Pine Mountain (Appalachian Mountains)
Pine Mountain is a ridge in the Appalachian Mountains running through Kentucky and Tennessee. It extends about 125 miles from near Jellico, Tennessee, to a location near Elkhorn City, birch Knob, the highest point, is 3,273 feet above sea level and is located on the Kentucky-Virginia border. It has been a barrier to transportation as the Cumberland River at Pineville, the other is Hickory Creek near Jellico, TN. Wildlife is abundant on Pine Mountain, the land is claimed to be the Black Bear Capital of Kentucky. Black bears, elk and deer are found on Pine Mountain, Pine Mountain Settlement School William Creech, Sr. Pound Gap
Lexington, consolidated with Fayette County, is the second-largest city in Kentucky and the 61st largest in the United States. Known as the Horse Capital of the World, it is the heart of the states Bluegrass region, with a mayor-alderman form of government, it is one of two cities in Kentucky designated by the state as first-class, the other is the states largest city of Louisville. In the 2016 U. S. Census Estimate, the population was 318,449, anchoring a metropolitan area of 506,751 people. Lexington ranks tenth among US cities in college education rate, with 39. 5% of residents having at least a bachelors degree and this area of fertile soil and abundant wildlife was long occupied by varying tribes of Native Americans. European explorers began to trade with them but settlers did not come in force until the late 18th century, Lexington was founded by European Americans in June 1775, in what was considered Fincastle County, Virginia,17 years before Kentucky became a state. A party of frontiersmen, led by William McConnell, camped on the Middle Fork of Elkhorn Creek at the site of the present-day McConnell Springs, upon hearing of the colonists victory in the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19,1775, they named their campsite Lexington.
It was the first of what would be many American places to be named after the Massachusetts town, the risk of Indian attacks delayed permanent settlement for four years. In 1779, during the American Revolutionary War, Col. Robert Patterson and 25 companions came from Fort Harrod and they built cabins and a stockade, establishing a settlement known as Bryan Station. In 1780, Lexington was made the seat of Virginias newly organized Fayette County, colonists defended it against a British and allied Shawnee attack in 1782, during the last part of the American Revolutionary War. The town was chartered on May 6,1782, by an act of the Virginia General Assembly, the First African Baptist Church was founded c. 1790 by Peter Durrett, a Baptist preacher and slave held by Joseph Craig. Durrett helped guide The Travelling Church, a migration of several hundred pioneers led by the preacher Lewis Craig and Captain William Ellis from Orange County. It is the oldest black Baptist congregation in Kentucky and the third oldest in the United States, I would suppose it contains about five hundred dwelling houses, many of them elegant and three stories high.
The country around Lexington for many miles in every direction, is equal in beauty and fertility to anything the imagination can paint and is already in a state of cultivation. Residents have fondly continued to refer to Lexington as The Athens of the West since Espys poem dedicated to the city, in the early 19th century, planter John Wesley Hunt became the first millionaire west of the Alleghenies. London Ferrill, second preacher of First African Baptist, was one of three clergy who stayed in the city to serve the suffering victims, additional cholera outbreaks occurred in 1848–49 and the early 1850s. Cholera was spread by using contaminated water supplies, but its transmission was not understood in those years. Often the wealthier people would flee town for outlying areas to try to avoid the spread of disease, planters held slaves for use as field hands, laborers and domestic servants. In the city, slaves worked primarily as servants and artisans, although they worked with merchants, shippers
Daniel Boone National Forest
Daniel Boone National Forest is the only national forest completely within the boundary of Kentucky. Established in 1937, it was named the Cumberland National Forest. The forest was named after Daniel Boone, a frontiersman and explorer in the late 18th century who contributed greatly to the exploration, in 1937, a national forest was established containing 1,338,214 acres within its proclamation boundary. As of June 1937, the Forest Service had purchased only 336,692 acres, most early purchases were large, isolated tracts owned by lumber and coal companies with but few inhabitants. The Forest Service has since had difficulty acquiring more land within the boundary, the bulk of which was. Due in part to World War II, funds for land acquisition were curtailed in the early 1940s, substantial acquisition efforts could not resume until the mid-1960s. The lengthy cessation of land acquisitions, except for period during the forests renaming, naming the forest entailed considerable debate. Protests began immediately after the national forest was named, the naming issue was reopened in the late 1950s.
