Qingdao is a major city in the east of Shandong Province on China's Yellow Sea coast. It is a major nodal city of the One Belt, One Road Initiative that connects Asia with Europe, it has the highest GDP of any city in the province. Administered at the sub-provincial level, Qingdao has jurisdiction over six districts and four county-level cities; as of 2014, Qingdao had a population of 9,046,200 with an urban population of 6,188,100. Lying across the Shandong Peninsula and looking out to the Yellow Sea, it borders Yantai to the northeast, Weifang to the west and Rizhao to the southwest. Qingdao is a major seaport, naval base, industrial centre; the world's longest sea bridge, the Jiaozhou Bay Bridge, links the main urban area of Qingdao with Huangdao district, straddling the Jiaozhou Bay sea areas. It is the site of the Tsingtao Brewery, the second largest brewery in China. In 2018, Qingdao ranked 31st in the Global Financial Centres Index published by the Z/Yen Group and China Development Institute, the other Chinese cities on the list being Hong Kong, Beijing, Guangzhou, Chengdu and Dalian.
In 2007, Qingdao was named as one of China's top ten cities by the Chinese Cities Brand Value Report, released at the 2007 Beijing Summit of China Cities Forum. In 2009, Qingdao was named China's most livable city by the Chinese Institute of City Competitiveness. In 2018, Qingdao held the Shanghai Cooperation Organization summit. Jiāo'ào:: former name during the Qing dynasty. Qindao:: additional modern name for the area, refers according to locals to the shape of the coastline. Tsingtao: Postal romanisation Tsingtau: German name during their concession period, written in German romanisation of Chinese. Jiaozhou: a historical name which refers to the Jiaozhou Bay. Kiaochow, Kiautschou: romanisations of Jiaozhou. Human settlement in the area dates back 6,000 years; the Dongyi nationality, one of the important origins of the Chinese nation, lived here and created the Dawenkou and Dongyeshi cultures. In the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, the town of Jimo was established, the second largest one in the Shandong region.
The area in which Qingdao is located today was named Jiao'ao when it was administered by the Qing Dynasty on 14 June 1891. In 1891, the Qing Empire decided to make coastal Tsingtao a defense base against naval attack and began to improve its fortifications. Imperial German naval officials observed and reported on this activity during a formal survey of Jiaozhou Bay in May 1897. Subsequently, German troops occupied the fortification; the unmodernised and ineffective Qing Empire was forced to concede the area to Germany the following year, the Kiautschou Bay concession, as it became known, existed from 1898 to 1914. With an area of 552 square kilometres, it was located in the imperial province of Shandong on the southern coast of the Shandong Peninsula in northern China. Jiaozhou was romanised as Kiauchau or Kiao-Chau in English and Kiautschou in German. Qingdao was its administrative center. "The so-called Marktstrasse was nothing more than the old main street of the Chinese village of Tsingtao, the buildings lining it were the former homes of fishermen and farmers.
Having sold their property, they resettled their homes and fields in the villages further east." Upon gaining control of the area, the Germans outfitted the impoverished fishing village of "Tsingtao" with wide streets, solid housing areas, government buildings, electrification throughout, a sewer system and a safe drinking water supply, a rarity in large parts of Asia at that time and later. The area had the highest school density and the highest per capita student enrollment in all of China, with primary and vocational schools funded by the Imperial German treasury and Protestant and Roman Catholic missions. Commercial interests established the Germania Brewery in 1903, which became the world-famous Tsingtao Brewery. German cultural and commercial influences extended to other areas of Shandong Province, including the establishment of diverse commercial enterprises. Identified by the German authorities as a strategically important port, Qingdao was administered by the Imperial Department of the Navy rather than the Imperial Colonial Office.
The growing Imperial German Navy based their Far East Squadron there, allowing the warships to conduct operations throughout the western Pacific. Beginning January 1898, the marines of III. Seebataillon were based at Tsingtao. Construction of the Jiaoji Railway began on September 23, 1899, was completed in 1904. Before the outbreak of World War I, ships of the German naval forces under Admiral Count von Spee were located at central Pacific colonies on routine missions; the fleet rendezvoused in the Marianas Islands to plan a transit back to Germany rather than be trapped in the Pacific by more powerful and numerous Allied fleets. After a minor British naval attack on the German colony on Shandong in 1914, Japanese Empire troops occupied the city and the surrounding province during the Siege of Tsingtao after Japan's declaration of war on Germany in accordance with the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. China protested Japan's violation of her neutrality but was not able to interfere in the military operations.
