. Commercial air travel is provided by SkyWest Airlines. Located three miles west of the city, the airport handles 7,600 operations per year, with 27% commercial service, 57% air taxi and 16% general aviation; the airport has a 6,501 foot asphalt runway with approved ILS, GPS and NDB approaches and a 3,808 foot asphalt crosswind runway. As of the census of 2010, there were 7,624 people, 3,362 households, 2,025 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,034.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,784 housing units at an average density of 513.4 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 96.3% White, 0.5% African American, 0.6% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.3% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.6% of the population. There were 3,362 households of which 28.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.3% were married couples living together, 11.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 39.8% were non-families. 34.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.83. The median age in the city was 42.4 years. 22.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.2% male and 50.8% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 8,154 people, 3,458 households, 2,147 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,132.6 per square mile. There were 3,819 housing units at an average density of 530.5 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 97.67% White, 0.20% African American, 0.48% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.23% from other races, 0.75% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.07% of the population. 20.6% were of Italian, 14.0% German, 9.0% Swedish, 8.8% English, 8.8% French, 5.8% Finnish and 5.5% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000. 97.2 % spoke 1.4 % Italian as their first language. There were 3,458 households out of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.8% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.9% were non-families. 33.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.94. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.1% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 27.2% from 25 to 44, 21.1% from 45 to 64, 19.6% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $32,526, the median income for a family was $43,687. Males had a median income of $38,309 versus $22,533 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,918. About 9.4% of families and 10.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.5% of those under age 18 and 10.5% of those age 65 or over. The newspaper of record in Dickinson County is The Daily News. W43AN K47AF W56BF W59AQ K69BA Iron Mountain has a network of encrypted low-powered UHF repeaters, similar in concept to the subscription television services implemented in larger markets in the 1970s and early-1980s. Channels offered include: W63AW W65BN W67AO Radio stations that are located within listening range of Iron Mountain include: WNMU-FM 90.1 FM Northern Michigan University Marquette, Phone National Public Radio WMVM-FM 90.7 FM Goodman-Armstrong Creek, Wiscons
A symphony is an extended musical composition in Western classical music, most written by composers for orchestra. Although the term has had many meanings from its origins in the ancient Greek era, by the late 18th century the word had taken on the meaning common today: a work consisting of multiple distinct sections or movements four, with the first movement in sonata form. Symphonies are always scored for an orchestra consisting of a string section, brass and percussion instruments which altogether number about 30 to 100 musicians. Symphonies are notated in a musical score. Orchestral musicians play from parts; some symphonies contain vocal parts. The word symphony is derived from the Greek word συμφωνία, meaning "agreement or concord of sound", "concert of vocal or instrumental music", from σύμφωνος, "harmonious"; the word referred to a variety of different concepts before settling on its current meaning designating a musical form. In late Greek and medieval theory, the word was used for consonance, as opposed to διαφωνία, the word for "dissonance".
In the Middle Ages and the Latin form symphonia was used to describe various instruments those capable of producing more than one sound simultaneously. Isidore of Seville was the first to use the word symphonia as the name of a two-headed drum, from c. 1155 to 1377 the French form symphonie was the name of the organistrum or hurdy-gurdy. In late medieval England, symphony was used in both of these senses, whereas by the 16th century it was equated with the dulcimer. In German, Symphonie was a generic term for spinets and virginals from the late 16th century to the 18th century. In the sense of "sounding together," the word begins to appear in the titles of some works by 16th- and 17th-century composers including Giovanni Gabrieli's Sacrae symphoniae, Symphoniae sacrae, liber secundus, published in 1597 and 1615, respectively. 16, published in 1607. 18, published in 1610. 6, Symphoniarum sacrarum secunda pars, op. 10, published in 1629 and 1647, respectively. Except for Viadana's collection, which contained purely instrumental and secular music, these were all collections of sacred vocal works, some with instrumental accompaniment.
In the 17th century, for most of the Baroque period, the terms symphony and sinfonia were used for a range of different compositions, including instrumental pieces used in operas and concertos—usually part of a larger work. The opera sinfonia, or Italian overture had, by the 18th century, a standard structure of three contrasting movements: fast, slow and dance-like, it is this form, considered as the direct forerunner of the orchestral symphony. The terms "overture", "symphony" and "sinfonia" were regarded as interchangeable for much of the 18th century. In the 17th century, pieces scored for large instrumental ensemble did not designate which instruments were to play which parts, as is the practice from the 19th century to the current period; when composers from the 17th century wrote pieces, they expected that these works would be performed by whatever group of musicians were available. To give one example, whereas the bassline in a 19th-century work is scored for cellos, double basses and other specific instruments, in a 17th-century work, a basso continuo part for a sinfonia would not specify which instruments would play the part.
