Cape May County, New Jersey
Cape May County is the southernmost county in the U. S. state of New Jersey. Much of the county is located on the Cape May Peninsula, bounded by the Delaware Bay to the west, the Atlantic Ocean to the south and east. Adjacent to the Atlantic coastline are five barrier islands that have been built up as seaside resorts. A popular summer destination with 30 miles of beaches, Cape May County attracts vacationers from New Jersey and surrounding states, with the summer population exceeding 750,000. Tourism generates annual revenues of about $6 billion as of 2015, making it the county's single largest industry, with leisure and hospitality being Cape May's largest employment category, its county seat is the Cape May Court House section of Middle Township. As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 93,553, making it the state's second-least populous county, a 3.9% decrease from the 97,265 enumerated at the 2010 United States Census, in turn decreasing by 5,061 from the 102,326 counted in the 2000 Census.
The county is part of the Ocean City, NJ Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as the Philadelphia-Reading-Camden, PA-NJ-DE-MD Combined Statistical Area. Before the county was settled by Europeans, the indigenous Kechemeche tribe of the Lenape people inhabited South Jersey. Beginning in 1609, European explorers purchased land from, contributed to the decline of, the indigenous people; the county was named for Cornelius Jacobsen Mey, a Dutch captain who explored and charted the area from 1620–1621, established a claim for the province of New Netherland. In 1685, the court of Cape May County was split from neighboring Burlington County, although the boundaries were not set until seven years later. In 1690, Cape May was founded; the county was subdivided into three townships in 1798 – Lower and Upper. The other 16 municipalities in the county, including two no longer in existence, were established between 1827 and 1928. In 1863, the first railroad in the county opened, which carried crops from the dominant farming industry.
Railroads led to the popularity of the coastal resorts in the county. Improved automotive access led to further development after the Garden State Parkway opened in 1956. Before Cape May County was settled by Europeans, the indigenous Kechemeche tribe of the Lenape people inhabited South Jersey, traveled to the barrier islands during the summer to hunt and fish. During the 17th century, the area, now Cape May County was claimed as part of New Netherlands, New Sweden, the Province of New Jersey under the British crown, West Jersey. On August 28, 1609, English explorer Henry Hudson entered the Delaware Bay and stayed one day on land, north of what is now Cape May Point; as early as 1666, the southern tip of New Jersey was known as Cape Maey, named after Dutch explorer Cornelius Jacobsen May, who sailed the coastline of New Jersey from 1620–1621. In 1630, representatives of the Dutch West India Company purchased a 16 sq mi tract of land along the Delaware from indigenous people, bought additional land 11 years later.
Due to the large number of whales in the region of Cape May, Dutch explorers founded Town Bank around 1640 along the Delaware Bay as a whaling village. It was the first European settlement in what is now Cape May County, was populated by descendants of Plymouth County. In 1685, the court of Cape May was split from Burlington. In 1690, a settlement began at Cape Island; as whaling declined due to overpopulation, Town Bank diminished in importance in favor of Cape May, was washed away by 1750. In 1692, Cape May County was designated as one of the original four counties of West Jersey, defined as the land from the most northerly portion of Great Egg Harbor Bay to a point 20 mi east of the mouth of the Maurice River, south to the tip of Cape May; the limits of the county were adjusted over the next two centuries the portion near Maurice River Township. The first water mill in the county was constructed in 1699 in Cold Spring. Nearby, the First Baptist Church was built in 1712, the first Cold Spring Presbyterian Church was built in 1718.
Both churches, as well as nearby private homes, functioned as the center of early county government. In 1744, the county chose Romney Marsh – Cape May Court House – near the county's center to become the county seat; the first jail and courthouse were built in 1764. The county's population was around 1,000 in 1750, isolated from the rest of New Jersey by forests. Cape May grew independently as America's oldest bathing resort by 1765, leading to the city's current motto "The Nation's Oldest Seashore Resort". Amid the British blockade of the Delaware Bay in the American Revolutionary War, two British ships pursued and attacked the American brig Nancy, which fled to the coast at Turtle Gut Inlet; the Nancy was abandoned and sabotaged, killing at least 30 British sailors when the brig exploded after they boarded. The Battle of Turtle Gut Inlet on June 29, 1776 was the only Revolutionary War battle fought in the county. Cape May County was split into three townships on February 21, 1798 – Lower and Upper.