The Forest Service investigated the name Cumberland, and found it came to Kentucky in 1750 when Thomas Walker named the Cumberland River in honor of Prince William Augustus, the Duke had defeated the Scottish Highlanders in 1746 at the Battle of Culloden, an especially brutal conflict. Many Scottish families fled to America and ultimately Kentucky as a result of the event, the Forest Service found that for their descendants still living in Eastern Kentucky, the name Cumberland was particularly distasteful. In addition, the Forest Service noted the influence of history on the names of places in Kentucky, during this period of time, place names with British connotations fell out of favor and changes were made. For example, prior to the Revolution, the Kentucky River was called the Louisa River, after the wife of the Duke of Cumberland, during the 1960s, a new movement to rename the national forest took place. Also during the 1960s, part of the national forest was designated a Primitive Weapons Area and set apart for hunting with longbow, crossbow, in 1970, this was the only US area where deer could legally be hunted with crossbows.
The park remains unique still for allowing only muzzle-loaded firearms, in 1967, a large and disconnected addition to the national forest was created, called the Redbird Purchase Unit, after a key purchase from the Red Bird Timber Company. About a third of the land within the national forest proclamation boundary is owned or managed by the Forest Service, the pattern of land ownership is highly fragmented and changes relatively frequently. One of the goals of the Forest Service is to consolidate holdings into larger blocks, the boundaries of Forest Service lands are marked in various ways, including red paint on trees. The shifting boundaries and growing size of Forest Service lands sometimes results in local complaints, in addition, it can be difficult for recreational users to know whether they are on Forest Service lands or not. No Trespassing signs are used by landowners, and conflicts between landowners and recreational users are not uncommon
U.S. Route 119
Corridor G is a highway in the U. S. states of Kentucky and West Virginia. It is part of the Appalachian Development Highway System, encompassing US119 for its length, at the northern terminus at Interstate 64 in Charleston, West Virginia, one can pick up Interstate 77 and Interstate 79, along with the West Virginia Turnpike. The Hatfield–McCoy Trails are an ATV and mountain biking network of trails throughout southwest West Virginia, three trail heads branch off from various secondary routes accessible from Corridor G. In 1974, the first segment of Corridor G was completed from KY292 at South Williamson south to KY199 at Huddy and this was a four-lane divided highway that contained mountable medians and jersey barriers, with a mix of state route and driveway access. This is especially evident as US119 cuts through the center of Belfry and South Williamson. Several years later, a 2. 5-mile segment of four-lane US119 along Buckley Creek opened from Corridor B/US 23/US 460/KY80 north of Pikeville to what is now KY14263.5 miles northeast of Pikeville.
In 1997, a section of US119 was relocated on new alignment from KY3154 at Canada east to KY199 at Huddy. Two years later, a section of US119 was relocated on new alignment from 2.5 miles east of Meta to KY3154 at Canada and this involved extensive highwall construction at Bent Mountain and Canada Knob. The final segment of Corridor G in Kentucky to be completed was from the KY1426 intersection north of Pikeville east to Scott Fork 2.5 miles east of Meta. This segment required the construction of three twin steel-box girder bridges at Johns Creek near Bevins Branch, Winn Branch, and Raccoon Creek and this includes a modified diamond interchange at what will be old US119 1/2-mile east of KY1426 at Zebulon. On June 30,2006, the Pinson Family Bridge was dedicated and it crosses Raccoon Creek and KY1441. This twin steel-box girder bridge is more than 1,200 ft. long and is the only examples of its kind in Kentucky. The girders were chosen because of the curvature within the bridge structure, on December 6,2006, a segment of Corridor G opened from the KY1426 intersection north of Pikeville east to the KY194 interchange.
