Gandia is a city and municipality in the Valencian Community, Eastern Spain on the Mediterranean. Gandia is located on the Costa del Azahar, 65 kilometres south of Valencia and 110 km north of Alicante, it can be accessed through road N-332. It was a important cultural and commercial centre during the 15th and 16th centuries: in the 15th it had a university, it was home to several important poets including Ausiàs March, produced the novelist Joanot Martorell, but it is best known for the Borja or Borgia, through their family title, Duke of Gandia. Today, Gandia is one of the largest coastal towns in Spain, with a population over 200,000 during summer, a thriving centre of commerce and tourism in the region. There are two main zones, Gandia City, which has all the historical monuments, commercial activity, shopping, Gandia beach, where apartments and summer residences used during the summer season are to be found; the bars and nightclubs are concentrated in the beach area. As is normal for Spain, nightlife does not begin until well after midnight.
The beach and town are some 2 km apart which succeeds in separating summer tourism from day-to-day living. Collegiate Basilica of Gandia Ducal Palace of Gandia Convent of Santa Clara of Gandia Archaeological Museum of Gandia Monastery of Sant Jeroni de Cotalba Route of the Borgias Route of the Monasteries of Valencia Route of the Valencian classics With its long, golden, sandy beaches Gandia is one of the major tourist destinations in Spain. Traditionally Gandia's tourism has a domestic base, with the majority coming from Madrid, although in recent years it has been an popular destination for international tourists French and British. There are some popular Spanish restaurants around the beach. Gandia has a number of shopping facilities including shopping malls and chain supermarkets like Carrefour, Carrefour Express, Lidl and Aldi. There are available various fast-food chain restaurants like McDonald's, Burger King and Domino's Pizza. For culture, there are literary contests, the Summer University, the International Festival of Classical Music and art exhibitions.
Gandia hosts the annual Cortoons Gandia animation festival in April, which celebrates international animation and short films. Gandia has an important regional wetland with an extension above 1.200km2 in the outskirts of the city, called Marjal de La Safor. This natural area is home to several water plants such as Lemna gibba, Lemna minor, specially many species of water lily plants, such as Nymphaea alba, Utricularia australism and Potamogeton fluitans. Underwater plants exist, such as Myriophyllum and Ceratophyllum. Native land plants are formed of various Phragmites species, Thypha domingensis, various Scirpus and Cladium species. Various species of palm trees are naturalised in the area, they're found in the marjal due to seed dispersion, either wind or animal dispersion; the most common naturalised palm trees in the area are Phoenix dactylifera, Washingtonia robusta and Phoenix canariensis. There are some specimens of the native palm tree Chamaerops humilis, although few compared to the naturalised species.
This natural zone is rich in fauna, with many species of birds, fish and reptiles, with some mammal species. The most common species of birds are Tachybaptus ruficollis, Anas platyrhynchos, Falco tinnunculus, Fulica atra and Gallinula chloropus amongst many other species; the most common fish and amphibian species are Cobitis maroccana, Anguilla anguilla, Syngnathus abaster, Bufo bufo, Bufo calamita and Rana perezi. The most common reptiles are turtles, with a native species, in critical condition due to the heavy expansion of the Trachemys scripta scripta and Trachemys scripta elegans, most known as Florida turtles, which are introduced species in Spain. Other species of reptiles are Tarentola mauritanica, Podarcis hispanicus and Natrix maura amongst others; the most common and native mammals are the European rabbits, the European hedgehog, the greater white-toothed shrew Musaranya comuna, the European bat and the wild hog amongst others. The climate of Gandia is mediterranean-subtropical with mild to warm temperatures during winters, hot summers.