The decision of the Paris Peace Conference and the Versailles Treaty negotiations not to restore Chinese rule over the previous foreign concessions in Qingdao after the Great War triggered the May Fourth M
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Lixia District is one of six districts of Jinan, the capital of Shandong province, People's Republic of China, forming part of the city's urban core. It borders the districts of Licheng to the north and east, Shizhong to the southwest, Tianqiao to the northwest. Official home page
China Post, full name China Post Group Corporation is the state-owned enterprise operating the official postal service of China, which provides the service in mainland China, excluding its special administrative regions, Hong Kong and Macau, which have their own postal service independent to the mainland's. The Corporation shares its office with the sub-ministry-level government agency State Post Bureau which regulates the national postal industry theoretically including the Corporation; the Customs Post Office of the Qing Empire was established in 1878 by Robert Hart at the suggestion of the foreign powers, with branch offices in five major trading cities. On 20 March 1896, the Customs Post Office became the Great Qing Post, which in 1911 became independent of the customs service; the Great Qing Post became the Chunghwa Post in 1912. Chunghwa postal service had signed a contract with the China Airways Federal group in 1929 to transport airmail on the Shanghai-Hankow, Nanjing-Beijing, Hankow-Guangzhou routes.
Chunghwa Post had functioned as the main postal service provider of Mainland China until 1949. The current postal service of People's Republic of China was established in 1949, it replaced the Chunghwa Post in mainland China in 1949, as well as in the Universal Postal Union in 1972. It was administered by the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications. China Post is directly supervised by the State Post Bureau of the PRC which has overall responsibility for regulating postal service in China; the State Post Bureau is an agency reporting to the Ministry of Information Industry of the People's Republic of China. China Post is organized along the following organizational structure. Post bureaus at provincial, autonomous region and municipality level Post bureaus in provincial capitals and other big cities Post bureaus at county level Postal offices and branches: 82,116 Mail processing centers: 236 First and second class truck route: 3.1 million kilometers Transportation vehicles: 39,000 Aircraft: 5 Railway carriages: 73 Letter sorting machines: 155 Automatic parcel sorting machines: 209 Computerized postal offices: 20,000 Postal Business: 8610 11185 Postal Savings: 8610 95580 Logistics and EMS: 8610 11183 China Post Life: 8610 400890 State Post Bureau Hongkong Post CTT Chunghwa Post Chinese postal romanization China Postal Savings Bank China Postal Airlines China Post China Post China Post international parcel tracking China Postal Express & Logistics Company PRC State Post Bureau, China Post Message from the Director General Provide Feedback to the Secretary Director Ma Junshang Imperial China postal history China Post Tracking & Infoportal for Germany
The Zichuan District is one of eight divisions within the city of Zibo in the Chinese province of Shandong. As the largest district of Zibo, it is composed of a central urban zone of over 23 square kilometers and 17 towns that administer vast rural areas up to nearly 1,000 square kilometers. Founded in Han Dynasty, which dates back to 1,800 years ago, Zichuan has become an important industrial center not only in Zibo but in Shandong. Downtown Zichuan, recognized by the local residents as Zichuan City, not administrative a real city though, got its reputation as a city because of its downtown area is distinctive; the downtown area has an estimated population of 20,000 while the total population of Zichuan District is over 670,000. South in Zichuan are twisting mountains which belong to part of the range of Shandong Hills, while north Zichuan are plains where are more densely populated; as hometown to world-famous absurd fiction writer Pu Songling, who wrote one of his most famous book "Liaozhaizhiyi", Zichuan attracts thousands of tourists both abroad and domestic to pay a visit here every year.
During the first years of West Han Dynasty, Zichuan was set up with its Panyang as its first name as a county. Panyang means south of River Pan. Zichuan City was once a stone-walled city with four big gates in the Ming Dynasty and extended to its present scale in the recent decades. Zichuan is a name connected to river. Zi is a might river miles away to the west, Chuan is river in Chinese. After thousands of years slow development relying on agriculture, Zichuan had undergone an economic breakthrough since the discovery of its coal resource; the years when China was under colonial invasion a century ago the 1800s, it was the German who start dig coals first. Following the foundation of new China, or the People's Republic of China, in 1956, Zichuan was set up as a district and is one of the few two districts of Zibo within the next limited years. Under the jurisdiction of Zichuan City, four street offices are set to take charge of the citizens' daily affairs such as education and community services.