A performance of the piece might be done with a basso continuo group as small as a single cello and harpsichord. However, if a bigger budget was available for a performance and a larger sound was required, a basso continuo group might include multiple chord-playing instruments and a range of bass instruments, including cello, double bass, bass viol or a serpent, an early bass woodwind instrument. LaRue, Bonds and Wilson write in the second edition of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians that "the symphony was cultivated with extraordinary intensity" in the 18th century, it played a role in many areas of public life, including church services, but a strong area of support for symphonic performances was the aristocracy. In Vienna the most important location in Europe for the composition of symphonies, "literally hundreds of noble families supported musical establishments dividing their time between Vienna and their ancestral estate ". Since the normal size of the orchestra at the time was quite small, many of these courtly establishments were capable of performing symphonies.
The young Joseph Haydn, taking up his first job as a music director in 1757 for the Morzin family, found that when the Morzin household was in Vienna, his own orchestra was only part of a lively and competitive musical scene, with multiple aristocrats sponsoring concerts with their own ensembles. LaRue, Bonds and Wilson's article traces the gradual expansion of the symphonic orchestra through the 18th century. At first, symphonies were string symphonies, written in just four parts: first violin, second violin and bass; the early symphonists dispensed with the viola part, thus creating three-part symphonies. A basso continuo part including a bassoon together with a harpsichord or other chording instrument was pos
Marquette is a city in the U. S. state of Michigan and the county seat of Marquette County. The population was 21,355 at the 2010 census, making it the largest city of the state's Upper Peninsula. Marquette is a major port on Lake Superior, known for shipping iron ore, is the home of Northern Michigan University. In 2012, Marquette was listed among the 10 best places to retire in the United States by CBS MoneyWatch; the land around Marquette was known to French missionaries of the early 17th century and the trappers of the early 19th century. Development of the area did not begin until 1844, when William Burt and Jacob Houghton discovered iron deposits near Teal Lake west of Marquette. In 1845, Jackson Mining Company, the first organized mining company in the region, was formed; the village of Marquette began on September 14, 1849, with the formation of a second iron concern, the Marquette Iron Company. Three men participated in organizing the firm: Robert J. Graveraet, who had prospected the region for ore.
The village was at first called New Worcester, with Harlow as the first postmaster. On August 21, 1850, the name was changed to honor Jacques Marquette, the French Jesuit missionary who had explored the region. A second post office, named Carp River, was opened on October 13, 1851 by Peter White, who had gone there with Graveraet at age 18. Harlow closed his post office in August 1852; the Marquette Iron Company failed, while its successor, the Cleveland Iron Mining Company and had the village platted in 1854. The plat was recorded by Peter White. White's office was renamed as Marquette in April 1856, the village was incorporated in 1859, it was incorporated as a city in 1871. During the 1850s, Marquette was linked by rail to numerous mines and became the leading shipping center of the Upper Peninsula; the first ore pocket dock, designed by an early town leader, John Burt, was built by the Cleveland Iron Mining Company in 1859. By 1862, the city had a soaring economy. In the late 19th century, during the height of iron mining, Marquette became nationally known as a summer haven.
Visitors brought in by Great Lakes passenger steamships filled the city's resorts. South of the city, K. I. Sawyer Air Force Base was an important Air Force installation during the Cold War, host to B-52H bombers and KC-135 tankers of the Strategic Air Command, as well as a fighter interceptor squadron; the base closed in September 1995, is now the county's Sawyer International Airport. Marquette continues to be a shipping port for hematite ores and, enriched iron ore pellets, from nearby mines and pelletizing plants. About 7.9 million gross tons of pelletized iron ore passed through Marquette's Presque Isle Harbor in 2005. The Roman Catholic Bishop Frederic Baraga is buried at St. Peter Cathedral, the center for the Diocese of Marquette. In addition to the Marquette #1 Post Office there is the "Northern Michigan University Bookstore Contract Station #384"; the first day of issue of a postal card showing Bishop Frederic Baraga took place in Marquette on June 29, 1984, that of the Wonders of America Lake Superior stamp on May 27, 2006.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 19.45 square miles, of which 11.39 square miles is land and 8.06 square miles is water. The city includes several small islands in Lake Superior; the Marquette Underwater Preserve lies offshore. Marquette Mountain, used for skiing, is located in the city, as is most of the land of Marquette Branch Prison of the Michigan Department of Corrections. Trowbridge Park is located to the west, Sands Township to the south, Marquette Township to the northwest of the city; the climate is a hemiboreal humid continental with four distinct seasons, moderated by Lake Superior and is located in Plant Hardiness zone 5b. Winters are long and cold with a January average of 18.8 °F. Winter temperatures are warmer than inland locations at a similar latitude due to the release of the heat stored by the lake, which moderates the climate. On average, there are 11.6 days where the temperature reaches below 0 °F and most days during winter remain below freezing.