The last segment to open is from KY194 north to Scott Fork and that segment was opened in March 2008. The first segments of Corridor G to open was in 1972, during that year, a Mingo County segment from Myrtle and Belo to the Logan County line near Holden opened. Segments of this were opened originally as a super-two since WV65 was being destroyed, in 1973, a lengthy segment opened to traffic from Godby Heights south of Chapmanville to MP4 in Boone County. This was followed a year by a segment near Madison from MP9.37 to MP13 in Boone County, in 1975, the segment from MP4 to MP9.37 in Boone County was opened to traffic. At this time, the connection to Interstate 64 in Charleston opened to traffic from Oakwood Road and this included the flyover ramp from US119 to the Interstate 64 interchange
The species is variable in its appearance and habit, and despite its common name it is not a true ivy, but rather a member of the cashew and almond family. Toxicodendron radicans is commonly eaten by animals, and the seeds are consumed by birds. Negundo Gillis Toxicodendron radicans var. negundo Reveal Toxicodendron radicans var. pubens Reveal Toxicodendron radicans subsp, radicans Toxicodendron radicans var. radicans Toxicodendron radicans subsp. Löve & D. Löve Toxicodendron radicans var. rydbergii Erskine Toxicodendron radicans subsp, verrucosum Gillis The deciduous leaves of T. radicans are trifoliate with three almond-shaped leaflets. The leaflets of mature leaves are somewhat shiny, the leaflets are 3–12 cm long, rarely up to 30 cm. Each leaflet has a few or no teeth along its edge, leaflet clusters are alternate on the vine, and the plant has no thorns. Vines growing on the trunk of a tree become firmly attached through numerous aerial rootlets, the vines develop adventitious roots, or the plant can spread from rhizomes or root crowns.
The milky sap of poison ivy darkens after exposure to the air, the urushiol compound in poison ivy is not a defensive measure, rather, it helps the plant to retain water. It is frequently eaten by animals such as deer and bears, Toxicodendron radicans spreads either vegetatively or sexually. It is dioecious, flowering occurs from May to July, the yellowish- or greenish-white flowers are typically inconspicuous and are located in clusters up to 8 cm above the leaves. The berry-like fruit, a drupe, mature by August to November with a grayish-white colour, fruits are a favorite winter food of some birds and other animals. Seeds are spread mainly by animals and remain viable after passing through the digestive tract, caquistle or caxuistle is the Nahuatl term for the species. It is normally found in wooded areas, especially along edge areas where the line breaks. It grows in exposed areas, open fields and disturbed areas. It may grow as a forest understory plant, although it is only somewhat shade-tolerant, the plant is extremely common in suburban and exurban areas of New England, the Mid-Atlantic, and the Southeastern United States.
The similar species T. diversilobum and T. rydbergii are found in western North America, Toxicodendron radicans rarely grows at altitudes above 1,500 m, although the altitude limit varies in different locations. The plants can grow as a shrub up to about 1.2 metres tall, as a groundcover 10–25 cm high, older vines on substantial supports send out lateral branches that may be mistaken for tree limbs at first glance. It grows in a variety of soil types, and soil pH from 6.0 to 7.9
Trombiculidae are a family of mites. The best known of the Trombiculidae are the chiggers, the two widely recognized definitions of chigger are the scientific and the common, the latter of which can be found in English and medical dictionaries. The scientific definition seemingly includes many more, but not all species of Trombiculidae and they are most numerous in early summer when grass and other vegetation are heaviest. In their larval stage, they attach to animals, including humans. These relatives of ticks are nearly microscopic, measuring 0.4 mm and have a chrome-orange hue, there is a marked constriction in the front part of the body in the nymph and adult stages. Trombiculid mites go through a lifecycle of egg, nymph, the larval mites feed on the skin cells of animals. The six-legged parasitic larva feeds on a variety of creatures, including humans, toads, box turtles, quail. After crawling onto their hosts, they inject digestive enzymes into the skin that break down skin cells. They do not actually bite, but instead form a hole in the skin called a stylostome and chew up tiny parts of the skin, thus causing severe irritation.