The annual average temperature is between 18-19 °C. Gandia receives about 600 mm of rain per the majority falling from September to November; the wettest season is the autumn. The average annual sunshine hours are about 3.000. Gandia, the whole Safor comarca, is said to be the centre of the Raspall variant of the Valencian pilota autochthonous sport. Nonetheless, Gandia held. Gandia is twinned with: Laval in France Monastery of Sant Jeroni de Cotalba Collegiate Basilica of Gandia Ducal Palace of Gandia Ferrocarril Alcoy Gandia Route of the Borgias Route of the Monasteries of Valencia Route of the Valencian classics Town hall of Gandia Official Tourism of Gandia Gandia Information
A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis. Grapes can be eaten fresh as table grapes or they can be used for making wine, juice, grape seed extract, raisins and grape seed oil. Grapes are a non-climacteric type of fruit occurring in clusters; the cultivation of the domesticated grape began 6,000–8,000 years ago in the Near East. Yeast, one of the earliest domesticated microorganisms, occurs on the skins of grapes, leading to the discovery of alcoholic drinks such as wine; the earliest archeological evidence for a dominant position of wine-making in human culture dates from 8,000 years ago in Georgia. The oldest known winery was found in Armenia, dating to around 4000 BC. By the 9th century AD the city of Shiraz was known to produce some of the finest wines in the Middle East, thus it has been proposed that Syrah red wine is named after Shiraz, a city in Persia where the grape was used to make Shirazi wine. Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics record the cultivation of purple grapes, history attests to the ancient Greeks and Romans growing purple grapes for both eating and wine production.
The growing of grapes would spread to other regions in Europe, as well as North Africa, in North America. In North America, native grapes belonging to various species of the genus Vitis proliferate in the wild across the continent, were a part of the diet of many Native Americans, but were considered by early European colonists to be unsuitable for wine. In the 19th century, Ephraim Bull of Concord, cultivated seeds from wild Vitis labrusca vines to create the Concord grape which would become an important agricultural crop in the United States. Grapes are a type of fruit that grow in clusters of 15 to 300, can be crimson, dark blue, green and pink. "White" grapes are green in color, are evolutionarily derived from the purple grape. Mutations in two regulatory genes of white grapes turn off production of anthocyanins, which are responsible for the color of purple grapes. Anthocyanins and other pigment chemicals of the larger family of polyphenols in purple grapes are responsible for the varying shades of purple in red wines.
Grapes are an ellipsoid shape resembling a prolate spheroid. Most grapes come from cultivars of Vitis vinifera, the European grapevine native to the Mediterranean and Central Asia. Minor amounts of fruit and wine come from American and Asian species such as: Vitis amurensis, the most important Asian species Vitis labrusca, the North American table and grape juice grapevines, sometimes used for wine, are native to the Eastern United States and Canada. Vitis mustangensis, found in Mississippi, Louisiana and Oklahoma Vitis riparia, a wild vine of North America, is sometimes used for winemaking and for jam, it is native to the entire Eastern U. S. and north to Quebec. Vitis rotundifolia used for jams and wine, are native to the Southeastern United States from Delaware to the Gulf of Mexico. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization, 75,866 square kilometers of the world are dedicated to grapes. 71% of world grape production is used for wine, 27% as fresh fruit, 2% as dried fruit. A portion of grape production goes to producing grape juice to be reconstituted for fruits canned "with no added sugar" and "100% natural".
The area dedicated to vineyards is increasing by about 2% per year. There are no reliable statistics, it is believed that the most planted variety is Sultana known as Thompson Seedless, with at least 3,600 km2 dedicated to it. The second most common variety is Airén. Other popular varieties include Cabernet Sauvignon, Sauvignon blanc, Cabernet Franc, Grenache, Tempranillo and Chardonnay. Commercially cultivated grapes can be classified as either table or wine grapes, based on their intended method of consumption: eaten raw or used to make wine. While all of them belong to the same species, Vitis vinifera and wine grapes have significant differences, brought about through selective breeding. Table grape cultivars tend to have large, seedless fruit with thin skin. Wine grapes are smaller seeded, have thick skins. Wine grapes tend to be sweet: they are harvested at the time when their juice is 24% sugar by weight. By comparison, commercially produced "100% grape juice", made from table grapes, is around 15% sugar by weight.