Being located in the snowbelt region, Marquette receives a significant amount of snowfall during the winter months from lake-effect snow. Because Lake Superior freezes over this enables lake effect snow to persist throughout winter, making Marquette the third snowiest location in the contiguous United States as reported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration with an average annual snowfall of 149.1 inches. The snow depth in winter exceeds 10 inches. Marquette is the city with the deepest snow depths with a population of more than 20,000 in the US, as the averages remain low throughout the winter and cold, dry air is intercepted by the Great Lakes; the warmest months and August, each average 66.6 °F, showing somewhat of a seasonal lag. The surrounding lake cools summertime temperatures and as a result, temperatures above 90 °F are rare, with only 3.4 days per year. Spring and fall are transitional seasons that are mild though variable due to the alternation of air masses moving quickly.
Spring is cooler than fall because the surrounding lake is slow to warm th
Houghton is a city in the U. S. state of Michigan's Upper Peninsula and largest city in the Copper Country on the Keweenaw Peninsula. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 7,708, it is the county seat of Houghton County. It has been listed as one of the "100 Best Small Towns in America."Houghton is sometimes confused with, or thought to be close to, Houghton Lake. Due to its location in the northwestern portion of the Upper Peninsula, Houghton is isolated from the state's most populous areas, it is farther to drive from Houghton to Detroit than it is from Detroit to Washington, D. C, it takes fewer hours to travel to Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Minnesota, or Chicago, Illinois from Houghton than it does to travel to Detroit. Houghton, as its county, was named after Douglass Houghton, an American geologist and physician known for his exploration of the Keweenaw Peninsula of Michigan. Native Americans mined copper in and around what would be Houghton thousands of years before European settlement.
"French explorers had noted... existence as early as the seventeenth century, 1772 Alexander Henry had prospected for copper on the Ontonagon River near Victoria." When Horace Greeley said, "Go West, young man" he was referring to the copper rush in "Michigan's western Upper Peninsula." Many Cornish and Finnish immigrants arrived in the Houghton area to work in the copper mines. The Finns and others called much of the area Copper Island. Smaller numbers of French-Canadian immigrants moved to Houghton, while more of them settled elsewhere in Houghton County; the last nearby mines closed in the late 1960s, but a school founded in 1885 by the Michigan State Legislature to teach metallurgy and mining engineering, the Michigan College of Mines, continues today under the name of Michigan Technological University and is the primary employer in the city. The first known European settler of Houghton was named Ransom Shelden, who set up a store named Ransom's near Portage Lake, though it is unclear whether this was in the same building as the 1852 Shelden and Shafer drugs, sometimes described as "the first commercial building constructed in Houghton," which Shelden owned with his son Ransom B.
The main street of Houghton, variously called "Sheldon Avenue," Sheldon Street, Shelden Avenue, is named for him. In the 1970s the construction of a parking deck and the connection of downtown stores to create Shelden Center changed the downtown. William W. Henderson was appointed the first postmaster of Houghton in 1852. In 1854, Ernest F. Pletschke platted Houghton, was incorporated as a village in 1861. In Houghton's first days it was said that "only thieves, crooks and Indians" lived there; the postwar boom and increasing demand for copper wiring fueled the development of Houghton in the 1860s and 1870s. Houghton gained in importance as a port with the opening of the Keweenaw Waterway in 1873, the waterway being the cumulative dredging and extension of the Portage Lake, Portage Shipping Canal and Lily Pond so as to isolate the northern part of the Keweenaw Peninsula into Copper Island. By 1880 Houghton had become "a burgeoning city" and in 1883, the railroad was extended from Marquette. 1909 saw the founding of what would become Portage Lake District Library.