The three townships were established as precincts on April 2, 1723. During the War of 1812, British forces raided farms in the county for fresh water. In retaliation, residents dug canals to the ocean. In 1827, Dennis Township was created from portions of Upper Township, 101 years after its namesake Dennisville was founded in 1726; the oldest independent borough in the county was Cape Island Borough in 1848, which became the city of Cape May in 1869. Over the next 60 years as transport to the
Cumberland County, New Jersey
Cumberland County is a county located in the U. S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 152,538, making it the state's 16th-largest county, representing a 2.8% decrease from the 156,898 enumerated at the 2010 United States Census, in turn increasing by 10,460 from the 146,438 counted in the 2000 Census, retaining its position as the state's 16th-most populous county. Its county seat is Bridgeton. Cumberland County is named for Duke of Cumberland; the county was formally created from portions of Salem County as of January 19, 1748. This county is part of the Vineland-Millville-Bridgeton Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as the Delaware Valley Combined Statistical Area. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a total area of 677.62 square miles, including 483.70 square miles of land and 193.92 square miles of water. Cumberland is a low-lying featureless coastal county, with many salt marshes near the Delaware Bay; the highest elevation is at one of 12 areas in Upper Deerfield Township that stand 140 feet above sea level.
Gloucester County, New Jersey – north Atlantic County, New Jersey – northeast Cape May County, New Jersey – southeast Kent County, Delaware – southwest1 Salem County, New Jersey – northwest1across Delaware Bay. The population density was 324.4 per square mile. There were 55,834 housing units at an average density of 115.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 62.74% White, 20.23% Black or African American, 1.11% Native American, 1.22% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 11.15% from other races, 3.52% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 27.06% of the population. There were 51,931 households out of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.2% were married couples living together, 18.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.6% were non-families. 24% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.26.
In the county, the population was spread out with 24% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 25.3% from 45 to 64, 12.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.5 years. For every 100 females there were 106.2 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 106.9 males. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 146,438 people, 49,143 households, 35,186 families residing in the county; the population density was 299 people per square mile. There were 52,863 housing units at an average density of 108 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 65.88% White, 20.20% Black or African American, 0.97% Native American, 0.95% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 9.08% from other races, 2.85% from two or more races. 19.00% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Among those residents listing their ancestry, 15.6% of residents were of Italian, 12.1% German, 10.7% Irish and 8.4% English ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 49,143 households out of which 34.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.70% were married couples living together, 17.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.40% were non-families.
23.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.19. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.40% under the age of 18, 8.50% from 18 to 24, 31.20% from 25 to 44, 21.90% from 45 to 64, 13.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 104.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $39,150, the median income for a family was $45,403. Males had a median income of $35,387 versus $25,393 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,376. About 11.3% of families and 15.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.1% of those under age 18 and 12.9% of those age 65 or over. Cumberland County is governed by a Board of Chosen Freeholders consisting of seven members; each Freeholder is assigned responsibility for one of the County's departments.
These individuals are elected at large by the citizens of Cumberland County in partisan elections and serve staggered three-year terms in office, with either two or three seats coming up for election each year in a three-year cycle. In 2016, freeholders were paid $15,000 and the freeholder director was paid an annual salary of $16,000; as of 2018, members of the Cumberland County Board of Chosen Freeholders are: Freeholder Director Joseph Derella Jr. Deputy Freeholder Director Darlene R. Barber George Castellini Carol Musso James F. Quinn Joseph V. Sparacio Jack Surrency Then-Freeholder Director Bill Whelan, whose term was to run to December 2014, announced in July 2013 that he was resigning from office; that month, Joe Derella was chosen to replace Whelan as
Hammonton, New Jersey
Hammonton is a town in Atlantic County, New Jersey, United States, known as the "Blueberry Capital of the World." As of the 2010 United States Census, the town's population was 14,791, reflecting an increase of 2,187 from the 12,604 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 396 from the 12,208 counted in the 1990 Census. Hammonton was settled in 1812 and was named for John Hammond Coffin, a son of one of the community's earliest settlers, William Coffin, with the "d" in what was "Hammondton" disappearing over time, it was incorporated as a town by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 5, 1866, from portions of Hamilton Township and Mullica Township. It is located directly between Philadelphia and the resort town of Atlantic City, along a former route of the Pennsylvania Railroad, used by NJ Transit's Atlantic City Line. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town had a total area of 41.419 square miles, including 40.887 square miles of land and 0.532 square miles of water.