Seedless cultivars now make up the overwhelming majority of table grape plantings. Because grapevines are vegetatively propagated by cuttings, the lack of seeds does not present a problem for reproduction, it is an issue for breeders, who must either use a seeded variety as the female parent or rescue embryos early in development using tissue culture techniques. There are several sources of the seedlessness trait, all commercial cultivators get it from one of three sources: Thompson Seedless, Russian Seedless, Black Monukka, all being cultivars of Vitis vinifera. There are more than a dozen varieties of seedless grapes. Several, such as Einset Seedless, Benjamin Gunnels's Prime seedless grapes and Venus, have been cultivated for hardiness and quality in the cold climates of northeastern United States and southern Ontario. An offset to the improved eating quality of seedlessness is the loss of potential health benefits provided by the enriched phytochemical conten
Vall d'Albaida is a comarca in the province of Valencia, Valencian Community, Spain. Reconquered by the Aragonese king James I of Aragon in the first half of the 13th Century it was populated by Muslims until the Expulsion of the Moriscos from the Kingdom of Valencia in 1609; the name of the comarca is derived from the Hispano-Arabic word albáyḍa, which in turn is derived from the classical Arabic البيضاء, in reference to the flowering plant Anthyllis cystoides. Lying 70 km south of the city of Valencia and covering an area of some 722 square kilometers, Vall d'Albaida borders on the north with the comarca of Costera, to the east with Safor, to the south with Comtat and Alcoià, to the west with Alto Vinalopó, the latter three of which belong to the province of Alicante; the River Albaida runs through the comarca from south to north. The area enjoys a Mediterranean climate, characterised by hot summers and cold winters, with an average of two snowfalls per year. Vall d'Albaida has a population of around 90,000 inhabitants.
The Vall d'Albaida comarca is composed of 34 municipalities. The Route of the Monasteries of Valencia is a monumental and cultural route that connects five monasteries located in the south of the Province of Valencia. Of the four different itineraries available, three cross various comarques within Vall d'Albaida, following signposted riding trails, mountain trails, old roads and railroad tracks, include the Monastery of the Corpus Christi and Xio Castle, both in the municipality of Luchente. By foot, the route takes 3-4 days; the Route was inaugurated in 2008. Comarques of the Valencian Community Commonwealth of Municipalities of the Vall d'Albaida Comparsa Saudites d'Ontinyent La Vall d’Albaida Mancomunitat de Municipis de la Vall d'Albaida http://palomatorrijos.blogspot.com/2009/12/los-marqueses-de-albaida-pleito-por-el.html http://palomatorrijos.blogspot.com/2009/12/los-marqueses-de-albaida-valencia.html Amelias GOMEZ MARTINEZ: "Propiedad señorial en el marquesado de Albaida perspectivas socieconómicas del señorío en la segunda mitad del s.
XVIII". Published 1988 by Excmo. Ayuntamiento de Albaida in. 1988. 288 pages. Library of Congress HD779. A375 G66. ISBN 84-505-8276-8
Pig farming is the raising and breeding of domestic pigs as livestock, is a branch of animal husbandry. Pigs are sometimes skinned. Pigs are amenable to many different styles of farming: intensive commercial units, commercial free range enterprises, or extensive farming. Farm pigs were kept in small numbers and were associated with the residence of the owner, or in the same village or town, they were valued as a source of meat and fat, for their ability to convert inedible food into meat, were fed household food waste when kept on a homestead. Pigs have been farmed to dispose of municipal garbage on a large scale. All these forms of pig farm are in use today. In developed nations, commercial farms house thousands of pigs in climate-controlled buildings. Pigs are a popular form of livestock, with more than one billion pigs butchered each year worldwide, 100 million of them in the USA; the majority of pigs are used for human food but supply skin and other materials for use as clothing, ingredients for processed foods and medical use.
The activities on a pig farm depend on the husbandry style of the farmer, range from little intervention to intensive systems where the pigs are contained in a building for the majority of their lives. Each pig farm will tend to adapt to the local conditions and food supplies and fit their practices to their specific situation; the following factors can influence the type of pig farms in any given region: Available food supply suitable for pigs The ability to deal with manure or other outputs from the pig operation Local beliefs or traditions, including religion The breed or type of pig available to the farm Local diseases or conditions that affect pig growth or fecundity Local requirements, including government zoning and/or land use laws Local and global market conditions and demand Almost all of the pig can be used as food. Preparations of pig parts into specialties include: sausage, gammon, skin into pork scratchings, feet into trotters, head into a meat jelly called head cheese, consumption of the liver and blood.
This is technically, the case for all other mammals, although the demand is not there. Pigs are farmed in many countries, though the main consuming countries are in Asia, meaning there is a significant international and intercontinental trade in live and slaughtered pigs. Despite having the world's largest herd, China is a net importer of pigs, has been increasing its imports during its economic development; the largest exporters of pigs are the United States, the European Union, Canada. As an example, more than half of Canadian production in 2008 was exported. Older pigs will consume eleven to nineteen litres of water per day; the way in which a stockperson interacts with pigs affects animal welfare which in some circumstances can correlate with production measures. Many routine interactions can cause fear. There are various methods of handling pigs which can be separated into those which lead to positive or negative reactions by the animals; these reactions are based on. Many negative interactions with pigs arise from stock-people dealing with large numbers of pigs.