The severe itching is accompanied by red, pimple-like bumps or hives, for humans, itching usually occurs after the larvae detach from the skin. After feeding on their hosts, the drop to the ground and become nymphs. In the postlarval stage, they are not parasitic and feed on plant material, the females lay three to eight eggs in a clutch, usually on a leaf or under the roots of a plant, and die by autumn. Trombiculidae, from Greek τρομειν and Latin culex, genitive culicis, was first described as an independent family by Henry Ellsworth Ewing in 1944, when the family was first described, it included two subfamilies, Hemitrombiculinae and Trombiculinae. Womersley added another, which at the time contained only Leeuwenhoekia, later, he erected the family Leeuwenhoekiidae for the genus and subfamily, having six genera, they have a pair of submedian setae present on the dorsal plate. References to chiggers, however, go as far back as sixth-century China, and by 1733, in 1758, Carl Linnaeus described a single species, Acarus batatas.
However, most information about chiggers came from problems that arose during, trombiculid mites are found throughout the world. In Europe and North America, they tend to be prevalent in the hot. In the more temperate regions, they are found only during the summer, in the United States, they are found mostly in the southeast, the south, and the Midwest
National Military Park
The designation applies to sites where historic battles were fought on American soil during the armed conflicts that shaped the growth and development of the United States. There are 11 National Battlefields, nine National Military Parks, four National Battlefield Parks, the National Park Service does not distinguish among the four designations in terms of their preservation or management policies. In 1890, Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park was the first such site created by Congress, originally these sites were maintained by the War Department, but were transferred to the National Park Service on August 10,1933. The different designations appear to represent Congressional attitudes at the time of authorization of each individual site, only Brices Cross Roads National Battlefield Site, which is small, still bears that designation, others have since been redesignated. As with all areas in the National Park System, these battle sites are automatically listed on the National Register of Historic Places
United States Forest Service
The United States Forest Service is an agency of the U. S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nations 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass 193 million acres. Major divisions of the include the National Forest System and Private Forestry, Business Operations. Managing approximately 25% of federal lands, it is the major national land agency that is outside the U. S. Department of the Interior. The concept of the National Forests was born from Theodore Roosevelt’s conservation group and Crockett Club, in 1876, Congress created the office of Special Agent in the Department of Agriculture to assess the quality and conditions of forests in the United States. Hough was appointed the head of the office, in 1881, the office was expanded into the newly formed Division of Forestry. The Forest Reserve Act of 1891 authorized withdrawing land from the domain as forest reserves. In 1901, the Division of Forestry was renamed the Bureau of Forestry, gifford Pinchot was the first United States Chief Forester in the Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt.
As of 2009, the Forest Service has a budget authority of $5.5 billion. The Forest Service employs 34,250 employees in 750 locations, including 10,050 firefighters,737 law enforcement personnel, and 500 scientists. The mission of the Forest Service is To sustain the health and its motto is Caring for the land and serving people. As the lead agency in natural resource conservation, the US Forest Service provides leadership in the protection and use of the nations forest, rangeland. The agencys ecosystem approach to management integrates ecological and social factors to maintain and enhance the quality of the environment to meet current, the everyday work of the Forest Service balances resource extraction, resource protection, and providing recreation.5 billion trees per year. Further, the Forest Service fought fires on 2,996,000 acres of land in 2007, the Forest Service organization includes ranger districts, national forests, research stations and research work units and the Northeastern Area Office for State and Private Forestry.