The same as many of Chinese cities and towns, there is hardly any strict division between different facilities or functional components, all neighborhoods, hospitals, business buildings and shops and are just scatter on the broad ground of the city and mix. The "city" is divided into these areas: Nanguan, Dongguan, Hongshan, Huangjiapu, etc. Well-known landmarks of Zichuan City include Middle Streets, Liuquan Square, Lake Liuxian, Zichuan Garments Town, Liaozhai Town and Beishan Park. Zichuan has a typical economic structure of industrialized zones. In 2008, Proportion of the first industry, the second industry and third industry is 1.88∶63.63∶34.49. Total GDP the year is 25.85 billion Yuan. The large concentration of architectural ceramics of Zichuan make 60% of the total output of Zibo's ceramics industry, they count for 30% of the GDP in Zichuan. Zichuan boasts for Zichuan Garments Town-one of China's biggest cloths markets. An annual Domestic trading expo of quite large scale is held within the market.
The cost living of Zichuan and the whole Zibo area is among the lowest in East China-the most prosperous region in China. Housing costs are still on a reasonable level along of the development of the economy. Housing prices of it is the third or fourth-highest of the five districts in Zibo
Shandong is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, is part of the East China region. Shandong has played a major role in Chinese history since the beginning of Chinese civilization along the lower reaches of the Yellow River, it has served as a pivotal cultural and religious center for Taoism, Chinese Buddhism, Confucianism. Shandong's Mount Tai is the most revered mountain of Taoism and one of the world's sites with the longest history of continuous religious worship; the Buddhist temples in the mountains to the south of the provincial capital of Jinan were once among the foremost Buddhist sites in China. The city of Qufu is the birthplace of Confucius, was established as the center of Confucianism. Shandong's location at the intersection of ancient as well as modern north–south and east–west trading routes have helped to establish it as an economic center. After a period of political instability and economic hardship that began in the late 19th century, Shandong has emerged as one of the most populous and most affluent provinces in the People's Republic of China with a GDP of CNY¥5.942 trillion in 2014, or USD$967 billion, making it China's third wealthiest province.
Individually, the two Chinese characters in the name "Shandong" mean "mountain" and "east". Shandong could hence be translated as "east of the mountains" and refers to the province's location to the east of the Taihang Mountains. A common nickname for Shandong is Qílǔ, after the States of Qi and Lu that existed in the area during the Spring and Autumn period. Whereas the State of Qi was a major power of its era, the State of Lu played only a minor role in the politics of its time. Lu, became renowned for being the home of Confucius and hence its cultural influence came to eclipse that of the State of Qi; the cultural dominance of the State of Lu heritage is reflected in the official abbreviation for Shandong, "鲁". English speakers in the 19th century called the province Shan-tung; the province is on the eastern edge of the North China Plain and in the lower reaches of the Yellow River, extends out to sea as the Shandong Peninsula. Shandong borders the Bohai Sea to the north, Hebei to the northwest, Henan to the west, Jiangsu to the south, the Yellow Sea to the southeast.
With its location on the eastern edge of the North China Plain, Shandong was home to a succession of Neolithic cultures for millennia, including the Houli culture, the Beixin culture, the Dawenkou culture, the Longshan culture, the Yueshi culture. The earliest dynasties exerted varying degrees of control over western Shandong, while eastern Shandong was inhabited by the Dongyi peoples who were considered "barbarians". Over subsequent centuries, the Dongyi were sinicized. During the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period, regional states became powerful. At this time, Shandong was home to two major states: the state of Qi at Linzi and the state of Lu at Qufu. Lu is noted for being the home of Confucius; the state was, comparatively small, succumbed to the larger state of Chu from the south. The state of Qi, on the other hand, was a major power throughout the period. Cities it ruled included Jimo and Ju; the Qin dynasty conquered Qi and founded the first centralized Chinese state in 221 BCE.
The Han dynasty that followed created a number of commanderies supervised by two regions in what is now modern Shandong: Qingzhou in the north and Yanzhou in the south. During the division of the Three Kingdoms, Shandong belonged to the Cao Wei, which ruled over northern China. After the Three Kingdoms period, a brief period of unity under the Western Jin dynasty gave way to invasions by nomadic peoples from the north. Northern China, including Shandong, was overrun. Over the next century or so Shandong changed hands several times, falling to the Later Zhao Former Yan Former Qin Later Yan Southern Yan the Liu Song dynasty, the Northern Wei dynasty, the first of the Northern dynasties during the Northern and Southern dynasties Period. Shandong stayed with the Northern dynasties for the rest of this period. In 412 CE, the Chinese Buddhist monk Faxian landed at Laoshan, on the southern edge of the Shandong peninsula, proceeded to Qingzhou to edit and translate the scriptures he had brought back from India.