Because of this, many handlers can become complacent about animal welfare and fail to ensure positive interactions with pigs. Negative interactions include overly-heavy tactile interactions, the use of electric goads and fast movements, it can include killing them. However, it is not a held view that death is a negative interaction; these interactions can result in fear in the animals. Overly-heavy tactile interactions can cause increased basal cortisol levels. Negative interactions that cause fear mean the escape reactions of the pigs can be vigorous, thereby risking injury to both stock and handlers. Stress can result in immunosuppression. Studies have shown that these negative handling techniques result in an overall reduction in growth rates of pigs. Various interactions can be considered either neutral. Neutral interactions are considered positive because, in conjunction with positive interactions, they contribute to an overall non-negative relationship between a stock-person and the stock.
Pigs are fearful of fast movements. When entering a pen, it is good practice for a stock-person to enter with slow and deliberate movements; these therefore reduce stress. Pigs are curious animals. Allowing the pigs to approach and smell whilst patting or resting a hand on the pig's back are examples of positive behavior. Pigs respond positively to verbal interaction. Minimizing fear of humans allow handlers to perform husbandry practices in a safer and more efficient manner. By reducing stress, stock are made more comfortable to feed when near handlers, resulting in increased productivity. In other words, pigs are social and intelligent animals, if they are treated well, better meat can be obtained. Prohand for pigs is a training program that teaches handlers to interact with pigs in a way that promotes safe handling, it promotes elimination of negative behaviors. This program has been seen to improve produ
Comarcas of Spain
In Spain traditionally and some autonomous communities are divided into comarcas. Some comarcas have a defined status, are regulated by law and their comarcal councils have some power. In some other cases their legal status is not formal for they correspond to natural areas, like valleys, river basins and mountainous areas, or to historical regions overlapping different provinces and ancient kingdoms. In such comarcas or natural regions municipalities have resorted to organizing themselves in mancomunidad, like the Taula del Sénia, the only legal formula that has allowed those comarcas to manage their public municipal resources meaningfully. There is a comarca, the Cerdanya, divided between two states, the southwestern half being counted as a comarca of Spain, while the northeastern half is part of France. In English, a comarca is equivalent to a district, area or zone. Alto Almanzora Poniente Almeriense Níjar Los Vélez Levante Almería Bahía de Cádiz Bajo Guadalquivir called Costa Noroeste Campo de Gibraltar La Janda Campiña de Jerez called Marco de Jerez Sierra de Cádiz Alto Guadalquivir Campiña de Baena Campiña Este - Guadajoz Campiña Sur Los Pedroches Subbetica Valle del Guadiato Valle Medio del Guadalquivir Granadin Alpujarra Comarca de Alhama Comarca de Baza Comarca de Guadix Comarca de Huéscar Comarca de Loja Granadin Coast Los Montes Lecrin Valley Vega de Granada Andévalo Condado de Huelva Cuenca Minera de Huelva Costa Occidental de Huelva Huelva Sierra de Huelva Alto Guadalquivir - Cazorla La Campiña El Condado Área Metropolitana de Jaén La Loma Las Villas Norte Sierra Mágina Sierra de Segura Sierra Sur de Jaén Antequera Axarquía Costa del Sol Occidental Málaga Serranía de Ronda Valle del Guadalhorce Aljarafe Bajo Guadalquivir Campiña Estepa Marisma Sierra Norte Sierra Sur La Vega Alto Gállego Bajo Cinca called Baix Cinca Cinca Medio Hoya de Huesca called Plana de Uesca Jacetania La Litera called La Llitera Monegros Ribagorza Sobrarbe Somontano de Barbastro Bajo Martín Jiloca Cuencas Mineras Andorra-Sierra de Arcos Bajo Aragón Comunidad de Teruel Maestrazgo Sierra de Albarracín Comarca, named after the Sierra de Albarracín mountain range Gúdar-Javalambre Matarraña called Matarranya Aranda Bajo Aragón-Caspe called Baix Aragó-Casp Campo de Belchite Campo de Borja Campo de Cariñena Campo de Daroca Cinco Villas Comunidad de Calatayud Ribera Alta del Ebro Ribera Baja del Ebro Tarazona y el Moncayo Valdejalón Zaragoza Avilés Caudal Eo-Navia Gijón / Xixón Nalón Narcea Oriente Oviedo / Uviéu Serra de Tramuntana Es Raiguer Es Pla Migjorn Llevant Menorca Eivissa Formentera Añana Aiara / Ayala Agurain / Salvatierra Vitoria-Gasteiz Zuia Arabako Mendialdea / Montaña Alavesa Arabako