Each level has responsibility for a variety of functions, the Chief of the Forest Service is a career federal employee who oversees the entire agency. The Chief reports to the Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment in the U. S. Department of Agriculture, there are five deputy chiefs for the following areas, National Forest System and Private Forestry and Development, Business Operations, and Finance. The Forest Service Research and Development deputy area includes five stations, the Forest Products Laboratory. Station directors, like regional foresters, report to the Chief, Research stations include Northern, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Southwest, Rocky Mountain, and Southern. There are 92 research work units located at 67 sites throughout the United States, there are 80 Experimental Forests and Ranges that have been established progressively since 1908, many sites are more than 50 years old
Carter Caves State Resort Park
Carter Caves State Resort Park is located in Carter County, United States, along Tygarts Creek. It is formed by Carter Caves, and nearby Cascade Caves, on December 16,1981,146 acres of the park were designated as nature preserves. Bat Cave and Cascade Caverns State Nature Preserves were dedicated for the protection of the Indiana bat, mountain maple, the purchase of the caves and surrounding land was driven by Governor William Jason Fields, a native of Carter County. Carter Caves is a resort park that features a lodge, cottages, 18-hole putt-putt course, 9-hole golf course, full-service campground. It has various tours available year-round that displays and explains the wonders of the underground world. It has horse riding stables. It is well known for its splendor above and below ground, there are several different Cave Tours offered. Guided tours of Cascade Cave and X-Cave are available year-round, Cascade Cave is the name for three different caves in the same area and is together the largest cave in the park.
It features an underground room and an 30-foot underground waterfall. X Cave, named for the pattern of its passages, features some of the largest rock formations in the park. Saltpetre Cave was mined during the War of 1812 because saltpetre, historic activities are a major part of the Saltpetre Cave tour. Bat Cave is toured in the months, between Memorial Day and Labor Day, and is considered a wild cave tour since the cave has not been improved for walking tours. The cave is unique in that it is a hibernaculum for the endangered Indiana Bat in the winter months, Laurel Cave is the most visited of the non-commercial caves in the park, and contains some of the most interesting passages. Laurel Cave is open to the public during business hours in the summer months only. All that is required is a permit available at the Welcome Center/Gift Shop, the permit gives you legal access to Laurel Cave, Horn Hollow Caves and the connected Rimstone Cave. Over thirty miles of hiking trails encounter seven natural bridges throughout the park, the Cascade Trail is a three-quarter mile trail passing through Box Canyon.
The Three Bridges Trail winds three and a quarter miles and includes the parks largest natural bridge, the Smokey Bridge and this trail passes by Fern Bridge and Raven Bridge as it meanders through the park. The half-mile Natural Bridge Trail passes beneath a natural bridge
United States National Forest
National Forest is a classification of protected and managed federal lands in the United States. The National Forest System was created by the Land Revision Act of 1891, abbot Kinney and forester Theodore Lukens were key spokesmen for the effort. In the United States there are 155 National Forests containing almost 190 million acres of land and these lands comprise 8.5 percent of the total land area of the United States, an area about the size of Texas. Some 87 percent of National Forest land lies west of the Mississippi River in the ranges of the Western United States. Alaska has 12 percent of all National Forest lands, the U. S. Forest Service manages all of the United States National Grasslands, and around half of the United States National Recreation Areas. There are two different types of forests within the National Forest system. Those east of the Great Plains in the Midwestern and Eastern United States were primarily acquired by the government since 1891. The land had long been in the domain and sometimes repeatedly logged since colonial times.
These are mostly lands that were kept in the domain, with the exception of inholdings. Land management of these areas focuses on conservation, timber harvesting, livestock grazing, watershed protection, unlike national parks and other federal lands managed by the National Park Service, extraction of natural resources from national forests is permitted, and in many cases encouraged. National Forests are categorized by the U. S. as IUCN Category VI protected areas, the first-designated wilderness areas, and some of the largest, are on National Forest lands. There are management decision conflicts between conservationists and environmentalists, and natural resource extraction companies and lobbies, over the protection and/or use of National Forest lands, many ski resorts and summer resorts operate on leased land in National Forests