The town borders Folsom borough, to the southwest, both Hamilton and Mullica townships to the southeast in Atlantic County. It is located in the Atlantic Coastal Plain, so is flat, though the highest point in Atlantic County is located along the Pennsylvania Railroad within the borders of Hammonton; the town is located exactly halfway between Philadelphia and Atlantic City. Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the town include Barnard, Caldwell Crossing, Dutchtown, Great Swamp, Rockford, Rockwood and West Mills; the town is one of 56 South Jersey municipalities that are included within the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve, a protected natural area of unique ecology covering 1,100,000 acres, classified as a United States Biosphere Reserve and established by Congress in 1978 as the nation's first National Reserve. All of the town is included in the state-designated Pinelands Area, which includes portions of Atlantic County, along with areas in Burlington, Cape May, Cumberland and Ocean counties.
Due to its location in the Pine Barrens, the soil is sandy, making it ideal for growing blueberries. Low, marshy areas within the Pine Barrens are used for cranberry cultivation. Hammonton lies in the northern reaches of the humid subtropical climate zone, similar to inland southern New Jersey, is characterized by brisk winters, hot summers, plentiful precipitation spread evenly throughout the year. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Hammonton's climate is abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 14,791 people, 5,408 households, 3,758.560 families residing in the town. The population density was 361.8 per square mile. There were 5,715 housing units at an average density of 139.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 81.67% White, 3.00% Black or African American, 0.28% Native American, 1.37% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 10.81% from other races, 2.85% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 20.93% of the population.
There were 5,408 households out of which 31.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.5% were married couples living together, 12.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.5% were non-families. 25.0% of all households were made up of individuals, 12.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.19. In the town, the population was spread out with 23.4% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 26.4% from 25 to 44, 26.1% from 45 to 64, 16.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.6 years. For every 100 females there were 99.0 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 95.2 males. The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $59,085 and the median family income was $62,354. Males had a median income of $47,110 versus $36,615 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $25,292. About 8.4% of families and 10.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.1% of those under age 18 and 9.2% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2000 United States Census there were 12,604 people, 4,619 households, 3,270 families residing in the town. The population density was 305.5 people per square mile. There were 4,843 housing units at an average density of 117.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 87.85% White, 1.74% African American, 0.14% Native American, 1.14% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 7.83% from other races, 1.27% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.88% of the population. As of the 2000 Census, 45.9% of town residents were of Italian ancestry, the second-highest percentage of any municipality in the United States, highest in New Jersey, among all places with more than 1,000 residents identifying their ancestry. News reports have said. There were 4,619 households out of which 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.6% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.2% were non-families. 23.9% of a
Idaho is a state in the northwestern region of the United States. It borders the state of Montana to the east and northeast, Wyoming to the east and Utah to the south, Washington and Oregon to the west. To the north, it shares a small portion of the Canadian border with the province of British Columbia. With a population of 1.7 million and an area of 83,569 square miles, Idaho is the 14th largest, the 12th least populous and the 7th least densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. The state's capital and largest city is Boise. Idaho prior to European settlement was inhabited by Native American peoples, some of whom still live in the area. In the early 19th century, Idaho was considered part of the Oregon Country, an area disputed between the U. S. and the United Kingdom. It became U. S. territory with the signing of the Oregon Treaty of 1846, but a separate Idaho Territory was not organized until 1863, instead being included for periods in Oregon Territory and Washington Territory. Idaho was admitted to the Union on July 3, 1890, becoming the 43rd state.
Forming part of the Pacific Northwest, Idaho is divided into several distinct geographic and climatic regions. In the state's north, the isolated Idaho Panhandle is linked with Eastern Washington, with which it shares the Pacific Time Zone – the rest of the state uses the Mountain Time Zone; the state's south includes the Snake River Plain, while the south-east incorporates part of the Great Basin. Idaho is quite mountainous, contains several stretches of the Rocky Mountains; the United States Forest Service holds about 38 % of the most of any state. Industries significant for the state economy include manufacturing, mining and tourism. A number of science and technology firms are either headquartered in Idaho or have factories there, the state contains the Idaho National Laboratory, the country's largest Department of Energy facility. Idaho's agricultural sector supplies many products, but the state is best known for its potato crop, which comprises around one-third of the nationwide yield; the official state nickname is the "Gem State".