Errioxa / Rioja Alavesa Arratia-Nerbioi Busturialdea Durangaldea Enkarterri Greater Bilbao Lea-Artibai Uribe Bidasoa-Txingudi Debabarrena Debagoiena Goierri Donostialdea Tolosaldea Urola Kosta Fuerteventura Lanzarote Las Palmas El Hierro La Gomera La Palma Tenerife Valle de Güímar Valle de la Orotava Icod Daute Isla Baja Isora-Teno Tenerife Sur Tenerife Sur Acentejo Metropolitana-Anaga Comarca de Santander Besaya Saja-Nansa Costa occidental Costa oriental Trasmiera Pas-Miera Asón-Agüera Liébana Campoo-Los Valles Alt Penedès Anoia Bages Baix Llobregat Barcelonès Berguedà Garraf Maresme Moianès Osona Vallès Occidental Vallès Oriental Alt Empordà Baix Empordà Baixa Cerdanya Garrotxa Gironès Osona Pla de l'Estany Ripollès Selva Alt Urgell Alta Ribagorça Baixa Cerdanya Garrigues Noguera Pallars Jussà Pallars Sobirà Pla d'Urgell Segarra Segrià Solsonès Urgell Val d'Aran Alt Camp Baix Camp Baix Ebre Baix Penedès Conca de Barberà Montsià Priorat Ribera d'Ebre Tarragonès Terra Alta Llanos de Albacete Campos de Hellín La Mancha del Júcar-Centro La Manchuela Monte Ibérico–Corredor de Almansa Sierra de Alcaraz y Campo de Montiel Sierra del Segura Campo de Montiel.
Alcarria conquense. La Mancha de Cuenca. Manchuela conquense. Serranía Alta. Serranía Baja. Serranía Media-Campichuelo. Campiña de Guadalajara Campiña del Henares La Alcarria La Serranía Señorío de Molina-Alto Tajo Campo de San Juan La Jara La Campana de Oropesa Mancha Alta de Toledo Mesa de Ocaña Montes de Toledo La Sagra Sierra de San Vicente Tierras de Talavera Torrijos La Moraña Comarca de Ávila Comarca de El Barco de Ávila - Piedrahíta Comarca de Burgohondo - El Tiemblo - Cebreros Comarca de Arenas de San Pedro Merindades Páramos La Bureba Ebro Odra-Pisuerga Alfoz de Burgos Montes de Oca Arlanza Sierra de la Demanda Ribera del Duero La Montaña de Luna La Montaña de Riaño La Cabrera Astorga El Bierzo Tierras de León La Bañeza El Páramo Esla-Campos Sahagún Cerrato Palentino Montaña Palentina Páramos Valles Tierra de Campos Comarca de Vitigudino Comarca de Ciudad Rodrigo La Armuña Las Villas Tierra de Peñaranda Tierra de Cantalapiedra Tierra de Ledesma Comarca de Guijuelo Tierra de Alba Sierra de Béjar Sierra de Francia Campo de Salamanca An official classification establishes three comarcas: Segovia.
Cuéllar. Sepúlveda.or sometimes four: Tierra de Pinares. Segovia. Sepúlveda. Tierra de Ayllón. However, historic approaches establish six comarcas: Tierra de Pinares. Tierra de Ayllón. Tierras de Cantalejo y
In structural geology, a syncline is a fold with younger layers closer to the center of the structure. A synclinorium is a large syncline with superimposed smaller folds. Synclines are a downward fold, termed a synformal syncline, but synclines that point upwards can be found when strata have been overturned and folded. On a geologic map, synclines are recognized as a sequence of rock layers, with the youngest at the fold's center or hinge and with a reverse sequence of the same rock layers on the opposite side of the hinge. If the fold pattern is circular or elongate, the structure is a basin. Folds form during crustal deformation as the result of compression that accompanies orogenic mountain building. Powder River Basin, Wyoming, US Sideling Hill roadcut along Interstate 68 in western Maryland, US, where the Rockwell Formation and overlying Purslane Sandstone are exposed Saou, a commune in the Drôme department in southeastern France The Southland Syncline in the southeastern corner of the South Island of New Zealand, including The Catlins and the Hokonui Hills Strathmore, Angus Syncline, Scotland Anticline Homocline Monocline Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians
Pope Clement VII
Pope Clement VII, born Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 19 November 1523 to his death on 25 September 1534. “The most unfortunate of the Popes,” Clement VII’s reign was marked by a rapid succession of political and religious struggles — many long in the making — which had far-reaching consequences for Christianity and world politics. Elected in 1523 at the end of the Italian Renaissance, Clement VII came to the papacy with a high reputation as a statesman, having served with distinction as chief advisor to both Pope Leo X and Pope Adrian VI. Assuming leadership in a time of crisis, with the Church nearly bankrupt, Clement VII sought to unite Christendom, fragmenting, by making peace among the many Christian leaders at odds, he aspired to liberate Italy, which had become a battleground for invading, foreign armies, thereby threatening the Church’s freedom. The complex political situation of the 1520s thwarted Clement's intentions.