The Sui dynasty reestablished unity in 589, the Tang dynasty presided over the next golden age of China. For the earlier part of this period Shandong was ruled as part of Henan Circuit, one of the circuits. On China splintered into warlord factions, resulting in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Shandong was part of all based in the north; the Song dynasty reunified China in the late tenth century. The classic novel Water Margin was based on folk tales of outlaw bands active in Shandong during the Song dynasty. In 1996, the discovery of over two hundred buried Buddhist statues at Qingzhou was hailed as a major archaeological find; the statues included early examples of painted figures, are thought to have been buried due to Emperor Huizong's repression of Buddhism. The Song dynasty was forced to cede northern China to the Jurchen Jin dynasty in 1142. Shandong was administered by the Jin as Shandong East Circuit and Shandong West Circuit – the first use of its current name; the modern provinc
Shinan is an urban district of Qingdao, Shandong. It has an area of 30.01 square kilometres and had 527,000 inhabitants as of 2007. Shinan is located in coastal hilled terrain, has a temperate monsoon climate. Common features include moderate temperatures, moist air, abundant rainfall, four distinct seasons, it is notable for its early 20th-century German architecture, unusual in Chinese cities. In the mid-19th century the European powers forcibly opened China to foreign trade. Germany acquired the Kiautschou Bay concession from China in 1898, developed a fishing village they spelled "Tsingtao"; the area built by the Germans falls into the part of Qingdao known today as Shinan District. Shinan is a center for political and finance activities, is home to investment from an increasing number of Fortune 500 companies. To facilitate urban planning, it is divided into a number of areas, including a port and logistics area, tourism area, software/IT area, high-end retail area and financial area. Shinan is home to the Qingdao International Sailing Centre, a world-class sailing marina constructed for the 2008 Summer Olympics.
It hosted the Paralympic Sailing competitions. It has hosted a leg of the Clipper Round the World Yacht Race each year since 2005. After China's defeat in the First Opium War, the country was forcibly opened to foreign trade by a number of treaties collectively referred to as the Unequal Treaties. Following the Treaty of Nanjing, the British established the first treaty ports. Following China's concession to the British Empire, other foreign powers including France, the United States, Germany and Russia won concessions as well. Foreigners, who were centered in foreign sections of the cities, enjoyed legal extraterritoriality as stipulated in the Unequal Treaties. Foreign clubs and churches were established in major treaty ports; some of these port areas were directly leased by foreign powers, such as the concessions in China removing them from the control of local governments. In the early 1890s, the German Empire had been considering occupying Jiaozhou Bay for building its first naval base in East Asia in order to expand into the interior of Shandong.
In 1891 the Qing government decided to make Qingdao defensible against naval attack and began to improve the existing fortifications of the town. German naval officials observed and reported on this Chinese activity during a formal survey of Jiaozhou Bay in May 1897. In November 1897, the German Navy seized Jiaozhou Bay under the pretext of ensuring that reparations were paid for the murder of two German Catholic missionaries in the province. In the spring of 1898, the German government signed a treaty that allowed the Germans to lease an area of 540 square kilometres for 99 years, to construct a railway to Jinan, the capital of Shandong province, to exploit coalfields along the railroad; the Kiautschou Bay concession, as it became known, existed from 1898 to 1914. With an area of 552 square kilometres, it was located in the imperial province of Shandong on the southern coast of the Shandong Peninsula in northern China. Qingdao was its administrative center. According to Dr. Wilhelm Matzat, of the University of Bonn, "The so-called Marktstrasse was nothing more than the old main street of the Chinese village of Tsingtao, the buildings lining it were the former homes of fishermen and farmers.
Having sold their property, they resettled their homes and fields in the villages further east." On gaining control of the area, the Germans outfitted the impoverished fishing village of Tsingtao with wide streets, solid housing areas, government buildings, electrification throughout, a sewer system and a safe drinking water supply. The buildings were built in a European style; the area had per capita student enrollment in all of China. This area is what became Shinan District. During World War I the territory was conquered by a joint Anglo-Japanese task force during the 1914 Siege of Tsingtao and the victorious Allies of World War I awarded the continuation of the lease to the Empire of Japan over the objections of the Republic of China; the territory reverted to Chinese control in 1922. The Japanese reoccupied Qingdao in January 1938 after the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War. On August 15, 1945, Japan surrendered to Allied forces ending World War II, forces of the Kuomintang entered the city in September, restoring the government of the Republic of China.
During the Chinese Civil War, Qingdao served as a port for the United States Navy. On June 2, 1949, the Communist-led Red Army entered Qingdao and both the city and Shandong Province have since been under Chinese government control. Soon after the Communists assumed control, a combination of assertive nationalism and socialist ideology led to the eradication of the Western presence in China, including Western culture and products. "The denunciation of anything Western as'capitalist,"bourgeois' and representative of the'imperialist world' reached a peak during the ideological extremism of the Korean War when the final vestiges of the Western economic and cultural presence were eradicated." This took the form of expulsion of fo