During the bitter Copper Country Strike of 1913-1914, the Michigan National Guard was called in after the sheriff petitioned the governor. Houghton was the birthplace of professional ice hockey in the United States when the Portage Lakers were formed in 1903. Houghton is the home of the Portage Lake Pioneers Senior Hockey Team; the team's home ice is Dee Stadium, named after James R. Dee. Dee Stadium was called the Amphidrome, before it was damaged in a 1927 fire. Houghton was incorporated as a city in 1970. In the winter of 2001, Houghton was the site of one of the first lumitalos to be constructed in the United States. On October 28, 2002, the first day of issue ceremony was held in Houghton for the "snowman stamps" issued by the United States Postal Service. One of the 2006 United States Postal Service snowflake stamps were unveiled in Houghton. A pictorial postmark commemorating Winter Carnival 2007, "Ancient Worlds Come to Play in Snowy Drifts of Modern Day", was applied at the Winter Carnival temporary station in Michigan Technological University's Memorial Union Building, February 10, 2007.
The city is located on the south shore of the Keweenaw Waterway "on rolling wooded hills less than a mile" across Portage Lake." From Hancock. The city is bounded on the east by Portage Township and Pilgrim, on the west by Dakota Heights and on the south by Hurontown and Isle Royale Location, unincorporated communities that are part of Portage Township. Houghton is named after discoverer of copper nearby. Houghton is the home of Michigan Technological University; the city is served by Houghton County Memorial Airport in nearby Oneco. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.69 square miles, of which 4.45 square miles is land and 0.24 square miles is water. In the West Houghton neighborhood is West Houghton Park, containing an outdoor ice rink and lawn tennis courts. Along Portage Lake is the Raymond Kestner Waterfront Recreation Area, the principal feature of, a large "Chutes and Ladders" playground.
Ontonagon is a village in the U. S. state of Michigan. The population was 1,494 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Ontonagon County. The village is located within Ontonagon Township, at the mouth of the Ontonagon River on Lake Superior. Industry was centered on the Smurfit-Stone Container production facility at the river mouth until the plant closed in 2010. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 3.86 square miles, of which, 3.71 square miles of it is land and 0.15 square miles is water. Ontonagon is the westernmost incorporated community in the United States in the designated Eastern Time Zone as determined by the United States Department of Transportation. In the summer the sun sets over Lake Superior at 10 p.m. local time with dusk lasting until 11 p.m. By contrast in the winter the sun does not rise until just before 9 a.m. and it is still pitch black at 8 a.m. Ontonagon is within one degree of longitude to the east of the 90th meridian west, the meridian for the Central Time Zone.
Therefore, Ontonagon is geographically situated in the Central Time Zone, not the Eastern Time Zone. As a result of this idiosyncrasy, Ontonagon has its solar noon occur either at or near 1 p.m. during the winter when standard time is being observed and 2 p.m. when daylight saving time is being observed. The same is true for solar midnight, which occurs at or near 1 a.m. while on standard time and 2 a.m. while on daylight saving time. US 45 M-38 M-64 The village is served by the Ontonagon County Airport; as of the census of 2010, there were 1,494 people, 717 households, 390 families residing in the village. The population density was 402.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 910 housing units at an average density of 245.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 97.3% White, 0.1% African American, 0.7% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.2% of the population. There were 717 households of which 19.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.9% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 45.6% were non-families.
41.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.99 and the average family size was 2.66. The median age in the village was 51.1 years. 17.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 48.9% male and 51.1% female. At the census of 2000 there were 1,769 people, 768 households, 450 families living in the village; the population density was 182.1/square kilometre. There were 891 housing units at an average density of 91.7/square kilometre. The racial makeup of the village was 97.68% White, 0.00% African American, 0.73% Native American, 0.23% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 0.28% from other races, 1.07% from two or more races. 0.85 % of the population were Latino of any race. 25.9 % were of 6.4 % French. 5.8% English and 5.6% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 768 households, of which 24.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.3% were married couples living together, 8.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.4% were non-families.
37.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.11 and the average family size was 2.76. In the village, the population was spread out with 20.5% under the age of 18, 4.2% from 18 to 24, 23.0% from 25 to 44, 25.0% from 45 to 64, 27.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 47 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.7 males. For every 100 females aged 18 and over, there were 88.1 males. The median income for a household in the village was $28,300, the median income for a family was $35,804. Males had a median income of $36,964 versus $20,815 for females; the per capita income for the village was $16,293. 11.8% of the population and 6.5% of families were below the poverty line. 15.1% of those under the age of 18 and 10.0% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. This climatic region is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters.
According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Ontonagon has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfb" on climate maps. Village of Ontonagon Official Website