The name's origin remains a mystery. In the early 1860s, when the United States Congress was considering organizing a new territory in the Rocky Mountains, eccentric lobbyist George M. Willing suggested the name "Idaho", which he claimed was derived from a Shoshone language term meaning "the sun comes from the mountains" or "gem of the mountains". Willing claimed he had invented the name. Congress decided to name the area Colorado Territory when it was created in February 1861. Thinking they would get a jump on the name, locals named a community in Colorado "Idaho Springs". However, the name "Idaho" did not fall into obscurity; the same year Congress created Colorado Territory, a county called Idaho County was created in eastern Washington Territory. The county was named after a steamship named Idaho, launched on the Columbia River in 1860, it is unclear after Willing's claim was revealed. Regardless, part of Washington Territory, including Idaho County, was used to create Idaho Territory in 1863.
Despite this lack of evidence for the origin of the name, many textbooks well into the 20th century repeated as fact Willing's account the name "Idaho" derived from the Shoshone term "ee-da-how". A 1956 Idaho history textbook says:"Idaho" is a Shoshoni Indian exclamation; the word consists of three parts. The first is "Ee", which in English conveys the idea of "coming down"; the second is "dah", the Shoshoni stem or root for both "sun" and "mountain". The third syllable, "how", denotes the exclamation and stands for the same thing in Shoshoni that the exclamation mark does in the English language; the Shoshoni word is "Ee-dah-how", the Indian thought thus conveyed when translated into English means, "Behold! the sun coming down the mountain. An alternative etymology attributes the name to the Plains Apache word "ídaahę́", used in reference to The Comanche. Idaho borders six U. S. states and one Canadian province. The states of Washington and Oregon are to the west and Utah are to the south, Montana and Wyoming are to the east.
Idaho shares a short border with the Canadian province of British Columbia to the north. The landscape is rugged with some of the largest unspoiled natural areas in the United States. For example, at 2.3 million acres, the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness Area is the largest contiguous area of protected wilderness in the continental United States. Idaho is a Rocky Mountain state with scenic areas; the state has snow-capped mountain ranges, vast lakes and steep canyons. The waters of the Snake River rush through the deepest gorge in the United States. Shoshone Falls plunges down rugged cliffs from a height greater than Niagara Falls; the major rivers in Idaho are the Snake River, the Clark Fork/Pend Oreille River, the Clearwater River, the Salmon River. Other significant rivers include the Coeur d'Alene River, the Spokane River, the Boise River, the Payette River; the Salmon River empties into the Snake in Hells Canyon and forms the southern boundary of Nez Perce County on its north shore, of which Lewiston is the county seat.
The Port of Lewiston, at the confluence of the Clearwater and the Snake Rivers is the farthest inland seaport on the West Coast at 465 river miles from the Pacific at Astoria, Oregon. Idaho's highest point is 12,662 ft, in the Lost River Range north of Mackay. Idaho's lowest poi
Cecil Dale Andrus was an American politician who served fourteen years as the Governor of Idaho. A Democrat, he served as U. S. Secretary of the Interior from 1977 to 1981 during the Carter Administration. Andrus lost his first gubernatorial election in 1966, but won four and his 14 years as governor is the most in state history. Through 2019, he is the most recent Democrat to have held the office. In public life, Andrus was noted for his strong conservationist and environmental views and accomplishments, an Idaho wildlife preserve established in 1993 in Washington County is named the Cecil D. Andrus Wildlife Management Area in his honor. In 2018, the Cecil D. Andrus–White Clouds Wilderness was renamed after him. Born in Hood River, Oregon on August 25, 1931, Andrus was the middle of three children of Hal Stephen and Dorothy May Andrus, with older brother Steve and younger sister Margaret, they lived near Junction City, on a farm without electricity. During World War II, the family moved to Eugene in early 1942, when "Cece" was 11, where Hal and his brother Bud opened a machine shop to refurbish sawmill equipment.