Inheriting Martin Luther’s growing Protestant Reformation in Northern Europe. After escaping confinement in the Castel Sant'Angelo, Clement — with few economic, military, or political options remaining — compromised the Church's and Italy's independence by allying with his former jailor, Emperor Charles V. In contrast to his tortured Papacy, Clement VII was respectable and devout, possessing a “dignified propriety of character,” “great acquirements both theological and scientific,” as well as “extraordinary address and penetration — Clement VII, in serener times, might have administered the Papal power with high reputation and enviable prosperity, but with all of his profound insight into the political affairs of Europe, Clement does not seem to have comprehended the altered position of the Pope” in relation to Europe’s emerging nation-states and Protestantism. A discerning patron, Clement VII commissioned Michelangelo’s The Last Judgment for the Sistine Chapel. Artistic trends of the era are sometimes called the “Clementine style,” and notable for their virtuosity.
In matters of science, Clement VII is best known for approving, in 1533, Nicholaus Copernicus’s theory that the Earth revolves around the Sun — 99 years before Galileo Galilei’s heresy trial for similar ideas. Ecclesiastically, Clement VII is remembered for issuing orders protecting Jews from the Inquisition, approving the Capuchin Franciscan Order, securing the island of Malta for the Knights of Malta. Giulio de' Medici's life began under tragic circumstances. On April 26, 1478 — one month before his birth — his father, Giuliano de Medici was murdered in the Florence Cathedral by enemies of his family. Born illegitimately on May 26, 1478, in Florence, the exact identity of his mother remains unknown — although a plurality of scholars contend that it was Fioretta Gorini, the daughter of a university professor. Giulio spent the first seven years of life with his Godfather, the architect Antonio da Sangallo the Elder. Thereafter, Lorenzo the Magnificent raised him as one of his own sons, alongside his children Giovanni and Giuliano, the former of whom became Pope Leo X. Educated at the Palazzo Medici in Florence by humanists like Angelo Poliziano, alongside prodigies like Michelangelo, Giulio became an accomplished musician.
In personality he was reputed to be shy, in physical appearance, handsome. Since Giulio's illegitimacy barred him from pursuing high-ranking positions in the Church — his natural inclination was for the clergy — Lorenzo the Magnificent helped him carve out a career in the military, he was enrolled in the Knights of Rhodes, but became Grand Prior of Capua. In 1492, when Lorenzo the Magnificent died and Giovanni de' Medici assumed his duties as a cardinal, Giulio became more involved in Church affairs, he studied canon law at the University of Pisa, accompanied Giovanni to the conclave of 1492, where Rodrigo Borgia was elected Pope Alexander VI. Following the fortunes of Lorenzo the Magnificent's firstborn son, Piero the Unfortunate, in 1494, the Medici were expelled from Florence. Over the next six years, Cardinal Giovanni and Giulio wandered throughout Europe together — twice getting themselves arrested; each time Piero the Unfortunate bailed them out. In 1500, both returned to Italy and concentrated their efforts on re-establishing their family in Florence.
Only in 1512, with the assistance of Pope Julius II and the Spanish troops of Ferdinand of Aragon did the Medici retake control of the city. In 1510, while the Medici were living near Rome, a black servant in their household — identified in documents as Simonetta da Collevecchio — became pregnant giving birth to a son, Alessandro de' Medici. Nicknamed “il Moro” due to his dark complexion, Alessandro was recognized as the illegitimate son of Lorenzo II de Medici.