Andrus graduated from Eugene High School in 1948 at age 16 and attended Oregon State College in Corvallis, where he majored in engineering in his freshman year. At age 17, he got a good summer job with the local utility in 1949, late in August, he eloped to Reno with Carol Mae May, his high school sweetheart. Andrus had just turned 18, she was 16 months younger; the Andruses enjoyed a happy, affectionate marriage, he always referred to her as "his first wife" or "his bride." He decided to keep working and not return to college. Following the outbreak of the Korean War, he enlisted in the U. S. Naval Reserves in February 1951, served as an electronics technician aboard patrol aircraft until 1955. After his discharge from the Navy, Andrus moved to Orofino, where he worked in the timber industry in a variety of jobs at a sawmill his father co-owned. After the sawmill closed, Andrus switched to the insurance industry in 1963, moved his family down the Clearwater River to Lewiston in 1966. In 1960, at age 28, concerned over the local Republican state senator's stance against needed education improvements in Idaho schools in rural areas of the state, Andrus filed as a Democrat to run against him and won, was re-elected in 1962 and 1964 from Orofino.
Andrus first ran for governor in 1966, but was narrowly defeated in the Democratic primary by Charles Herndon, an attorney from Salmon. Seven weeks before the November election, however and two others died in a twin-engine private plane crash in the mountains six miles northwest of Stanley, while en route from Twin Falls to Coeur d'Alene in mid-September. Andrus was appointed the nominee to take Herndon's place on the ballot, he lost the general election to Republican Don Samuelson of Sandpoint by more than 11,000 votes, earning Andrus the unlikely distinction of losing both the primary and general election races for the same office in the same year. He returned to the state senate two years easily unseating the Republican incumbent in the 1968 election, represented Lewiston. Herndon's widow, was elected to several local political offices after his death. Undaunted by his earlier setback, Andrus defeated Samuelson by over 10,000 votes in a gubernatorial election rematch in 1970; this was attributed in large part to Andrus's public opposition to proposals for development of molybdenum mining in central Idaho's White Cloud Mountains, which Samuelson supported.
During his first term as governor, Andrus played a key role in winning support by the U. S. Congress for Federal designation of the Sawtooth Wilderness Area in the State of Idaho. Andrus was re-elected in 1974 with over 70% of the vote, defeating Republican Lieutenant Governor Jack M. Murphy of Shoshone by a record margin. In 1974, Time magazine named Governor Andrus one of the "200 Faces for the Future". In January 1977, Andrus left his post as governor to serve as Secretary of the Interior for newly inaugurated President Jimmy Carter, whom he had known since both were freshman governors in 1971. Andrus became the first Idahoan to serve in a Presidential Cabinet, he was succeeded in Idaho by Lieutenant Governor John V. Evans, a Democrat who served nearly a decade, winning re-election in 1978 and in 1982. Andrus took a leadership role in securing Congressional passage of the Redwood National Park Expansion Act in 1978. Which added 48,000 acres to Redwood National Park in California, in a major expansion to preserve remnants of the giant redwood forests there.
In 1979, when President Carter asked for the resignations of his entire Cabinet during an administration retreat at Camp David, the resignation of Andrus was not accepted. Andrus stayed on as Secretary of the Interior for the remainder of Carter's presidency, returned to Idaho after Carter's term ended in January 1981. Andrus wrote in his memoir about such a need for compromise relative to his successful, last-ditch efforts in securing passage of the Alaska Lands Act during the last month of the Carter Administration in December 1980, following Ronald Reagan's election in November: "The environmental groups were hostile. I had to listen to the idiotic argument that they could get a better Alaska package out of Reagan and Watt.""Cooler heads prevailed," Andrus continues, "It proved the old adage that there's nothing like a hanging in the morning to focus the mind. Though we were creating tomorrow's controversies, a 103-million acre plan... was a lot better
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Pine Barrens (New Jersey)
The Pine Barrens known as the Pinelands or the Pines, is a forested area of coastal plain stretching across more than seven counties of New Jersey. The name "pine barrens" refers to the area's sandy, nutrient-poor soil. Although European settlers could not cultivate their familiar crops there, the unique ecology of the Pine Barrens supports a diverse spectrum of plant life, including orchids and carnivorous plants; the area is notable for its populations of rare pygmy pitch pines and other plant species that depend on the frequent fires of the Pine Barrens to reproduce. The sand that composes much of the area's soil is referred to by the locals as sugar sand; the Pine Barrens remains rural and undisturbed despite its proximity to the sprawling metropolitan cities of Philadelphia and New York City, in the center of the densely populated Boston-Washington Corridor on the Eastern Seaboard. The travelled Garden State Parkway and Atlantic City Expressway traverse sections of the eastern and southern Pine Barrens, respectively.
The Pine Barrens territory helps recharge the 17 trillion gallon Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer containing some of the purest water in the United States. As a result of all these factors, in 1978 Congress passed legislation to designate 1.1 million acres of the Pine Barrens as the Pinelands National Reserve to preserve its ecology. A decade it was designated by the United Nations as an International Biosphere Reserve. Development in the Pinelands National Reserve is controlled by an independent state/federal agency, the New Jersey Pinelands Commission; the Pinelands Reserve contains the Wharton, Brendan T. Byrne and Bass River state forests; the reserve includes two National Wild and Scenic Rivers: the Maurice and the Great Egg Harbor. John McPhee's 1967 book The Pine Barrens focuses on the ecology of the region. Between 170–200 million years ago, the Atlantic coastal plain began to form; the Barrens formed in the southernmost, last, area to be formed in New Jersey, 1.8 to 65 mya, the Tertiary era.
Over millions of years, the rising and falling of the coastline deposited minerals underground, culminating with the end of the last ice age about 12,000 years ago, when plants and trees began growing in what is now New Jersey. Forest fires have been a common occurrence before habitation by humans. Fire has played a major ecological role in the Pinelands, the ecotypes "suggest that short fire intervals may have been typical in the Pine Plains for many centuries, or millennia." Around 10,000 years ago, the ancestors of the Lenape people first inhabited the Pine Barrens. The fire regime before European settlement is poorly understood. Scholars know that the Lenape tribes burned the woods in the spring and fall to reduce underbrush, improve plant yields and hunting conditions; the Pine Barrens, with its sandy soil, did not attract a permanent agriculture population. The area's sparse population encouraged a long-lasting attitude that forest fires should be set for local benefit—even on the lands of others.
For instance, it was profitable for charcoal burners to set fires deliberately, in order to make the trees useless for any purpose other than charcoal making purchase the trees for a discount. During the 17th century, the area, now New Jersey was explored and settled by the Swedish and Dutch, who developed whaling and fishing settlements along the Delaware River; the English claimed the area as of 1606 under their London Company, the Dutch abandoned their claim to the English in 1664. The first shipbuilding operations began in the Pine Barrens in 1688, utilizing the cedar and pitch trees, as well as local tar and turpentine; the first sawmills and gristmills opened around 1700, leading to the first European settlements in the Pinelands. During the colonial era, the Pine Barrens was the location of various industries. In 1740, charcoal operations began in the Pine Barrens, the first iron furnace opened in 1765. Bog iron was mined from bogs and waterways, was worked in about 35 furnaces including Batsto, Lake Atsion, Hampton Furnace in Shamong, Hanover Furnace in Pemberton, Ferrago in Lacey, several other locations.
Iron from these early furnaces was instrumental in supplying the American military with weapons and camp tools during the American Revolution, the War of 1812, the Second Barbary War. For example, Commodore Stephen Decatur, Jr. sailed to Algiers armed with 24-pound cannons, cast at Hanover in 1814. The first Indian reservation in the Americas was founded Brotherton in 1758, in what is now Indian Mills in Shamong Township. In 1778 during the Revolutionary War, the British burned and pillaged the village of Chestnut Nuck in a failed attempt to destroy the ironworks at Batsto Village. In 1799 after the war, the first glassworks opened in Port Elizabeth, by that time, whaling operations had stopped; the first cotton mill in the Pine Barrens opened in 1810 at Retreat. Cultivated cranberry bogs begin in the 1830s, in 1832, the first paper mill opened in the region. In 1854, the first railroad across the Pinelands opened, connecting Camden and the newly-established Atlantic City. Railroads soon connected the various small towns.
In 1869, the bog iron industry ended in the Pine Barrens, after the discovery that iron ore could be mined more cheaply in Pennsylvania. Other industries such as paper mills and gristmills rose and fell throughout the years, catering chiefly to local markets. Smaller industries such as charcoal-making and glassmaking were developed, meeting wi